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J    J 


OF    THE 

Bristol    and    Gloucestershire 

Archaeological    Society 




OF    THE 

^Bristol  an<>  (Sloucestersbtre 

Hrcbscolooical  Society 



Edited  by  Rev.   C.   S.  TAYLOR,   M.A. 

VOL.      XXII 

BRIS  roL 

PRINTED    FOR    Till       iOi   II    1.     1-     1     W     ARROWSMITH,    QUAY    ST! 

The  Council  of  the  Bristol  and  Gloucestershire  Arch.eological 
Society  desires  that  it  should  be  distinctly  understood  that  the 
Council  is  not  responsible  for  any  statement  made,  or  opinions 
expressed,  in  the  Transactions  of  the  Society.  The  Authors  are 
alone  responsible  for  their  several  Papers  and  Communications,  and 
the  Editor,  Rev.  C.  S.  Taylor,  M.A.,  Banwell  Vicarage,  Somerset, 
for  the  Notices  of  Books. 


Transactions  in  the  Nailsworth  District,  May  24th,  1899 

Transactions     in    the     Fairford     District,    August    9th 
to  nth,  1899 

The    President's    Address    on    "Stained    and    Painted 

Richard,    Earl   of   Cornwall,   and    Henry   of   Almaine 
By  St.  Clair  Baddeley 

Notes  on  Eastleach   Martin  and  Eastleach   Turville 
By  the  Rev.  W.  H.  T.  Wright       .... 

Notes  on  Chavenage  and  the  Stephens  Family.     By  the 
Rev.  \V.  H.  Silvester  Davies,  M.A.      . 

Heraldry  of  the  Summer  Meeting.     By  F.  Were  . 

Pleas  of  the  Ckown   at  Bristol   in   1287.     By  the  Rev 
E.  A.  Fuller,  M.A. 

Documents  relating   to  the   Monastery   of    St.   M\i,\ 
Kingswood,  belonging  to  Mi;.  F.  F.  Fox.     Transcrihed 
by  Mr.  V.  R.  Perkins 

Tin-;  Abbey  of  St.  Mary,   Hayles.     By  the  Rev.  William 
Bazeley,  M.A. 

Some    Curious     Incidents     in     Bristol     History.        By 
J.  Latimer         ......... 

Tin-:  Transactions  < 1    Society.     By  the   Editou 

Notices  of  Publication 

I\  Memoriam:   Mrs.   Dent,  of  Sudeley;   Mr.   C.  J.  Mo 
Mr.  William  











Beverston  Church — View  from  South-West     . 

„  Western  Return  of  Arcade 

Castle — View  from  the  Churchyard 
,,  ,,  South  Tower 

,,  ,,  View  from  North-West    . 

,,  The  Barbican 

Chavenage  House — East  View      .... 
,,  ,,  South  View  and  North  Side 

,,  Dining  Room — Fireplace 

Avening  Church — View  from  South-West 

„  „       South-}-:  ast 

,,  ,,  ,,       of  Interior 

,,  ,,  Driver  Monument okiii  Chapel  and  Priest's  House 
Ampni  v  Crucis— Churchyard  Cross     . 

Mevse^    Hampton  Church— From  the  Nor 
,,  ,,  „  Lectern    .  ■ 

,,  ,,  Interior 

Fairford  Church — Ground  Plan 
,,  ,,  Tower     . 

Lec  H  L  A  Dl 

Church — Interior 

From    i  he   Bridi  .i 

I  I  SH  \M    I    in   R(  II       !  N  l  l  RIOR 









1 1 


1 8 




List  of   Illustrations. 


Little  Farringdon  Church 

Langford  Church — Porch      .... 

,,  ,,  Crucifix 

„  „  Elizabethan   Buttresses 

Southrop — The  Font 

Hatherop  House — Atkyn's  View 

mington  Church,  a.d.  1792 
Coln  S.  Aldwyn's — The  Manor   House 

Bibury — Court  

.,         Village      ...... 

Ablington — -Manor  House      .... 

Sule.e  of  De.e  Matres,  Cirencester   Museum 

Cirencester — Church 

Virtues,  New  College,  Oxford 

Leaded  Glass  ...... 

Enamel       ,,  ...... 

C11  wenage   Manor  

Hayles  Abbey — Chapter  House 

Door  of  Undercroft  of   Dormitorv 

,,  .,  ,,        ,,     Monks'   Parlour 

,,         Moss  from  Roof  of  Chapter  House 
Door  of  Frater 











and   67 




and   84 






\mtol   an!)   ®lammttx$\m   ^r  c  b  it  0I  a  gu  a  I   ^crcichr. 

Proceedings    at    the    Spring    Meeting    in    the 
Nailsworth    District, 

On    Wednesday,    May    24th,    1899. 

The  Spring  Meeting  of  the  Society  was  held  as  above,  the 
arrangements  having  been  made  by  a  Local  Committee, 
consisting  of  the  Rev.  W.  H.  Silvester  Davies,  Chairman, 
Messrs.  A.  J.  Morton  Ball,  E.  Benjamin,  R.  Calcutt, 
W.  J.  Clissold,  H.  Denne,  A.  E.  Dickenson,  W.  A.  East, 
Revs.  E.  W.  Edwards,  E.  W.  Evans,  Mr.  J.  Garlick, 
Captain  Holford,  Messrs.  E.  Kimber,  W.  Leigh,  S.  Marling, 
H.  B.  McCall,  A.  Playne,  E.  Pollock,  Q.C.,  Rev.  G.  M. 
Scott,  Mrs.  Selby,  Dr.  Shettle,  Messrs.  C.  H.  Stanton, 
Rev.  W.  Symonds,  Miss  Tabram,  Major  Williams,  Messrs. 
G.  Lowsley  Williams,  and  R.  Wilson.  Messrs.  A.  E. 
Smith  and  A.  H.  Paul  acted  as  Local  Secretaries. 

A  large  party  of  members  and  associates  assembled  at 
Nailsworth  Station  at  n.o,  where  a  number  of  brakes  and 
other  conveyances  awaited  them.  Among  those  present 
were  :  Sir  John  Dorington,  President ;  Mr.  G.  M.  Currie, 
Treasurer;  Rev.  W.  Bazeley,  General  Secretary;  .Mr.  A.  T. 
Martin,  Editor  of  the  Transactions ;  General  Elliot,  Colonel 
Archer,  Dr.  Oscar  Clarke,  Revs.  G.  S.  Master,  S.  E. 
Bartleet,  D.  L.  Pitcairn,  Messrs.  F.  Fox,  Morton  Ball, 
A.  E.  Hudd,  F.  Tuckett,  W.  Seth  Smith,  E.  S.  Hartland, 
F.  A.  Hyett,  H.  Medland,  H.  W.  Broton,  C.  H.  Dancey, 

Vol.  XXII. 

2  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

H.  Kennedy  Skipton,  J.  Bryan,  W.J.  Stanton,  E.  P.  Little, 
F.  B.  de  Sausmerez,  most  of  the  members  of  the  Local 
Committee,  and  many  ladies. 

Some  little  time  elapsed  before  a  start  could  be  made,  as, 
owing  to  the  unfavourable  state  of  the  weather,  several 
members  who  had  intended  cycling  thought  it  more  prudent 
to  ride  in  the  carriages,  and  it  was  only  by  dint  of  great 
exertions  by  the  General  and  Local  Secretaries  that  seats 
could  be  found  for  all.  At  length,  all  being  ready,  the 
lengthy  procession  moved  off,  and  went  by  the  Bath  Road  to 


in  the  Parish  of  Newington  Bagpath.  The  following  notes 
on  the  places  visited  were  prepared  by  the  General  Secretary 
for  the  programme  of  the  Meeting:  "The  barn,  according 
to  Bigland,  is  130  feet  long,  and  is  capable  of  holding  900 
loads  of  corn.  Its  principal  interest,  however,  lies  not  in  its 
great  size,  but  in  a  stone  tablet  inserted  in  the  wall,  bearing 
the  following  inscription — '  anno  gre  mcc  henrici  abbatis 
xxix  fait  dom  h  edificata,'  from  which  we  learn  that  this 
barn,  which  belonged  to  Kingswood  Abbey,  was  built  by 
Abbot  Henry,  in  the  time  of  Edward  I.,  six  hundred  years 
ago.  There  is  another  tablet  which  records  that  the  barn 
was  partly  destroyed  by  fire  in  1728,  and  was  rebuilt  by 
John  Pill,  carpenter,  at  the  expense  of  Thomas  Estcourt,  Esq., 
the  lord  of  the  manor.  There  is  also  a  carved  stone,  which 
appears  to  be  the  top  of  a  Roman  legionary  monument,  with 
the  figure  of  a  soldier  on  horseback  carrying  a  round  shield, 
and  followed  by  men  on  foot." 

After  various  ingenious  suggestions  had  been  made 
with  regard  to  the  subject  of  the  carving,  the  party 
proceeded  to 


where  they  were  welcomed  by  the  Rector,  the  Rev.  E.  W. 

•'  The  church  consists  of  a  west  tower,  a  modern 
porch,  a  nave  40  ft.  by  19  ft.,  a  narrow  south  aisle,  a  chapel 

Beverston  Church. 

at  the  north-east  end  of  the  nave,  known  as  the  Berkeley 

chapel,  and  a  chancel  28  ft.  by  14  ft.     The  church  is  said  to 

have  been  rebuilt  in   1361  by  Thomas,  Lord  Berkeley,  who 

also    restored    the    adjoining    Castle.     The   tower    has   two 

stages,  the  lower  of  which  is  quite  plain  on  the  north  and 

west ;    on    the    south    side    are   two    narrow,    round-headed 

windows,  and   a   piece  of   sculpture,  earlier  than  the  tower 

itself,    has 

been    inserted 

in     the     wall. 

This  has  been 

thought     to 

represent      S. 

Andrew.   The 

upper  stage 

is     battle- 

mented    and 


The  ar- 
cade between 
the  nave  and 
south  aisle  is 
Norman,  or 
late  12th  cen- 
t  u  r  y  ,  and 
consists  of 
three    pointed 

arches  resting  on  two  round  capitals  with  round  shafts, 
and  on  two  returns  of  a  similar  character.  The  orna- 
mented capitals  are  excellent  examples  of  Transitional 
work.  The  south  door  belongs  to  the  same  period.  An 
arched  canopy  in  the  south  aisle  is  unfortunately  hidden 
by  the  organ.  The  upper  part  of  the  pulpit  is  Decorated  or 
Edwardian.  There  is  a  passage,  which,  perhaps,  at  one  time 
was  only  a  squint  or  hagioscope,  connecting  the  Berkeley 
chapel  with  the  chancel.     On  the  south  side  of  the  chancel 


Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

are  two  very  beautiful  two-light  14th  century  windows,  with 
quatrefoil  and  trefoil  cusped  compartments  in  their  heads, 
and  hood-moulding  ornamented  with  ball-flowers.  There  is 
a  priests'  door  with  ogee  hood-moulding  and  crocketed 
finials.  The  15th  century  piscina  resembles  a  piscina  in  the 
lower  chapel  of  the  adjoining  Castle." 

In  the  course  of  some  interesting  particulars  about  the 
church,  the  Rector  said  that  previous  to  the  so-called 
restoration  in  1844,  there  were  some  wall  paintings  visible, 

one  of  which  represented 
the  literal  transubstantia- 
tion  of  the  consecrated  wafer 
into  the  Body  of  Christ, 
with  Pope  Gregory  the 
Great  kneeling  in  adoration 
before  the  altar.  This,  he 
thought,  was  in  the  chancel. 
Another  represented  the 
Last  Judgment  ;  and  there 
was  also  a  picture  of  S. 
Christopher.  These  paint- 
ings had  been  covered  over, 
and  the  font  —  originally 
beautifully  carved  —  had 
been  ruthlessly  cut  away 
■by  the  London  architect  who  took  in  hand  the  restoration  (?) 
to  make  it  more  shapely. 

The  parish,  Mr.  Evans  mentioned,  had  been  without  a 
resident  rector  at  various  times,  and  it  was  during  one  such 
period  that  the  ancient  rood  screen  was  taken  down,  and 
eventually  found  its  way,  in  a  very  mutilated  condition,  into 
the  rectory  garden,  where  creepers  were  trained  over  it.  He 
had  sent  a  cartload  of  the  wood  to  Gloucester,  where  Mr. 
Frith,  under  the  superintendence  of  Messrs.  Waller  &  Son, 
had  managed  to  restore  the  screen  as  they  saw  it,  and  he 
thought  they  would  agree  with  him  that  the  result  was 
extremely  satisfactory. 


Beverston  Castle.  5 

The  party,  having  passed  a  vote  of  thanks  to  the  Rector, 
on  the  motion  of  the  President,  seconded  by  the  Rev.  W. 
Bazeley,  then  proceeded  to  inspect  the  various  features  of 
interest  in  the  church,  particularly  admiring  the  careful  way 
in  which  the  screen  had  been  restored. 

Arrangements  had  been  made  for  luncheon  in  the  school- 
room ;  but  as  the  party  was  too  large  to  be  accommodated  at 
one  time,  it  was  necessary  to  divide  it  into  two,  and  while  one 
half  refreshed  exhausted  nature  the  other  proceeded,  under 
the  guidance  of  the  Rev.  W.  Bazeley  and  the  Rev.  E.  W. 
Edwards,  to 


which  had  been  kindly  thrown  open  to  them  by  Mr.  Garlick. 


"The  Castle  appears  to  have  been  built  at  two  distinct 
dates — by  Maurice  de  Gaunt,  c.  1225,  and  by  Thomas,  Lord 
Berkeley,  c.  1356-61, — but  there  was  probably  a  fortress  on 

Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

the  same  site  before  and  after  the  Norman  Conquest.  The 
building,  when  completed,  is  said  to  have  been  quadrangular, 
with  four  towers,  a  barbican,  and  a  surrounding  moat  with 
drawbridge.  The  remains  of  a.  circular  tower  have  been 
discovered  in  the  rectory  garden,  outside  the  Castle  moat. 
This  tower  may  have  been  part  of  an  outer  defence,  or  may 
have  belonged  to  an  earlier  fortress. 

At  the  present  time  there    remain  a  large  tower,  which 


would  have  formed  the  south-west  angle,  34  feet  long  by 
30  feet  wide  and  60  feet  high ;  another  tower,  set  diagonally 
at  the  north-west  angle,  24  feet  square  ;  a  curtain  or  wall 
connecting  these  towers,  containing  various  rooms  and 
galleries,  about  65  feet  long;  and  a  barbican  commanding 
the  entrance.  The  great  hall,  occupying  the  south  side  of 
the  quadrangle,  seems  to  have  been  used  as  a  dwelling  until 
the  beginning  of  the  17th  century,  when,  Mr.  Blunt  thinks, 

Beverston  Castle. 

it  was  destroyed  by  fire.  A  farmhouse  was  built  on  its 
site,  but  this  was  burnt  down  about  1791,  when  the  present 
house  was  built.  According  to  Bigland,  the  Castle  was  also 
devastated  by  fire  in  the  latter  half  of  the  17th  century.  An 
engraving  in  his  Gloucestershire  Collections  shows  the  north-west 
tower  with  a  part  of  the  north  curtain  attached  to  it,  but  no 
part  of  the  Castle  now  remains  between  this  tower  and  the 

The  south-west  tower,  which  is  entered  by  a  flat-headed 
doorway  on  the  east  side,  consists  of  three  storeys.  The 
probably  a 
guard  -  room, 
has  a  plain 
13th  century 
groined  roof 
and  an  ogee- 
headed  win- 
dow in  very 
perfect  con- 
dition. An 
turret  has 
been  so  in- 
securely at- 
tached to  the 
east  side  of 
the  great 
tower  that  it 
has ; been 

found  necessary  to  secure  it  with  bolts  and  a  chain.  It 
contains  [a  newel  staircase,  by  which  access  is  obtained  to 
the  upper  part  of  the  building.  A  large  room  on  the  first 
floor,  which  probably  was  originally  used  for  domestic 
purposes,  was  set  aside  in  the  15th  century  as  a  garrison 
chapel.  This  is  shown  by  the  sedilia  and  piscina  of  that 
date.     What  remains  of  the  14th  century  east  window  shows 



Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

that  it  must  have  been  exceedingly  graceful.  Another  large 
room  occupies  the  third  floor,  and  next  to  it  in  the  curtain  is 
a  small  chapel,  which  served  for  religious  worship  until  the 
15th  century.  This  earlier  chapel  could  contain  very  few 
worshippers,  but  a  large  number  of  people  occupying  the 
adjoining  rooms  could  see  the  priest  through  the  squints,  of 
which  there  are  two  on  either  side. 

From   the  top  of  the  tower,  on   which   the   Union  Jack 

was  flying 
in  honour 
of  Her 
Maj  esty 's 
birthday,  a 
good  view 
was  obtain- 
ed of  the 
church,  vil- 
lage, and 

A  gallery 
with  a  nar- 
row passage 
on  its  west 
side,  oc- 
cupying a 
great  part 
of  the  first 
floor  of  the 

curtain,  is  now  used  as  store-rooms  for  the  farm.  The 
north-west  tower  is  entered  from  the  courtyard  behind  the 
dwelling-house.  The  room  on  the  basement  retains  its 
groining,  but  those  above  have  lost  their  floors.  Various 
fireplaces  and  windows  enable  one  to  reconstruct  in  imagina- 
tion the  rooms  which  were  probably  occupied  by  the  lord's 
family.  There  are  no  traces  of  the  north-east  and  south-east 
towers,  if  they  ever  existed.     The  barbican  commands  the 


Chavenage  House.  9 

chief  entrance  and  the  drawbridge  over  the  moat,  its  outer 
and  inner  walls  being  pierced  for  gateways.  Near  it  is  a 
picturesque  barn  said  to  have  been  built  to  accommodate 
pilgrims  on  their  way  to  Malmesbury. 

In  105 1  Beverston  was  the  scene  of  a  great  gathering  of 
the  retainers  of  Earl  Godwin  and  his  sons,  Harold  and 
Sweyn.  After  the  Norman  Conquest  Beverston,  being  a 
manor  dependent  on  the  King's  Hundred  of  Berkeley,  was 
granted  to  Roger  de  Berkeley,  Lord  of  Dursley.  On  account 
of  his  devotion  to  King  Stephen,  this  and  most  of  his  other 
manors  were  taken  from  him  by  Henry  II.,  and  conferred  on 
Robert  Fitzhardinge.  On  Robert's  death  it  passed  to  his 
third  son,  Robert,  surnamed  Weare,  who  was  the  ancestor 
of  the  Gaunts,  Gournays,  and  Ap  Adams,  its  subsequent 
possessors.  Thomas  Ap  Adam  sold  it  to  Thomas,  Lord 
Berkeley  in  1331,  and  he  rebuilt  it.  From  the  Berkeleys 
the  manor  and  Castle  passed  in  succession  to  the  Poyntzes, 
Fleetwoods,  Earstfields,  Hickses,  and  the  present  proprietors, 
the  Holfords. 

The  most  interesting  period  in  the  history  of  the  Castle  is 
the  year  1644,  when  it  was  besieged  by  the  Parliamentary 
forces  under  Colonel  Massey,  Governor  of  Gloucester.  It 
held  out  successfully  under  Colonel  Oglethorpe,  its  Royalist 
governor;  but  a  little  later  on,  when  Oglethorpe  had  been 
taken  prisoner,  it  was  surrendered  to  Massey  by  its  despondent 
garrison.  Colonel  Henry  Stephens,  a  kinsman  of  the  late 
owner  of  Chavenage,  then  held  it  for  the  Parliament." 

When  the  second  division  of  the  party  had  finished  lunch 
the  carriages  were  again  entered,  and  a  short  drive  brought 
the  excursionists  to 

chavenage    house. 

"  This  interesting  manor  house,  which  lies  in  the  parish  of 
Horsley,  about  two  miles  north-west  of  Tetbury,  was  built  in 
the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  and  altered  at  the  end  of  the 
17th  and  at  the  beginning  of  the  19th  century.  Like  many 
other  houses  of  the  same  date,  it  was  originally  built  in  the 


Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

form  of  the  letter  E.  It  contains  many  windows  of  14th 
century  work,  which  were  doubtless  brought  from  Horsley 
Priory,  a  cell  belonging  to  the  Priory  of  Bruton,  in  Somerset- 
shire, which  formerly  stood  on  the  south  side  of  the  parish 
church  of  Horsley. 

Chavenage  was  part  of  the  manor  of  Horsley,  which 
was  granted  in  1542  to  Sir  Thomas  Seymour,  and,  on  his 
attainder,  to  Sir  W.  Dennys,  of  Dyrham,  whose  son  Richard 

sold  it  to  the 
of  Easting- 
ton.  The 
tive of  that 
f  a  m  i  1  y  in 
the  reign  of 
was  Edward 
who  mar- 
ried Joan, 
daughter  of 
Fowler,  of 
Their  ini- 
tials E.  S. 
and  I.S.  are 
to  be  seen 
on  the  labels  of  the  hood-moulding  of  the  porch,  also  the  date 
1576,  which  is  probably  the  date  of  the  building  of  the 

The  arms  of  Stephens,  per  chevron  azure  and  argent,  in  chief 
two  falcons  rising  or,  and  their  crest,  a  demi-eagle  displayed  or, 
appear  in  many  parts  of  the  mansion.  The  Fowler  arms, 
quarterly  azure  and  or,  on  the  first  quarter  a  hawk's  lure  and  line  of 
the  second,  may  be  found  on  the  mantelpiece  of  the  hall. 


Chavenage  House. 


In     1891 


was    pur- 
chased   by 

Mr.        G. 



by  whose 

kind   per- 


the  Society 

visited  it. 
On    the 

party,    or 

rather     a 

portion     of 

it,      assem- 
bling     in 

the     hall, 

Mr.  Seth 

Smith  gave  a  description  of  the  chief  architectural  features 

of  the 
house,  illus- 
trating his 
remarks  by 
a  plan  which 
he  had  pre- 
pared; after- 
wards the 
the  house, 
with  much 




Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

rooms  associated  with  the  names  of  Sir  Philip  Sidney, 
Lord  Leicester,  Oliver  Cromwell  (this  room  contains  some 
excellent   tapestry),    General    Ireton,    Lord    Essex    (general 

of  the  Par- 
Sir  Hugh 
ley,  Queen 
Anne  and 
her  prime 
(H  a  r  1  e  y  , 
Earl  of 
In  Queen 
Anne's  room 
is  a  beauti- 
oak  bed- 
stead, two 

chairs  of  her  date,  and  some  Flemish  glass  representing 
Adam  and  Eve  and  the  Judgment  of  Solomon. 

After  spending  some  time  in  and  around  the  house,  the 
members  betook  themselves  to  their  carriages,  and  after  a. 
pleasant  drive  arrived  at 


where  they  were  courteously  welcomed  by  the  Rector,  the 
Rev.  E.  W,  Edwards,  who  asked  them  before  entering  the 
church  to  sing  the  national  anthem,  it  being  Her  Majesty's 
birthday,  a  request  which  was,  of  course,  willingly  complied 
with.  The  Rev.  W.  Bazeley  then  described  at  some  length 
the  most  noticeable  features  of  the  structure. 

"The  Church  of  the  Holy  Rood  is  approached  from  the 
north  by  an  ancient  bridge  spanning  the  Avon,  a  streamlet 


Avening  Church. 


which  gives  its  name  to  the  parish.  A  view  of  the  church  in 
Bigland's  Gloucester  skive  Collections,  taken  from  this  point, 
shows  a  road  skirting  the  churchyard  wall,  and  a  man  with 
two  pack-horses  in  the  foreground,  which  quite  bears  out  the 
local  tradition  that  the  Bath  road  originally  ran  between  the 
churchyard  and  the  Avon. 

A  valuable  report  of  the  church,  drawn  up  by  Messrs. 
Carpenter  and  Ingelow,  architects,  will  be  found  in  the  14th 
volume  of 
this  Society's 
The  church 
consists  of 
a  nave  with 
north  porch 
and  north 
aisle,  a  cen- 
tral tower 
with  north 
and  south 
and  a  chan- 

The  west 
wall  of  the 
church  ap- 

been  rebuilt  in  the  18th  century,  when  the  14th  century  west 
door  was  shortened  and  blocked  up,  and  a  classical  west 
window  of  two  lights  was  inserted  above  it. 

On  the  south  side  the  two-light  windows,  one  with  a 
cusped  sixfoil  head  and  the  other  with  a  quatrefoil  head,  are 
Decorated  or  14th  century  ;  the  buttresses  and  middle  window 
are  a  century  later.  There  are  traces  of  a  south  door,  which 
was  stopped  up  when  the  Perpendicular  window  was  inserted. 

The  south  transept  dates  from  the  13th  century.  It  has  a 
Decorated  window  at  the  south  end  which  has  lost  its  original 

VIEW    OF    CHURCH    FROM    S.W, 


Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

tracery,  a  blocked-up  Perpendicular  three-light  window  on  the 
east,  and  a  modern  doorway  on  the  west.  The  lower  part  of 
the  tower  is  Norman,  the  upper  stage  and  the  battlements  are 
Perpendicular.  The  original  Norman  windows  of  the  belfry 
are  seen  above  the  roof  of  the  nave.  Three  square-headed 
Perpendicular  windows  have  been  inserted  on  the  south-east 
and  north  sides  of  the  belfry.  There  is  a  staircase  leading 
to  the  belfry  on  the  south  side  of  the  tower,  the  original 
entrance  to  which  was  within  the  chancel.     The  chancel  is 

twice  as  long 
as  it  was  origin- 
ally ;  the  west- 
e  r  n  half  is 
the  eastern 
Norman,  and 
Decorated.  The 
latter  was  prob- 
ably built  as  a 
Lady  Chapel 
when  the  earlier 
Lady  Chapel 
was  destroyed 
by  fi  r  e  .  A 
14th  century 
wall-plate  with 
ornament  runs 
along     the 

whole  length  of  the  chancel  wall.  There  is  a  two-light 
14th  century  window  on  the  south  side.  The  mullions  and 
transoms  of  the  east  window  are  modern  insertions.  The 
original  sill  remains.  On  the  north  side  of  the  chancel  the 
foundations  of  the  east  wall  of  the  Early  English  Lady 
Chapel  remain,  and  a  round-headed  piscina.  One  of  the 
original  Norman  windows  appears  high  up  on  the  north 
wall,  and  beneath  it  is  a  14th  century  window  of  a  flamboyant 

VIEW    OF    CHURCH    FKOM    S.E. 

Avening  Church.  15 

character,  which  was  inserted  when  the  13th  century  door- 
way, leading  from  the  chancel  into  the  older  Lady  Chapel, 
was  blocked  up. 

The  north  transept  was  also  built  in  the  13th  century,  but 
has  undergone  more  alterations  than  the  south  transept. 
The  beautiful  east  and  north  windows  were  inserted  in  the 
14th  century.  The  tracery  of  the  latter  was  renewed  in 
1888,  but  the  hood-moulding  with  its  rose  and  ball-flower 
terminations  is  original.  In  the  west  wall  of  this  transept 
may  be  seen  the  remains  of  a  Norman  doorway.  If  this  is 
in  its  original  position,  there  must  have  been  a  12th  century 
transept  or  some  other  building  on  the  site  of  the  present 

The  porch  is  of  two  dates.    When  constructed  in  the  13th 

century  it  had  only  one  storey,  the  roof  of  which  was  clear 

of  the    Norman    arch    of  the   north   door;    but  in  the  15th 

century   it    was    divided    into    two   storeys,    the   upper    one 

serving  as  a  parvise  or  priest's  chamber.     A  square-headed 

doorway,  having  its  spandrels  filled   with  delicately  carved 

oak-leaves    was    inserted    in    the    12th   century    arch    and  a 

hood-moulding  with  square  terminations,  ornamented   with 

foils.     The  Norman  arch  fortunately  survives  the  13th,  14th 

and   15th  century  restorations,  to  say  nothing  of  the  many 

later  ones.     The  capitals,  which  rest  on  twisted  shafts  with 

circular  and  square  bases,  are  carved  on  the  east  side  with 

two  lions,  the  heads  of  which  appear  to  merge  into  a  human 

face,  and  on  the  west  with  the  braided  work  characteristic  of 

Runic    or   .Saxon   crosses.      The   head   of   the    arch    is    now 

enshrined   in   the  Parvise.     The  tympanum  is   gone    and   a 

plain    stone  occupies   its    place.       In    the   east   wall   of  the 

parvise   is   a    doorway  with    a   lintel    resting  on    chamfered 

brackets.      There   are    no    traces    of    an    internal    staircase 

in   the  porch,   and    the   approach   to    the  parvise  may  have 

been   from  the  rood-loft  stairs  through  a  chamber  over  the 

north  aisle. 

On  entering  the  church,  a  curious  piece  of  carved  stone  is 
seen  in  the  east  jamb  of  the  doorway.     It  looks  like  the  side 


Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

of  a  Norman  font,  and  contains  three  pairs  of  figures.     A 
fragment  of  this  stone  is  also  built  into  the  external  jamb. 

The  main  walls  of  the  nave  are  Norman,  but  the  south 
windows  are  14th  and  15th  century  insertions.  The  roof  has 
a  higher  pitch  than  the  ordinary  12th  century  roof;  at  the 
east  end  above  the  timbers  may  be  seen  the  Norman  door- 
way which  led  from  the  belfry  into  the  space  above  the 
Norman  ceiling.     On  the  north  side  of  the  nave  a  mutilated 


Norman  arcade  of  two  round  arches,  resting  on  a  shaft  with 
a  round  cap,  separates  it  from  a  narrow  aisle  rebuilt  in  the 
14th  century.  The  roof  of  the  aisle  was  reconstructed  in 
the  17th  century.  It  is  evident  that  there  was  a  rood-screen 
across  the  east  end  of  the  nave,  for  the  pillars  of  the  west 
arch  of  the  tower  have  been  cut  away  to  receive  it.  The 
doorway  at  the  top  of  the  once  existing  rood  stairs  remains. 
A    13th    century   pointed    arch   occupies    the    place    of   Hie 

Avening  Church.  17 

original  Norman  arch  in  the  west  wall  of  the  tower.  On 
the  south  side  of  the  tower  arch  is  a  recess  with  a  segmental 
Norman  arch,  ornamented  with  chevron  moulding.  Here, 
no  doubt,  stood  the  altar  of  the  Holy  Rood,  the  piscina  of 
which  still  remains  in  the  south  wall. 

The  groining  of  the  tower  is  Norman,  and  has  two 
diagonal  square  ribs  resting  on  shafts  fitted  in  the  four 
angles,  and  there  are  two  deeply  splayed  Norman  windows 
above  the  north  arch.  The  tower  appears  to  have  been 
built  with  solid  north  and  south  walls,  but  these  were 
cleverly  pierced  with  pointed  arches  in  the  13th  century. 
The  eastern  arch  of  the  tower  is  fairly  perfect  and 
consists  of  a  plain  segmental  head  resting  on  massive 
capitals  with  inverted  -  cone  moulding  and  half-round 

Messrs.  Carpenter  and  Ingelow,  in  their  report,  call 
attention  to  a  square  opening,  or  hagioscope,  in  the  north- 
west pier  of  the  tower,  which  was  apparently  filled  in  when 
the  Early  English  arches  were  pierced  in  the  north  and 
south  walls,  and  also  to  a  low  chamfered  jamb  in  the  angle  of 
the  tower  buttress.  These,  they  think,  may  indicate  the 
existence  of  a  recluse's  cell  similar  to  that  mentioned  on  the 
Clopton  brass  at  Cjuinton,  in  this  county.  (See  Transactions, 
vol.  xiii.  168.)  But  for  the  jamb  the  opening  would  have  been 
called  a  leper's  window.  It  will  be  seen  that  the  edge  of  the 
tower  arch  has  been  chamfered  to  enable  the  person  using  the 
window  to  see  the  priest  officiating  at  the  altar  of  the  Holy 
Rood.  The  roofs  of  the  transepts  were  altered  in  the  17th 
century  and  the  old  cross  braces  removed.  The  mortices 

The  south  transept  has  been  used  as  a  burial  chapel  by 
the  Driver  family,  of  Aston,  near  Cherington.  There  are 
four  of  their  monuments  on  the  walls.  One  of  them  depicts 
John  Driver,  who  died  in  1687.  A  pedigree  of  the  family  is 
given  in  the  Heralds  Visitation  of  1682-3,  p.  59.  The  heraldic 
bearings  of  the  family  were:  Per  pale  indented  argent  and  azuv 
two  lions  combatant  counter-charged. 

Vol.  XXII. 


Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

In  the  north  transept  is  the  monument  of  Henry  Bridges, 
fourth  son  of  John,  Lord  Chandos  of  Sudeley,  who  died 
January  14th,  1615.  Henry  Bridges,  we  learn  from  Mrs. 
Dent's  Annals  of  Winchcombe  and  Sudeley,  in  his  early  days  led 
the  life  of  a  freebooter,  "  indulging  in  deeds  of  lawlessness 
and  robbery  almost  surpassing  our  modern  powers  of  belief." 
He  left  the  county  for  a  time  and  dwelt  in  Kent,  but  he 
eventually  married  the  eldest  daughter  of  Samuel  Sheppard, 
Esquire,  of  Gatcombe,  lord  of  the  manor  of  Avening,  and 

settled  down  in  this  retired 
spot.  Sir  E.  Bridges  says 
that  in  his  time  (circa  1815) 
traditions  of  his  maraud- 
ings still  hung  about  the 
Gloucestershire  village 
where  he  lies  buried. 

The     groining     of     the 

chancel  is  extremely  good, 

the  14th  century  moulded 

ribs  harmonising  well  with 

the  round  diagonal  ribs  of 

the    12th    century.        The 

later     work     has     carved 

bosses  at  the  intersections; 

the  earlier  none.     A  14th 

century    piscina     remains 

on  the  south   side  of   the 

sanctuary,   and   there    are 

two  blocked-up  Norman  doorways,  one  leading  to  the  belfry 

and  another,  as  has  been  already  mentioned,  connecting  the 

chancel  with  the  earlier  Lady  Chapel. 

The  belfry  is  now  reached  by  an  external  doorway  and  by 
a  staircase  built  against  the  south  wall  of  the  tower.  A 
doorway  from  the  belfry  leads  into  the  space  above  the 
groining  of  the  chancel,  which  is  lighted  by  a  small  quatre- 
foil  window  in  the  east  wall.  It  is  possible  that  there  was 
at  one  time  a   priest's  chamber  here  as  at  Elkstone,  where 

driver  monument  in  s.  transept. 

Avening  Church.  19 

it  was  converted  into  a  culver  or  pigeon-house,  but  there  are 
no  traces  of  floor  beams. 

There  are  five  bells — three  cast  in  1628,  another  cast  by- 
Abraham  Rudhall,  of  Gloucester,  in  1756,  and  a  fifth  with 
the  names  of  the  churchwardens  cut  out.  For  a  brief  time 
there  was  a  sixth  bell,  for  about  1830  the  Avening  ringers 
conceived  the  bold  plan  of  transferring  the  treble  bell  of 
Cherington  to  their  own  belfry  to  complete  their  peal, 
believing  that  if  it  were  once  there  it  would  belong  to  the 
church.  The  theft  was  successfully  accomplished,  but  the 
magistrates  soon  showed  them  that  their  law  was  faulty,  for 
they  ordered  the  bell  to  be  replaced  at  Cherington,  and 
punished  the  culprits  with  six  months'  imprisonment.  In 
Ellacombe's  Church  Bells  of  Gloucestershire,  pp.  144-6,  are  two 
copies  of  verses  on  "  The  Rape  of  the  Cherington  Bell." 

Avening  has  had  two  well-known  rectors :  Robert 
Frampton  and  George  Bull.  Robert  Frampton,  who  was 
Dean  of  Gloucester  from  1673  to  1681,  and  Bishop  of 
Gloucester  from  1681  to  1691,  held  Avening,  as  well  as 
Standish,  with  his  bishopric  till  1685.  He  was  deprived  of 
his  bishopric  in  1691,  after  the  accession  of  William  III., 
because  he  refused  to  take  the  oath  of  allegiance  and 
supremacy.  On  his  resignation,  George  Bull,  rector  of 
Siddington  and  prebendary  of  Gloucester,  was  presented 
to  Avening  by  Mr.  Philip  Sheppard.  He  built  a  rectory- 
house,  lived  amongst  his  people,  and  overcame  their  aversion 
to  his  faithful  teaching  by  his  loving  ministrations.  In  1705 
he  was  appointed  to  the  see  of  S.  David's,  but  died  in  1709. 

Avening  was  one  of  the  many  manors  possessed  by  the 
unfortunate  Brictric,  son  of  Algar ;  and  it  is  said  in  the 
Domesday  Book  that  he  had  a  hawks'  eyry  there.  After 
the  Conquest  Brictric  was  deprived  of  his  estates  and  thrown 
into  prison.  Avening  was  bestowed  on  Queen  Matilda,  and 
she  gave  it  to  the  Abbaye  aux  Dames  which  she  had  founded 
for  nuns  at  Caen.  In  the  reign  of  Henry  V.,  when  the 
alien  priories  iwere  dissolved,  the  manor  of  Avening  was 
appropriated   to  the  Bridgetine  Convent  of  Sion,  founded  by 

20  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

him  in  1414.  At  the  dissolution  of  the  monasteries  the 
manor  was  granted  to  Andrew,  Lord  Windsor,  who  sold  it  to 
the  Sheppards." 

Before  the  members  left  the  church,  it  was  mentioned  by 
the  Rev.  W.  Bazeley  that  the  building  was  in  a  somewhat 
dangerous  condition,  and  that  it  was  proposed  to  undertake 
certain  repairs,  but  he  was  convinced  that  nothing  would  be 
done  to  destroy  its  ancient  features. 

The  Rector  said  that  the  parishioners  were  proud  of  this 
old  church,  and  the  necessary  repairs  would  be  carried  out 
in  a  very  conservative  spirit.  They  did  not  aim  at  such  a 
restoration  as  was  carried  out  in  some  churches,  where  very 
little  was  left  of  the  old  building. 

The  party  then  proceeded  to  the  grounds  of  the  New 
Rectory  to  visit,  by  the  kind  permission  of  Mrs.  Selby,  some 
pre-historic  stone  chambers.  They  were  removed  there  in 
1806  from  a  long  barrow,  165  ft.  long  and  59  ft.  wide,  which 
then  existed  in  a  field  near  Avening  Court.  Two  chambers 
were  discovered,  in  one  of  which  were  eight  and  in  the  other 
three  skeletons.  The  circular  entrance  roughly  cut  in  the 
two  front  stones  of  one  of  the  dolmens  is  very  similar  to  that 


Chapel  and  Priest's  House,  Nailsworth.  21 

found  in  the  Rodmarton  barrow.  See  Transactions,  vol.,  v. 
p.  99;  and  Archaologia,  vol.  xvi.,  p.  362,  where  a  plan  of 
the  interior  is  given. 

A  lovely  drive  down  the  Longfords  valley  brought  the 
party  to  Nailsworth,  where,  by  the  kind  invitation  of  Miss 
Tabram,  they  inspected  the  very  interesting  ancient  chapel 
and  priest's  house  at  the  Bannuts.  Until  recently,  this  part 
of  Nailsworth  was  a  chapelry  of  Avening,  and,  no  doubt,  in 
mediaeval  times  one  of  the  priests  of  the  Parish  Church 
lived  here  and  ministered  to  the  inhabitants.  For  many 
years  the  chapel  has  been  put  to  secular  purposes,  and  at 
one  time  was  even  used  as  a  stable !  A  portion  of  it  is  now 
utilized  as  a  museum  of  interesting  relics,  which  were 
collected  by  the  late  Mr.  Tabram,  to  whom  we  are  indebted 
for  his  care  of  these  ancient  buildings. 

After  tea  in  the  National  Schoolroom,  lent  for  the  purpose 
by  the  Rev.  G.  M.  Scott,  the  vicar  of  Nailsworth,  the  party 
repaired  to  the  railway  station  for  their  various  destinations. 


jSristtfl   aiifr   <&\mmtm\m  ^xtlrxolaqml  %at\ttx\f 

At  the  Annual   Summer    Meeting  at   Fairford, 

On    Wednesday,    Thursday,    and   Friday,   August   9th,    10th, 

and  11th,   1899. 

The  Twenty-third  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Society  was  held 
at  Fairford  on  the  above-mentioned  dates,  and  as  the 
weather  was  beautifully  fine  it  proved  to  be  most 
successful  and  enjoyable.  Upwards  of  a  hundred  members 
were  present.  That  comfortable  angling  hostelry,  "  The 
Bull  Hotel,"  was  made  the  headquarters,  and  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Busby's  excellent  arrangements  and  unremitting  exertions 
for  the  comfort  of  the  large  number  of  guests  committed  to 
their  care  gave  complete  satisfaction.  The  meeting  was 
admirably  organised  by  the  General  Secretary,  the  Rev.  W. 
Bazeley,  whose  comprehensive  illustrated  Guide  to  the  places 
visited  was  highly  appreciated  ;  while  the  necessary  and 
multifarious  local  arrangements  were  excellently  planned 
and  carried  out  by  Mr.  F.  B.  Bulley,  who  kindly  undertook 
the  arduous  duties  of  Local  Secretary.  Mr.  Gardner  S. 
Bazley,  as  President  for  the  year,  entered  on  his  duties 
in  the  course  of  the  first  day  of  the  meeting,  and  his  notable 
Presidential  address  on  the  subject  of  stained  glass — a 
peculiarly  appropriate  topic  to  be  selected  for  treatment  at 
Fairford — was  one  of  the  not  least  striking  features  of  a 
highly  interesting  and  enjoyable  meeting.  The  following 
were  the  Local  Committee,  and  most  of  them  were  present 
during  the  whole  or  a  portion  of  the  meeting  :   Rev.  F.  R. 

Ampney  Crucis.  23 

Carbonell  (Chairman),  Mr.  E.  A.  Abbey,  Lieutenant-Colonel 
D.  Archer,  Mr.  H.  C.  Barkley,  Rev.  F.  D.  Bateman, 
Earl  Bathurst,  Rev.  G.  H.  Barrett,  Mr.  C.  H.  Bloxsome, 
Mr.  C.  Bowly,  Rev.  A.  H.  Browne,  D.D.,  Rev.  L.  B.  Bubb, 
Rev.  J.  A.  B.  Cardus,  Major  Chambres,  Rev.  A.  Clementson, 
Rev.  D.  G.  Compton,  Messrs.  R.  D.  Cooper,  R.  Daubeney, 
R.  Dimsdale,  Rev.  R.  P.  Davies,  Mr.  R.  Elwell,  Rev. 
J.  A.  Ford,  Messrs.  A.  Hussey  Freke,  H.  Martin  Gibbs, 
Sir  M.  E.  Hicks-Beach,  Bart.,  M.P.,  Rev.  W.  P.  Hand, 
Messrs.  A.  Henderson,  M.P.,  A.  Hitchman-  Iles,  Rev. 
C.  C.  Johnson,  Messrs.  J.  Joicey,  J.  Jones,  Captain  Kent, 
Mr.  A.  U.  Kent,  Rev.  W.  S.  Leonard,  Mr.  C.  Lewis, 
Rev.  C.  M.  R.  Luckman,  Mr.  G.  L.  Macgowan,  Rev.  J. 
MacKaye,  Mr.  H.  J.  Marshall,  Rev.  F.  C.  Master,  Mr.  T. 
Butt-Miller,  Rev.  H.  J.  Morton,  Colonel  Porter,  Rev. 
H.  P.  Sketchley,  Rev.  C.  E.  Squire,  Mr.  G.  Sloper, 
Rev.  F.  R.  Steavenson,  Mr.  J.  Thornton,  Captain  W.  F. 
Tosswill,  Rev.  G.  J.  Woodward,  Rev.  W.  H.  Wright, 
and  Mr.  S.  P.  Yates.  Among  others  present  were :  Sir 
John  Dorington,  Bart.,  M.P.  (President  for  1898-99),  the 
Revs.  J.  S.  Sinclair,  W.  Bazeley,  G.  S.  Master,  F.  E. 
Broome  Witts,  Bagnall  Oakley,  Messrs.  Christopher 
Bowly,  F.  F.  Fox,  A.  J.  Morton  Ball,  H.  W.  Bruton, 
G.  M.  Currie,  St.  Clair  Baddeley,  G.  H.  Woollaston, 
J.  S.  Pritchard,  S.  H.  Swayne,  J.  Baker,  F.  F.  Tuckett, 
F.  R.  V.  Witts,  F.  J.  Tarr,  P.  Were,  H.  E.  Norris, 
De  Sausmerez,  Leigh,  Lloyd  Baker,  &c.  The  gathering 
included  a  large  number  of  ladies. 

On  Wednesday  morning,  starting  from  Fairford,  or  Cirencester,  as 
the  railway  service  was  to  each  most  convenient,  the  party  assembled  at 
Ampney  Crucis,  where  they  were  received  at  the  Church  of  the  Holy  Rood 
by  the  Vicar,  the  Rev.  J.  C.  Johnson.  The  following  account  of  Ampney 
Crucis,  as  well  as  of  the  other  places  visited,  is  taken  mainly  from  the 
Archaological  Notes  which  had  been  prepared  by  the  General  Secretary, 
the  Rev.  William  Bazeley,  for  this  meeting  : — 

"  The  present  parish  of  Ampney  Crucis  is  made  up  of  no  fewer  than 
seven  manors  called  Omenie  at  the  time  of  the  great  survey,  A.n.  1086. 
There  was  a  priest  with  a  church  possessing  half  a  hide  of  land  and  four 

24  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

acres  of  meadow  here  at  that  time,  and  the  Church  of  the  Holy  Rood  is 
mentioned  a  few  years  later.    Three  manors  in  Omenie  were  held  by  Turstin 
Fitz  Rolf,  Humphry  the  Chamberlain,  and  Baldwin,  which  had  been  held 
in  the  days  of  the   Confessor  by  Tovy,  Elwy,  and  Alwyn  respectively. 
Humphry's   manor   and    the   church    were  conferred  by  William  II.  on 
Tewkesbury  Abbey,  and  this  grant  was  confirmed  by  Henry  I.     At  the 
Dissolution  the  manor  was  obtained  by  the  Pleydells  who  held  it  till  the 
18th  century,  when  it  passed  by  marriage  to  John,  Viscount  Downe.     He 
sold  it  in  1765    to  Samuel  Blackwell.     The  church,  which  is  cruciform, 
without  aisles,  may  be  called  a  13th  century  building,  though  it  contains 
portions  of  an  earlier  one.     The  chancel  arch  with  its  zig-zag  moulding 
and  a  walled-up  doorway  and  deeply  splayed  window  on  the  north  aisle 
of  the  nave  are  Norman.     In  the  13th  century  the  nave,  transepts,  and 
chancel  appear  to  have  been  rebuilt.  .  The  south  door,  the  western  tower, 
the   arches   of  the   transepts,    with    their    dog-tooth    moulding,    and    the 
transept  windows  all  belong  to  this  period.     In  the  15th  century  the  pitch 
of  the  nave  roof  was  lowered,  as  may  be  seen  by  the  drip  on  the  east  side 
of  the  tower,  and  embattled  parapets  were  added  to  the  nave  and  tower. 
The  east  window  of  the  south  transept  is  a  good  example  of  Perpendicular 
architecture.     In  the  angle  between  the  south  transept  and  the  chancel  is 
a   projection   which   once   contained    the    stairs   of  the   rood   loft.      The 
entrance  to  these  in  the  transept  is  now  walled  up.     There  is  a  sanctus 
bell-turret  on  the  east  gable  of  the  nave. 

The  church  contains  several  memorials  of  the  Pleydells,  and  a 
monument  to  Viscount  Downe,  who  commanded  the  25th  Regiment  of  Foot 
at  the  battle  of  Minden,  and  who  was  mortally  wounded  at  the  battle  of 
Cam  pen  in  17C0.  There  is  also  a  freestone  monument  with  the  figures  of 
a  man,  his  wife,  and  sixteen  children,  which  Atkyns,  relying  on  an 
heraldic  coat  of  arms,  assigns  to  George  Lloyd,  once  lord  of  the  manor, 
ancestor  to  the  Lloyds  of  Whitminster. 

The  Churchyard  Cross,  of  which  we  give  a  view  from  Savory's 
Visitors'  Guide  to  Cirencester,  was  restored  thirty-five  or  forty  years  ago. 
under  the  superintendence  of  Canon  Howman,  Rector  of  Barnsley.  It 
has  a  gabled  head,  octagonal  shaft  and  base  and  square  steps.  It  is  not 
clear  that  all  these  parts  belonged  originally  to  one  and  the  same  cross. 
The  total  height  is  13  ft.  8  in.  The  head  has  four  sides,  those  on  the  east 
and  west  being  wider  than  those  on  the  north  and  south.  In  the  trefoiled 
niche  on  the  east  side  is  a  complete  rood,  i.e.  a  figure  of  the  crucified 
Saviour  with  St.  Mary  on  His  right  hand  and  St.  John  on  His  left.  The 
feet  of  the  dead  Saviour  are  crossed  and  fastened  by  a  single  nail.  The 
only  garment  is  a  loin  cloth. 

On  the  west  side  are  St.  Mary  and  the  Holy  Child.  St.  Mary,  who 
holds  the  Child  on  her  right  knee  wears  a  closely-fitting  kirtle,  laced  in 

Ampney  Crucis. 


front,  and  over  this  a  long  mantle  fastened  by  a  brooch.     A  small  portion 
of  her  crown  remains. 

On  the  north  side  on  a  pedestal   stands  a  headless   soldier  in  plate- 

Lent  by  Messrs.  Savory  &  Cole,  Cirencester. 

armour,  with  a  lance  in  his  right  hand.  He  wears  a  breast-plate,  quatre- 
foil  pallettes,  a  skirt  of  taces  with  a  baldric  or  tranverse  belt,  gauntlets, 
genouillieres  or  knee-plates,  and  solkrets.      lie  holds  in  his  left  hand  a 

26  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

round  object  that  may  be  the  handle  of  a  dagger,  but  it  would  be  the 
wrong  hand  for  it.  Around  his  neck  is  a  collar  of  roses.  He  probably 
wore  a  bascinet.  Pooley  suggests  that  this  figure  represents  Robert  Fitz 
Hamon,  founder  of  Tewkesbury  A.bbey,  in  the  beginning  of  the  13th 
century  ;  Sir  Henry  Dryden  thinks  it  is  the  donor  of  the  cross.  Perhaps 
it  is  Longinus,  who  pierced  our  Lord's  side  with  a  spear,  and,  so  tradition 
says,  became  a  Christian. 

The  baldric  or  transverse  belt,  Haines  says,  does  not  appear  on 
monumental  effigies  after  1418,  whereas  the  skirt  of  taces  was  introduced 
about  that  time ;  so  the  date  of  the  cross  should  be  about  1410. 

The  figure  on  the  south  side,  which  Pooley  calls  Geraldus,  the  first 
abbot  of  Tewkesbury,  is  undoubtedly  St  Lawrence,  for  he  holds  in  his 
right  hand  a  gridiron  and  wears  a  deacon's  robes,  an  alb,  and  a  dalmatic." 

A  bird's-eye  view  of  Ampney  Crucis,  given  by  Atkyns,  includes  the 
church  and  a  fragment  of  the  cross.  Ampney  House,  the  residence  of 
E.  W.  Cripps,  Esq.,  contains  a  fine  Elizabethan  chimney-piece. 

At  the  adjacent  manorial  residence,  Ampney  Park,  the  party  were 
received  by  Mr.  William  Cripps,  and  inspected  with  much  interest  the 
handsome  mantelpiece  in  the  drawing-room,  erected  by  Robert  Pleydell  in 
1625,  and  also  the  beautiful  ceiling  in  the  same  room,  the  work  of  the 
French  and  Flemish  plasterers  brought  over  by  James  I. 

Leaving  Ampney  Crucis,  the  party  had  a  peep  at  the  well-nigh 
deserted  Church  of  St.  Mary,  Ampney,  which  consists  of  a  nave  and 
chancel,  with  a  bell-cot  on  the  east  gable  of  the  nave,  and  a  priest's  door 
on  the  south  side  of  the  chancel.  The  chief  object  of  interest  is  the  door- 
way  on  the  north  side  of  the  nave,  now  blocked  up.  A  sketch  of  it  and 
some  notes  by  Sir  Henry  Dryden  are  given  in  our  Transactions,  vol.  xvi., 
p.  131. 

The  Domesday  representative  of  this  church  must  have  been  served 
by  the  priest  of  Reinbald's  manor  of  Omenie,  but  almost  all  the  land  of 
this  manor  must  lie  in  Ampney  Crucis.  Durandus'  manor  of  Esbroc  and 
Humphrey's  manor  of  Estbroce  represent  Ashbrook  or  Ampney  St.  Mary. 


was  the  next  stopping  place,  and  at  the  church  the  party  was  received  by 
the  rector,  the  Rev.  J.  A.  Ford,  and  one  of  the  churchwardens,  Mr.  J.  L. 
Burgess,  being  welcomed  with  a  peal  on  the  bells.  This  manor  was  held 
in  the  time  of  Edward  the  Confessor  by  Leueric.  In  1086  (d.s.)  it  was  the 
only  Gloucestershire  possession  of  Roger  de  Montgomerie,  the  great  Earl. 
His  son  Hugh  being  banished  for  treason,  his  lands  were  seized  by  Henry  I. 
Hampton  Meysey  then  became  part  of  the  honour  of  Gloucester.  The 
Knights  Templars  appear  to  have  farmed  the  manor  in  the  time  of 
Henry  III.,  since  they  held  Court  Leets.  They  were  also  patrons  of 
the  living. 

Meysey  Hampton.  27 

"  Sir  Richard  Atkyns  tells  us  that  Robert  de  Meysey,  Sheriff  of  the 
County  in  1255,  was  then  lord  of  the  manor.  His  son  and  heir,  William, 
was  succeeded  by  a  son,  John,  who  died  leaving  an  only  daughter,  Eva  or 
Eleanour.  This  Eva  was  married  to  Nicholas,  son  and  heir  of  Lawrence 
de  St.  Maur,  of  Rode,  Somerset,  who  was  summoned  to  Parliament  as 
Baron  St.  Maur  in  I3i5,and  died  in  the  following  year,  leaving  by  his  first 
wife,  Eva  de  Meysey,  a  son,  Thomas,  and  by  Helen  de  la  Zouch,  his 
second  wife,  a  son  Nicholas.  Thomas  died  (s.p.)  and  his  half-brother, 
Nicholas,  was  summoned  to  Parliament  as  Baron  St.  Maur  from  1350  to 
1360.  He  married  Muriel,  daughter  and  heir  of  Lord  Lovel  of  Kari,  and 
was  succeeded  by  his  son  Richard,  who  married  Ela,  daughter  of  Sir  John 
de  Loo,  and  died  about  1400. 

His  son  and  heir,  Richard,  married  Mary,  daughter  of  Thomas 
Peyner,  and,  dying  in  1408,  was  succeeded  by  his  only  daughter,  Alice, 
born  posthumously.  She  married  William,  5th  Lord  Zouche  of  Haryn- 
worth,  and  their  son  William  became  6th  Lord  Zouche  and  Baron  St. 
Maur.  He  died  in  1466,  leaving  John,  his  son  and  heir,  7th  Lord  Zouche. 
He  sided  with  Richard  III.  against  Henry  VII.,  and  was  attainted  after 
the  battle  of  Bosworth  Field.  Atkyns  tells  us  that  the  manor  of  Meysey 
Hampton  passed  by  the  marriage  of  the  daughter  of  William,  Lord 
Zouche,  to  William  Saunders,  who  was  lord  of  the  manor  in  1534,  and 
levied  a  fine  of  it  to  Edmund,  Lord  Chandos. 

In  1608,  Sir  John  Hungerford  held  the  manor,  and,  late  in  the  17th 
century,  Mr.  Barker,  of  Fairford,  obtained  it  from  Sir  Matthew  Hale  in 
exchange  for  the  manor  of  Alderley.  Amongst  the  principal  residents  have 
been  the  Jenners  of  Marston,  the  Bedwells,  and  Forshews. 

The  plan  of  the  church,  which  is  dedicated  to  S.  Mary,  is  cruciform, 
and  comprises  a  nave  with  south  porch,  a  central  tower,  north  and  south 
transepts,  and  a  chancel.  The  church  was  probably  built  by  the  Knights 
Templars  or  the  de  Clares  early  in  the  13th  century,  and  the  chancel  was 
altered  and  greatly  beautified  in  the  14th  century  by  the  Meyseys  or  St. 
Maurs,  two  of  whose  tombs  are  still  preserved,  and  one  has  been  only 
recently  destroyed.    • 

On  the  left  side  of  the  doorway  of  the  porch  is  a  bracket  for  the  figure 
of  a  saint.  We  should  have  expected  to  find  it  above  the  arch,  but  the 
porch  seems  to  have  been  built  with  a  view  to  placing  it  where  it  is. 

There  is  a  good  Early  English  window  at  the  west  end  of  the  nave, 
having  two  lower  trefoiled  lights  and  a  quatrefoil  above. 

The  windows  of  the  nave  and  transepts  are  single  or  double  lancets 
with  dripstones  or  hood  mouldings,  and  a  string  course  below.  There  is 
an  entrance  to  the  tower  staircase  on  the  outer  east  wall  of  the  transept, 
which  was  made  for  the  use  of  the  ringers  about  1850. 

The  chancel  has  a  two-light  window  on  the  north  side  and  a  modern 


Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

vestry.  The  geometrical  east  window  is  a  beautiful  example  of  14th 
century  work.  The  double  border  of  ball-flower  ornament  gives  it  a  very 
rich  appearance.  It  would  seem,  from  a  sketch  taken  by  Mrs.  Lee, 
daughter  of  the  Rev.  W.  Holmes,  a  former  rector  of  this  parish,  that  this 
window  has  been  recently  shortened,  which  is  truly  to  be  deplored. 
Bigland  says  the  window  in  the  chancel  is  of  curious  architecture,  of  the 
Norman  style,  ornamented  with  nail-head  moulding.  I  do  not  know  that 
any  window  of  the  chancel  has  been  destroyed  since  1786.  Can  he  be 
speaking  of  the  east  window  ?  Mrs.  Lee's  sketch,  which  she  has  kindly 
allowed  us  to  reproduce,  shews  a  little  low  window  close  to  the  two-light 
window  on  the  north  side  of  the  chancel.     This  we  shall  find  when  we 




From  a  Sketch  by  Mrs.  Lee,  c.  1851. 

enter  the  chancel  has  been  removed  farther  east.  The  buttresses  of  the 
east  wall,  which  are  similar  to  those  of  the  tower,  have  simple  slopes  as 
set-offs,  and  are  characteristic  of  13th  century,  or  Early  English,  masonry. 
On  the  south  side  of  the  chancel  are  three  14th  century  windows,  a  priest's 
door,  and  a  projection,  the  object  of  which  will  appear  when  we  enter  the 

The  tower  has  a  round-headed  two-light  window  on  each  side.  The 
plain  embattled  parapet  was  probably  added  in  the  15th  century.  The 
Jacobaean  lectern  and  a  chain  for  securing  the  Bible  which  rested  on  it, 
with  the  inscription  "Christian  Jacketts,  1622,"  is  more  curious  than 
beautiful.     We  were  unable  to  find  the  name  of  Jackets  in  the  register,  so 

Meysey  Hampton  Church. 


probably  he  was  the  maker.  Perhaps  James  Vaulx  was  the  donor.  The 
tower  has  four  plain  chamfered  arches  resting  on  octagonal  caps,  shafts, 
and  bases,  and  is  supported  by  massive  buttresses. 

In  the  south  transept  is  a  handsome  Jacobaean  monument  with  the 
effigies  of  James  Vaulx,  his  wives,  Edith  Jenner  and  "Philip"  Horton, 
and  sixteen  children.  This  monument  was  formerly  in  the  chancel  affixed 
to  the  north  wall.  Rudder  tells  us  that  Doctor  Vaulx's  reputation  was  so 
great  that  King  James  I.  thought  of  making  him  his  own  royal  physician, 
but  wisely  enquired  how  he  had  obtained  his  knowledge  of  the  healing 

art.  The  reply  being  "  By 
practice,"  his  majesty  re- 
joined :  "  Then  by  my  saul 
thou  hast  killed  mony  a 
man,  thou  shalt  na' practise 
upon  me."  In  the  south 
transept  there  is  or  was  a 
memorial  stone  to  Margaret 
Griswald  ("  a  pearl  of 
price")  who  died  at  Mar- 
ston,  whither  she  had  gone 
for  Dr.  Vaulx's  advice  ! 

On  the  north  side  of 
the  Chancel,  where  the 
founder's  tomb  should  be, 
is  a  beautiful  altar-tomb, 
of  the  same  date  as  the 
east  window,  with  a  tre- 
foiled  canopy,  ball-flower 
ornament,  and  seven  shields 
from  which  the  heraldic 
bearings  have  been  obli- 
terated. This  tomb  I  am 
inclined  to  assign  to  Eva 
the  last  of  the  Meyseys, 
first  wife  of  Nicholas,  Lord 
St.  Maur.  If  so,  its  date  is  about  1310.  The  arms  of  St.  Maur  were  Argent, 
two  chevrons  gules,  a  label  azure.  The  arms  of  Meysey  were,  I  believe, 
Argent  a  /esse  between  three  cinque/oils  sable,  pierced  of  the  field.  The  arms  of 
de  la  Zouche  are  argent  bexantel.  The  slab  which  covered  the  tomb  has 
been  removed  and  the  dust  of  the  noble  dead  has  been  swept  away.  In 
i860,  another  tomb  occupied  the  place  of  the  founder's  tomb,  and  was  then 
described  as  being  "much  altered  and  cut  off  at  the  top  and  now  a  plain 
arch."     In  another  sketch  of  Mrs.  Lee's,  which  we  give,  this  second  tomb 



Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

appears  in  its  original  position.  The  Vaulx  monument  in  Bigland's  time 
was  in  the  chancel,  and  Mrs.  Lee  tells  us  that  it  completely  hid  the 
beautiful  14th  century  tomb,  and  was  therefore  removed  to  its  present 
position  in  the  south  chancel.  The  decorated  tomb  had  then  as  now  the 
hagioscope,  in  the  shape  of  a  little  window,  at  the  back  of  it.  In  the  time 
of  the  Rev.  W.  H.  Ranken,  Rector  from  1869  to  1884,  the  plainer  tomb 
was  taken  away  and  the  richer  one  placed  where  it  now  is,  in  order  that  a 
door  might  be  constructed  into  the  new  vestry.  Every  endeavour  should 
be  made  to  find  this  tomb  and  replace  it  in  the  church.  The  mouldings 
might  give  us  a  clue  to  its  date  and  thus  possibly  to  the  name  of  the 
person  who  lay  in  it.  The  opening  behind  the  tomb  suggests  the  question  : 
Was   this    originally   what   is   known    as   a   leper   window,    or  was   it   a 

From  a  sketch  by  Mrs.  Lee. 

hagioscope?  If  the  latter,  then  on  the  site  of  the  prescent  vestry  there 
was  once  a  chapel  or  an  anchorite's  cell  to  which  access  could  only  be 
obtained  from  the  churchyard. 

Bigland  tells  us  also  that  in  one  of  the  windows  of  the  chancel  were 
the  arms  of  de  Clare,  which  are  three  chevrons  gules.  Perhaps  this  was  a 
mistake  and  they  were  really  the  two  chevrons  gules  of  St.  Maurs. 

There  are  some  fragments  of  14th  century  glass  still  remaining,  and  it 
would  be  well  to  search  carefully  for  traces  of  the  Meysey  and  St.  Maur 
arms.  Mrs.  Lee's  sketch  shows  a  bracket  for  a  statue  on  either  side  of 
the  altar,  and  part  of  one  canopy. 

On  the  south   side  of   the  chancel  are  four  beautiful    14th  century 

Report  of  the  Council.  31 

niches  with  crocketted  canopies,  one  of  which,  that  furthest  east,  contains 
a  piscina  and  a  credence :  the  three  others  are  sedilia.  Next  to  these  is 
an  altar-tomb,  somewhat  later  than  that  on  the  north  side,  but  of  the 
same  date  as  the  sedilia.  As  the  wall  was  not  thick  enough  for  a  recess, 
the  projection,  we  saw  outside,  was  constructed  when  the  tomb  was  made; 
it  may  be  the  dust  of  one  of  the  St.  Maurs  still  rests  here.  Next  to  the 
tomb  is  a  priest's  door,  and  on  its  right,  inserted  in  the  wall,  is  a  very 
ancient  poor's  box  roughly  hewn  out  of  a  tree  and  bound  with  iron  hoops. 
Mrs.  Lee's  sketches  are  of  great  help  in  ascertaining  the  architecural 
history  of  this  interesting  church.  Would  that  such  existed  of  every 
church  in  the  country  which  has  been  similarly  restored." 

The  next  move  was  made  to  Fairford,  which  Cobbett,  in  his  Rural 
Rides,  described  in  his  usually  outspoken  manner.  He  said  :  "  Fairford  is 
a  pretty  little  market  town,  and  has  one  of  the  prettiest  churches  in  the 
kingdom.  It  was,  they  say,  built  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VII.,  and  one  is 
naturally  surprised  to  see  that  its  windows  of  beautiful  stained  glass  had 
the  luck  to  escape  not  only  the  fangs  of  the  ferocious  good  Queen  Bess, 
not  only  the  unsparing  plundering  of  the  minions  of  James  I.,  but  even 
the  devastating  ruffians  of  Cromwell."  Before,  however,  the  church  was 
inspected,  there  were  two  important  functions  demanding  observance. 
First  luncheon  was  laid  out  at  "The  Bull  Hotel,"  and  after  the  morning 
ride  and  visits  to  several  villages,  the  fare  provided  was  duly  appreciated. 
Luncheon  over, 


of  the  Society  was  held  in  the  Crofts  Hall,  kindly  lent  by  Mr.  \V.  C. 
Arkell.  Sir  John  Dorington  presided,  and  called  upon  the  Rev. 
\V.  Bazeley  to  read  the  Report  of  the  Council,  as  follows  : — 

Report  of  the  Council  of  the  Bristol  and  Gloucestershire 
Arch.eological  Society  for  1899 

The  Council  of  the  Bristol  and  Gloucestershire  Archaeological  Society 
present  the  following  Report  for  the  year  ending  August,  1899. 

There  are  at  present  321  annual  members,  S3  life  members,  and 
3  honorary  members  on  the  Society's  list,  giving  a  total  strength  of  407. 

The  income  for  the  year  ending  December  31st,  1898,  including  a 
balance  of  /414  10s.  on  the  1st  of  January,  1898,  was  £637  14s.  2d.,  and 
the  expenditure  £244  4s.  8d.,  leaving  a  balance  of  ^393  9s.  Gd  ,  in  the 
Treasurer's  hands  on  the  1st  of  January,  1899.  From  this  sum  must  be 
deducted  the  cost  of  the  Transactions  for  [898 and  the  Index  to  Vols.  I.— XX  , 
which  is  drawing  near  completion  and  ought  to  be  in  the  members'  hands 
before  the  close  of  this  year. 

The  Society  held  its  Summer  Meeting  for  1898  in  London,  under  the 
presidency  of  Sir  John  Dorington,  Bart.,  Ml'.     The  programme  included 

32  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

visits  to  many  places  of  national  interest  in  and  near  the  metropolis  and 
to  many  others  to  which,  except  on  such  occasions  as  these,  few  persons 
obtain  access.  The  attendance  of  members  was  perhaps  greater  than  at 
any  previous  meeting,  and  the  weather  was  all  that  could  be  desired. 
Marked  courtesy  and  kindness  were  extended  to  the  Society  by  the  Lord 
Mayor  of  London,  by  the  Masters  and  Wardens  of  the  following  City 
Guilds — the  Brewers,  Armourers  and  Braziers,  Drapers,  and  Barbers ;  by 
the  Library  Committee  and  Librarian  of  the  Guildhall ;  by  Mr.  G.  W. 
Birch,  Custodian  of  the  Soane  Museum;  by  the  Master  of  the  Temple, 
and  many  others. 

Amongst  those  who  acted  as  guides  and  described  the  places  visited 
the  Council  would  mention  especially  Mr.  G.  W.  Birch,  who  was 
indefatigable  in  his  exertions  on  behalf  of  the  Society,  although  far  from 
well ;  Mr.  Welsh,  the  Librarian  of  the  Guildhall ;  Mr.  Aston  Webb,  the 
Rev.  H.  V.  le  Bas,  Mr.  Ernest  Law,  the  Rev.  A.  Povah,  D.D.,  Viscount 
Dillon,  Mr.  S.  W.  Kershaw,  Mr.  Guy  Dawber,  Mr.  J.  D.  Micklethwaite 
and  Mr.  St.  John  Hope. 

To  Mr.  W.  H.  Seth  Smith  and  Mr.  G.  M.  Currie,  who  acted  conjointly 
as  Local  Secretaries;  to  Mr.  Charles  Bathurst,  Mr.  R.  A.  S.  Macalister, 
the  Rev.  J.  W.  Robbins,  and  Mr.  C.  Turnor,  who  acted  as  stewards,  the 
hearty  thanks  of  the  Council  are  justly  due.  Indeed,  without  such  able 
assistance  it  would  have  been  impossible  to  carry  out,  without  a  hitch,  the 
somewhat  ambitious  programme  which  had  been  prepared.  The  only 
drawback  to  the  pleasure  of  the  members  was  the  absence  of  the  President, 
Sir  John  Dorington,  during  the  earlier  days  of  the  meeting,  owing  to  a 
family  bereavement.  His  place  was,  however,  ably  filled  by  Mr.  G.  B. 
Witts,  President  for  1897-8. 

On  May  24th,  1899,  the  Society  held  a  meeting  at  Nailsworth,  and 
visited  Beverston  Church  and  Castle,  Chavenage  House  and  Avening 
Church.  No  less  than  112  members  attended  this  meeting,  a  number  far 
exceeding  any  previous  record. 

The  thanks  of  the  Council  are  due  to  Mr.  Lowsley  Williams  for  his 
kind  permission  to  visit  his  interesting  residence,  Chavenage  House,  and 
to  the  Rev.  E.  W.  Evans,  Mr.  Garlick,  the  Rev.  E.  W.  Edwards,  and 
Miss  Tabrum  for  receiving  the  members  at  Beverston,  Avening,  and  the 
Bannut  Tree,  Nailsworth,  respectively. 

The  following  works  have  been  presented  to  the  Society's  library  during 
the  past  year  :  Memorials  of  London  and  London  Life,  Calendar  of  Letters  from 
the  Mayor  and  Corporation  of  London,  The  Guildhall  of  London  :  Its  History 
and  Associations,  London  and  the  Kingdom,  Roll  of  Fame  of  London.  All  these 
were  presented  by  the  Library  Committee  of  the  Guildhall.  The  Perverse 
Widow  was  presented  by  Sir  Brook  Kay,  and  a  second  copy  by  the  author, 
Mr.  Crawley-Boevey.     Avery  interesting  MS.  of  Archdeacon  Furney's,  by 

Report  of  the  Council.  33 

Mr.  J.  Norton  ;  15  vols,  of  Archaologia,  by  the  Rev.  S.  E.  Bartleet  ;  and 
various  valuable  works  by  Mr.  Mullins,  of  Cirencester. 

The  Council  has  presented  copies  of  the  Berkeley  MSS.,  3  vols.  4to, 
edited  by  Sir  John  Maclean  for  this  Society,  to  the  Library  of  the  Guildhall, 
London,  to  the  Master  and  Wardens  of  the  Drapers'  Company,  to 
Mr.  G.  W.  Birch,  and  to  the  Bureau  of  Ethnology,  Washington.  Offers  of 
copies  have  also  been  made  to  the  Corporation  of  Bristol,  to  the  British 
Museum,  and  to  the  Bodleian  Library,  Oxford,  but  it  was  found  that  they 
already  possessed  the  work 

The  Council  would  be  glad  to  receive  for  the  Society's  Library  works 
of  reference  on  the  various  branches  of  Archaeology. 

The  Congress  of  Archaeological  Societies  was  held  at  Burlington  House, 
on  July  12th,  1899,  under  the  auspices  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries, 
London,  and  the  presidency  of  Viscount  Dillon.  The  Congress  was 
attended  by  delegates  from  nearly  all  the  Archaeological  Societies  of  Great 
Britain  and  Ireland.  Of  the  two  delegates  from  this  Society,  Mr. 
J.  E.  Pritchard  and  the  Rev.  W.  Bazeley,  only  the  latter  was  able  to  be 

The  following  subjects  were  discussed  : — 

The  Genera!  Index  of  Archaeological  Papers,  1682 — ISO  I,  edited  by  Mr. 
Gomme. — The  Council  have  subscribed  for  this  useful  work,  which  will  be 
published  by  Messrs.  Constable. 

The  Safe  Custody  of  Wills,  Parish  Registers,  and  other  Records. — The 
Congress  resolved  to  recommend  the  Government  to  appoint  a  Royal 
Commission  to  enquire  into  the  subject  of  the  better  preservation  and 
arrangement  of  such  Records,  with  a  view  to  rendering  impossible  such 
practices  as  have  been  lately  revealed  in  the  Shipway  trial.  This  Council 
are  opposed  to  any  suggestion  to  remove  Parish  Registers  and  other 
Records  from  the  parish  to  which  they  belong,  but  they  are  of  opinion 
that  transcriptions  should  be  made,  deposited  in  a  central  County 
Registry,  and  be  available  for  research;  and  that  the  need  of  carefully 
preserving  the  originals  against  loss,  fire,  and  unprincipled  searchers 
should  be  impressed  on  the  parochial  clergy,  churchwardens,  and  other 
parochial  authorities. 

A  National  Catalogue  of  Effigies. — This  Council  has  obtained  promises 
of  help  in  cataloguing  the  effigies  of  Gloucestershire ;  but  the  work  is 
being  sadly  delayed  by  the  fact  that  the  directions  to  be  drawn  up  under 
the  auspicies  of  the  Congress  are  not  yet  forthcoming.  In  the  meanwhile, 
the  Council  will  gladly  accept  through  the  Secretary  photographs, 
drawings,  and  descriptions  of  Gloucestershire  effigies,  and  will  preserve 
them  in  portfolios  with  a  view  to  a  catalogue. 

The  National  Portrait  Catalogue — This  Council  regrets  that  so  few 
members,  possessing  family  portraits,  have  applied  to  the  Secretary  for 

Vol.  XXII. 

34  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

the  forms  provided  by  the  Congress  for  cataloguing  such  treasures.  The 
Congress  propose  to  petition  the  Government  to  lower  or  forego  the  death 
duties  on  collections  of  family  portraits  as  long  as  they  remain  unsold. 

The  Victoria  Series  of  County  Histories.— The  Congress  passed  [the 
following  resolution  :  "This  Congress  is  glad  to  hear  of  the  project  of  a 
complete  series  of  County  Histories,  and  hopes  that  every  assistance  will 
be  rendered  by  the  various  Archaeological  Societies."  This  Council  on 
their  part  will  gladly  render  assistance  in  promoting  the  excellent  work 
taken  up  by  the  publishers,  Messrs.  Constable  and  Co.  They  will  also 
endeavour  to  learn  what  is  being  done  in  the  matter  by  kindred  societies. 

The  Council  considers  that  the  hearty  thanks  of  this  Society  are  due  to 
Mr.  Ernest  Hartland,  who  for  many  years  past  has  skilfully  controlled  the 
finances  of  this  Society  as  Treasurer,  and  has  lately  resigned.  Air.  G.  M. 
Currie,  who  has  already  done  much  good  service  to  the  Society  as  Local 
Secretary  for  Cheltenham  and  as  Local  Treasurer  for  several  General 
Meetings,  has  consented  to  act  as  General  Treasurer. 

During  the  year  the  Council  issued  the  following  Circular  with  regard 
to  the  ruins  of  Hailes  Abbey  : — 

Bristol  anD  (Sloucestersbire  Brcbrcological  Society 

An  Appeal  for  Funds  to  Explore  the  Site  of  Hayles  Abbey,  and  Preserve  the- 
Ruins  from  further  Destruction. 

This  Abbey  was  founded  by  Richard,  Earl  of  Cornwall,  in  1246,  and 
dedicated  on  November  5th,  1251,  in  the  presence  of  King  Henry  III., 
and  his  queen.  Eleanor  of  Provence,  together  with  a  vast  assembly  of 
ecclesiastics  and  barons. 

In  1 27 1,  fire  consumed  a  large  portion  of  the  monastic  buildings, 
and  Earl  Richard,  then  King  of  the  Romans,  devoted  8,ooo  marks  to  its 

Again,  in  the  15th  century,  it  would  seem,  from  internal  evidence,  that 
the  monastery  once  more  fell  a  prey  to  an  extensive  conflagration,  and 
a  restoration  became  necessary  which  transformed  the  cloisters  from 
Early  English  to  Perpendicular.  In  1539  the  Abbey,  with  all  its  posses- 
sions and  buildings,  was  surrendered  by  the  last  abbot,  Stephen  Seager, 
and  his  monks,  to  the  commissioners  of  Henry  VIII.,  and  all  but  the 
Abbot's  House,  standing  on  the  west  side  of  the  cloisters,  and  the  kitchen, 
butteries,  and  larders,  on  the  south-west,  were  condemned  as  useless. 
For  the  third  time  there  came  a  devastating  fire  ;  and  the  cloisters  and  the 
chapter  house,  with  their  beautiful  vaulting,  became  a  prey  to  the  flames. 

From  this  time  forward,  until  the  close  of  the  17th  century,  the 
Abbot's  House  was  used  as  a  residence  by  the  Viscounts  Tracy,  and  the 
Abbey  Church  and  monastic  buildings,  with  the  exception  of  the  cloisters, 
lay  concealed  below  the  surface. 

For  three  hundred  years  Hayles  Abbey  has  been  treated  as  a  quarry. 
Most  of  the  ashlar  work  has  been  stripped  from  the  walls,  and  the  arches 

Report  of  the  Council.  35. 

which  once  led  from  the  cloisters  into  the  church  and  conventual  buildings 
have  been  crumbling  to  decay.  The  Abbot's  Lodgings,  portrayed  by  Kip, 
Buck,  and  Lysons,  have  well-nigh  disappeared,  and  a  mere  heap  of  stones 
marks  the  site  of  the  lordly  abode  of  the  Tracys.  Much,  however,  remains 
that  is  full  of  interest  for  students  of  history  and  architecture.  Within 
the  entrance  to  the  chapter  house  has  been  found  evidence  that  the  whole 
of  the  Early  English  vaulting,  dating  from  1271  — 1277,  although  prostrate 
on  the  ground,  remains  fairly  intact.  Two  richly-carved  bosses,  with 
conventional  foliage,  have  been  extracted  uninjured,  and  there  is  good 
reason  to  believe  that  several  more  of  these  lie  amidst  the  heap  of  moulded 
and  carved  stones. 

The  Council  of  the  Bristol  and  Gloucestershire  Archaeological  Society 
have  obtained  permission  to  excavate  the  site  of  the  Abbey,  with  a  view  to 
making  a  plan  of  its  buildings  and  of  saving  the  remaining  cloister-arches 
from  collapse.  When  this  is  done,  the  owners  will  construct  a  fence  to 
protect  the  ruins.  Under  the  direction  of  the  Secretary  of  the  Society 
and  St.  Clair  Baddeley,  Esq.,  a  member  of  the  Council,  the  cloister-walks 
are  now  being  cleared,  and  the  walls  are  being  excavated  to  their  bases, 
revealing  many  architectural  features  which  have  been  hitherto  concealed. 
The  arches  and  other  parts  of  the  buildings,  which  have  been  in  imminent 
danger  of  falling,  are  being  rendered  secure. 

The  fact  that  this  Abbey  was  built  at  a  period  when  English  archi- 
tecture was  most  beautiful  in  its  simplicity,  and  that  few  other  Cistercian 
abbeys  of  the  same  date  remain,  will  render  a  study  of  its  ground-plan 
and  details  exceedingly  interesting. 

The  Council  of  this  Society  desire  to  raise  a  fund  of  about  £200,  so  as 
to  be  enabled  to  excavate  the  site  in  the  following  order  :  (1)  the  cloisters 
and  claustral  buildings;  (2)  the  church;  (3)  the  infirmary;  (4)  the  gate- 
way and  other  detached  buildings. 

It  has  been  suggested  that  a  local  museum  should  be  formed  on  the 
spot  in  order  to  contain  objects  of  interest  found  during  the  exploration  of 
the  ruins.  The  lavatory  lends  itself  to  this  purpose  temporarily,  if  it  is 
not  found  necessary  to  erect  a  special  building. 

An  Autumn  Meeting  of  the  Society  will  be  held  at  Hayles,  on 
Thursday,  September  7th,  the  programme  for  which  will  be  sent  to  the 
members  of  this  Society  and  to  any  others  who  may  desire  to  attend. 

In  addition  to  the  Society's  grant  of  £20,  the  following  contributions 
have  been  already  given  or  promised  :  Mrs.  Dent,  £10;  The  Rev.  W.  D. 
Stanton,  £5;  St.  Clair  Baddeley,  Esq.,  £10;  Miss  Whalley,  £1  is; 
T.  Dyer-Ed wardes,  Esq.,  £5  ;  The  Right  Rev.  The  Master  of  Pembroke 
College,  Oxford,  10/- ;  Mrs.  Wedgwood,  £2.  ' 

To  this  appeal  is  attached  a  form,  which  should  be  filled  in  and  sent 
together  with  any  contribution  to  the  Treasurer  of  the  Society  and  of  the 
Excavation  Fund,  G.  M.  Currie,   Esq.,  26  Lansdown  Place,  Cheltenham 

William  Bazeley, 
Matson  Rectory,  Gloucester,  lion.  Gen.  See. 

August  9th,  1899. 

36  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

The  Society  has  sustained  a  very  serious  loss  by  the  death  of 
Sir  Henry  Barkly,  K.C.B.,  whose  papers  on  the  Berkeleys  of  Dursley  and 
Coberley,  on  Testa  de  Nevill,  and  Kirby's  Quest  are  amongst  the  most 
valuable  and  interesting  that  the  Transactions  contain.  Sir  Henry  Barkly 
was  President  of  this  Society  in  1886,  at  the  Dursley  Meeting,  and  won  all 
hearts  by  his  courtesy  and  learning. 

The  Council  would  also  record  their  regret  at  the  loss  by  death  of 
Mr.  C.  R  Baynes,  of  Minchinhampton,  who  hospitably  received  the 
Society  in  18S0;  of  the  Rev.  A.  W.  C.  Hallen,  an  eminent  genealogist  ; 
and  Major-General  Vizard,  always  a  welcome  attendant  at  the  meetings  of 
the  Society. 

The  Council,  in  accordance  with  the  powers  conferred  on  them  by  the 
scheme  for  holding  the  property  of  the  dissolved  Corporation  of  Chipping 
Sodbury,  have  appointed  Mr.  F.  F.  Fox  one  of  the  Trustees. 

The  Council  proposes  for  re-election,  the  President  of  Council,  the 
Vice-Presidents  of  the  Society,  and  the  Local  Secretaries ;  and  for  election 
as  Vice-President,  The  Right  Rev.  the  Bishop  of  Bristol. 

The  following  Members  of  Council  retire  by  rotation,  but  are  eligible 
for  re-election :  Messrs.  A.  E.  Hudd,  A.  T.  Martin,  S.  H.  Swayne, 
P.  O.  Prankerd,  Christopher  Bowly,  H.  W.  Bruton,  E.  Sidney  Hartland, 
and  H.  G.  Madan. 

The  Council  has  held  six  meetings  during  the  past  year,  and  desires 
to  express  its  acknowledgments  to  the  Mayor  and  Corporation  of  Bristol 
for  the  use  of  a  room  at  the  Guildhall,  Bristol. 

The  Council  cannot  close  this  Report  without  recording  their  high 
estimation  of  the  very  valuable  services  of  their  Hon.  Secretary,  Mr. 
Bazeley,  who  has  always  been  indefatigable  in  carrying  on  the  work  of  the 
Society,  and  arranged  most  admirably  the  different  meetings  of  the 
Society,  especially  the  London  Meeting. 

On  the  motion  of  Mr.  Lloyd  Baker,  seconded  by  Mr.  Leigh,  the 
Report  was  adopted. 

The  retiring  members  of  the  Council  having  been  re-elected,  on  the 
motion  of  the  Rev.  F.  E.  Broome  Witts, 

The  President  proposed  the  re-election  of  the  President  of  the 
Council,  Sir  Brook  Kay,  Bart.,  the  Vice-Presidents,  and  the  Local 
Secretaries,  with  the  addition  of  the  Bishop  of  Bristol  to  the  list  of 
Vice-Presidents,  and  this  was  carried  by  acclamation. 

Mr.  Christopher  Bowly  moved  a  vote  of  thanks  to  Sir  John 
Dorington,  the  retiring  President,  remarking  that  he  had  discharged  the 
duties  with  his  usual  ability  and  diligence,  and  he  was  an  exemplification 
of  the  fact  that  if  they  wanted  work  done  they  must  go  to  the  busiest  man 
to  do  it. 

This  was  seconded  by  Mr.  Tuckett,  and  carried  with  applause. 

Fairford.  37 

Sir  John  Dorington  briefly  acknowledged  the  compliment,  and  said 
he  would  make  way  for  the  new  President  and  the  most  entertaining 
address  which  he  believed  he  had  prepared. 

The  President  then  read  his  address,  which  is  printed  separate!y. 

Mr.  Hyett,  in  moving  a  vote  of  thanks  to  the  President,  said  two- 
things  were  evident — first,  that  Mr.  Bazley's  claim  to  indulgence  was 
superfluous,  and,  secondly,  that  Sir  John  Dorington,  when  he  beforehand 
described  the  address  as  "  most  interesting,"  must  either  have  had  a 
private  look  at  the  notes  or  else  he  occupied  the  unusual  role  of  a  true 
prophet.  He  was  sure  that  the  great  majority  in  that  room  would  now 
appreciate  much  more  thoroughly  and  intelligently  the  Fairford  windows 
which  they  were  about  to  inspect  than  they  would  have  done  had  they 
not  heard  Mr.  Gardner  Bazley's  admirable  address. 

Mr.  de  Sausmarez,  in  seconding  the  vote,  said  Mr.  Bazley  was  like 
Mrs.  Malaprop's  "Cerberus" — "several  gentlemen  at  once" — for  he  was. 
an  apt  student,  an  accomplished  artist,  and  an  admirable  lecturer. 

Mr.  Bazley  briefly  replied,  and  a  move  was  then  made  to  the  church,, 


were  inspected  under  the  direction  of  the  Vicar,  the  Rev.  F.  R.  Carbonell,  who 
probably  knows  the  windows  better  thananyoneelsenowliving;  and  therefore 
a  more  accomplished  guide  could  not  have  been  desired.     Mr.  Carbonell. 
prefaced  the  tour  of  the  windows  with  some  interesting  general  observations, 
dealing  first  with  the  inevitable  and  apparently  insoluble  problem,  "  By 
whom  were  the  windows  designed  and  painted  ?  " — as  to  which,  he  said,  they 
must  come  to  the  conclusion  that  nothing  whatever  was  certainly  known. 
He  reviewed   Mr.  Holt's  well-known  arguments  in  favour  of  the  Durer 
authorship,  and  pointed  to  many  conclusive  reasons  and  proofs  against 
that  theory.     Another  tradition   he  also  effectively  combated ;   viz.,  the 
theory  that  John  Tame,  the  founder  of  the  church,  in  1501  or  1502,  took 
the  windows  from  a  Flemish  ship  on  the  high  seas,  and  then  built  the 
church   to   fit   them.      He   remarked   that   Tame   was  a  Cotswold   wool 
merchant,  and   not  a  privateer  ;   and  it  was  absolutely  certain  that  the 
glass  was  designed  for  windows  and  tracery  exactly  similar  to  that  in 
Fairford  Church,  and  for  a  church  of  exactly  that  size  and  form,  which 
size   and   form    corresponded   identically    with    the   older   church    which 
Tame's  church  replaced.     The   general  plan  of   the   windows  was  then 
indicated,  and  they  were  afterwards  examined  in  detail.     Mr.  Carbonell 
was    cordially  thanked   for  his    able    address    and    explanation    of    the 

The  following  Notes  on  Fairford  were  written  for  the  programme  by 
the  General  Secretary  : — 

"  Fairford  derives  the  latter  part  of  its  name  from  a  ford  over  the  Colne. 

38  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

Its  position  gave  it  an  importance  in  Saxon  times,  and  the  discoveries  of 
Mr.  Wylie  in  1852  prove  that  there  was  an  important  colony  here  soon 
after  the  conquest  of  Britain  by  our  English  forefathers.  Many  beautiful 
objects  discovered  in  the  Fairford  graves — glass  vases,  fibulae,  drinking 
vessels,  weapons  of  bronze,  and  amber  beads — may  be  seen  in  the  Ash- 
molean  Museum,  Oxford.  The  earliest  mention  of  the  place  is  in  a 
Charter  of  Confirmation,  purporting  to  have  been  granted  by  Burgred, 
King  of  the  Mercians,  in  872,  which,  however,  in  its  present  state,  cannot 
be  genuine,  in  which  it  is  stated  that  Burgred  gave  the  land  of  ten  cassates 
at  Fagranforda  to  the  Church  of  St.  Peter  at  Gloucester. 

In  the  days  of  the  Confessor,  Fairford  formed  one  of  the  many 
manors  of  Brictric,  son  of  Algar.  The  story  of  Queen  Matilda's  early 
love  for  him  and  her  subsequent  hatred  because  he  refused  her  has  been 
too  often  told  to  need  re-telling  ;  but,  in  fairness  to  the  queen,  let  us 
remember  that  E.  A.  Freeman,  one  of  our  best  historians,  throws  discredit 
on  the  whole  tradition.  Brictric  suffered  only  as  well-nigh  every  other 
Saxon  landowner  suffered  the  loss  of  all  his  heritage  to  enrich  his 
rapacious  conquerors.  Fairford  had  belonged  to  Queen  Matilda,  but  in 
Domesday  it  appears  as  a  possession  of  the  King.  It  descended  to 
William  II.,  by  whom  it  was  given  to  Robert  Fitzhamon,  as  part  of  the 
endowment  of  the  Honour  of  Gloucester.  And  thus  it  shared  the  fortunes 
of  Tewkesbury,  passing  from  Robert  Fitzhamon  to  the  de  Clares,  the 
Despencers,  the  Beauchamps,  and  the  Nevilles,  till  it  came  into  the  hands 
of  Henry  VII.  He  granted  it  to  John  Tame,  a  London  merchant,  and  in 
his  time  and  his  son's,  Sir  Edmund,  it  flourished  as  it  had  never  done 
before.  John  Tame  found  here  a  noble  14th  century  church  built  on  the 
site  of  one  far  more  ancient,  and  he  levelled  it  almost  to  the  ground  that 
he  might  construct  a  sacred  picture  gallery,  where  the  highest  mysteries 
of  the  Christian  faith  might  be  set  forth  (much  as  they  are  in  the  Ober 
Ammergau  Passion  Play),  by  representations  of  our  Lord's  life  on  earth, 
and  future  judgment  ;  by  scenes  from  the  Old  Testament  symbolical  of 
the  Gospel  History  ;  and  by  the  likenesses  of  holy  men  who,  before  and 
since  the  coming  of  the  Saviour,  have  written  or  contended  for  the  faith. 
By  way  of  contrast,  twelve  Christian  martyrs  and  confessors  in  the 
clerestory  windows  face  twelve  of  their  persecutors.  It  is  this  marvellous 
series  of  painted  windows  that  makes  Fairford  so  attractive  to  those 
interested  in  mediaeval  art  :  but  apart  from  these,  the  church  has  many 
attractive  features ;  and  churchmen  of  to-day  may  well  revere  the  spot 
where  Keble  was  born  and  spent  his  early  years.  His  parents'  tombs  are 
in  the  churchyard.  His  own  noblest  monument,  The  Christian  War,  may 
have  derived  its  first  inspiration  from  the  windows  with  which  he  was  so 

The  plan  of  S.  Mary's  Church  comprises  a  nave  with  clerestory,  two 

Fairford  Church. 




Vvt^t^.    rs  iin  :<..   .,  _jil 




40  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

aisles,  which  extend  to  within  14  feet  of  its  easternmost  limits,  a  central 
tower,  chancel  and  vestry.  It  will  be  seen  on  examining  the  walls  and 
buttresses  of  the  chancel  that  they  rest  on  the  plinths  of  an  earlier  church. 
There  are,  moreover,  remains  of  early  14th  century  work,  with  the 
characteristic  ballflower,  embedded  in  the  two  western  piers  of  the  tower. 
Mr.  Joyce  seems  to  think  that  John  Tame,  when  he  removed  the  transepts, 
allowed  the  lower  tier  of  the  tower  to  remain. 

The  south  porch  has  a  flat  arch  of  three  members,  with  quatrefoils 
and  trefoils  in  the  spandrels  and  a  square  hood  terminating  in  the  figures 
of  angels.  Above  the  arch  is  a  niche  with  font-like  pedestal  on  which  once 
stood  a  statue  of  our  Lady.  There  is  a  sameness  about  the  windows  such 
as  we  might  expect  in  a  church  built  all  at  one  date.  They  are  of  three,, 
four,  and  six-  lower  lights,  with  many  quatrefoils  in  their  heads,  and 
round-headed  arches.  The  embattled  parapets  are  rich  with  gurgoyles, 
and  the  tower  is  covered  with  heraldic  arms  and  devices,  amongst  which 
will  be  noticed  the  Despencer  fret,  the  Beauchamp  chevron  on  a  ground 
chequy,  the  lion  and  dragon  of  the  Tames,  and  such  well-known 
cognisances  as  the  chained  bear  and  ragged  staff  of  the  Earls  of  Warwick, 
and  the  Yorkist  fetterlock. 

The  general  style  of  the  church  may  be  compared  with  such  con- 
temporary buildings  as  Henry  VII. 's  Chapel  at  Westminster,  the  Lady 
Chapel  at  Gloucester  Cathedral,  and  Bath  Abbey — some  of  our  latest 
examples  of  Gothic  architecture.  It  was  stated  by  Dr.  Parsons, 
Chancellor  of  Oxford,  at  the  close  of  the  17th  century,  that  John  Tame 
built  the  church  as  a  receptacle  for  some  Flemish  glass  which  he  had 
previously  obtained.  Many  treatises  have  been  written  to  prove  or 
disprove  the  assertion,  said  to  have  been  made  by  Vandyck  to  Charles  I., 
that  Albert  Diirer  had  designed  the  paintings. 

Mr.  Joyce,  in  his  superb  monograph  on  the  windows,  came  to  the 
conclusion — for  reasons  which  will  no  doubt  be  given  us  on  the  spot — 
that  the  windows  were  made  for  the  church,  and  he  is  decidedly 
opposed  to  the  Diirer  theory.  The  glass  fills  28  windows,  and  may  be 
divided  into  three  principal  groups  :  I.  The  Gospel  History,  in  eight 
windows  within  the  chancel-screen,  introduced  by  four  typical  studies 
from  Old  Testament  History  in  a  window  just  outside;  II.  The  History 
of  the  Faith,  in  sixteen  windows  of  the  nave,  aisles,  and  clerestory ; 
III.  The  Last  Judgment,  in  the  three  windows  at  the  west  end.  The 
order  of  the  history  is  somewhat  disturbed  by  the  insertion  of  the 
Assumption  of  the  Virgin  over  the  altar  of  our  Lady  in  the  chapel  at  the 
east  end  of  the  north  aisle,  and  by  the  insertion  of  the  Transfiguration 
over  the  altar  of  the  Corpus  Christi  Chapel,  in  the  chapel  formerly  used 
for  the  reservation  of  the  Holy  Sacrament,  in  the  corresponding  chapel 
on  the  west  side, 

Fairford  Church.  41 

Let  us  then  commence  with  the  window  in  the  north  aisle  just  out- 
side the  screen. 

1.  Four  Old  Testament  Symbols,  i.e.,  The  Fall,  Moses  at  the  Burning 

Bush,   Gideon  and   the   Fleece,   and   the   Queen   of  Sheba's   visit 
to  Solomon. 

The  history  of  our  Lord's  mother  in  the  three  windows  of  the  Lady 
Chapel  : 

2.  Joachim  and  Anna  at  the  Golden  Gate,  the  Birth  of  the  Virgin,  the 

Self-dedication  of  St   Mary  and  her  Espousal  to  Joseph. 

3.  The  Annunciation,  the  Nativity,  the  Adoration  of  the  Magi,  and  the 

Presentation  in  the  Temple. 

4.  The  Assumption  of  St.  Mary,  the  Flight  into  Egypt,  the  Massacre  of 

the  Infants,  Christ  in  the  Temple  with  the  Doctors. 

5.  East  Window.     The  Passion  and  Death  of  our  Lord. 

6.  The  Descent  from  the  cross,  the  Entombment,  Christ  in  Hades. 

7.  The  Appearances   of  our  Lord   to   Mary  Magdalene   and   the   other 

women,  the  Transfiguration. 

8.  The  Supper  at  Emmaus.     The  Unbelief  of  St.  Thomas. 

9.  The  Appearance  of  Christ  at  the  Sea  of  Tiberias.      The  Ascension, 

The  Descent  of  the  Holy  Ghost  at  Pentecost. 

The  twelve  Apostles  reciting  the  Creed  : 

10.  St.  Peter,  St.  Andrew,  St.  James,  St.  John. 

11.  St.  Thomas,  St.  James  the  Less,  St.  Philip,  St.  Bartholomew. 

12.  St.  Matthew,  St.  Simon,  St.  Thaddaeus,  St.  Matthias. 

The  Fathers  of  the  Church  : 

13.  St.  Jerome,  St.  Gregory,  St.  Ambrose,  St.  Augustine. 

14.  The  Judgment  of  David. 

15.  The  Last  Judgment. 

16.  The  Judgment  of  Solomon. 

17.  The  four   Evangelists:    St.    Matthew,  St.  Mark,    St.    Luke,   and    St. 


Twelve  of  the  Prophets,  adducing  proofs  of  the  Creed  from  their  own 
writings : 

18.  Jeremiah,  David,  Isaiah,  Zacharias. 

19.  Micah,  Malachi,  Daniel,  Obadiah 

20.  Hosea,  Amos,  Sophronias,  Joel. 

In    the  windows  of  the  Clerestory,  south  side,   beginning  from   the 
west  : 

21.  A  Pope  between  two  Cardinals. 

22.  An  Emperor  between  two  Kings. 

23.  Fragments,  St.  Margaret,  a  Bishop. 

24.  St.  Dorothy,  St.  Sebastian,  St.  Agnes. 


Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

On  the  north  side  of  Clerestory,  beginning  at  the  west : 

25.  Annas,  Judas  Iscariot,  Caiaphas. 

26.  A  King,  an  Emperor,  Herod  the  Great. 

27.  Herod  Antipas,  a  figure  in  armour. 

28.  An  Archer,  two  armed  figures  sadly  mutilated. 

In  the  Lady  Chapel  is  a  good  brass  with  the  effigies  of  Sir  Edmund 
Tame  and  dame  Alice,  his  wife.  Between  the  Chancel  and  the  Lady 
Chapel  is  the  altar  tomb  of  the  founder  of  the  church  and  donor  of  the 
glass,  John  Tame,  and  his  wife,  Alice,  with  their  effigies.  The  altar  tomb  of 
Roger  Ligon  and  his  wife  is  also  in  the  chancel.  The  monument  of  Sir 
William  Oldisworth,  who  died  in  1689,  reminds  us  of  the  debt  of 
gratitude  we  owe  this  worthy  knight  for  taking  out  and  concealing  the 
glass  when  the  Puritan  soldiers  were  marching  upon  Fairford  and  would 
have  destroyed  it.     Of  course,  when  it  was  replaced,  after  the  Restoration 

of  Charles  II.,  some 
mistakes  were  made  and 
many  pieces  were  lost, 
but  when  the  glass  was 
releaded  a  few  years  ago, 
the  present  vicar,  with 
much  ability  and  untir- 
ing zeal,  replaced,  sought 
out,  and  restored  to  their 
proper  places  all  the 
pieces  which  had  been 
wrongly  placed. 

Authorities  on  the 
Fairford  Glass :  The 
Fairford  Windows  ;  A 
Monograph;  by  the  Rev. 
J.  G.  Joyce;  published 
by  the  Arundel  Society, 
1872.  A  Handbook  to 
Fairford  Church  and  its 
Windows,  by  the  Rev. 
F.  R.  Carbonell,  1893  '• 
price  6d.  Remarks  on  the 
Fairford  Windows,  by 
the  Rev.  J.  G.  Joyce;    Trans.  B.G.A.S.,  vol.  ii.,  pp.  53 — 91. 

See  also  papers  on  the  Diirer  controversy  by  Messrs.  Russell,  Waller, 
Holt,  Blanche,  a  list  of  which  is  given  in  The  Manual  of  Gloucestershire 
Bibliography,  by  F.  A.  Hyett  and  W.  Bazeley,  a  few  copies  of  which 
remain  and  may  still  be  subscribed  for." 

From  the  Rev.  F.  R.  Carbonell'%  Guide. 

Lechlade.  43 

After  dinner  at  "The  Bull  Hotel,"  at  which  there  was  again  an  over- 
flowing attendance,  so  that  one  party  at  least  had  a  pleasant  al  fresco  meal 
in  front  of  the  hotel,  a 


was  held  in  Crofts  Hall,  the  ladies  of  Fairford  having  very  kindly  received 
the  Society  to  tea  in  the  grounds  attached  to  Mr.  W.  C.  Arkell's  residence, 
a  tent  being  erected  for  the  purpose.  Hailes  Abbey,  Winchcombe,  which, 
as  already  noted,  is  now  affording  such  a  pleasant  field  of  exploration  for 
the  Society,  occupied  a  large  share  of  attention  at  the  conversazione,  Mr. 
St.  Clair  Badoeley  reading  an  exhaustive  paper  on  "  Richard,  Earl  of 
Cornwall,"  its  founder,  and  the  Rev.  W.  Bazeley  giving  an  interesting 
account  of  the  discoveries  already  made,  and  constructing  therefrom  a 
conjectural  description  of  the  great  abbey  and  conventual  buildings.  Sir 
John  Dorington  mentioned  that  the  roof  of  Bisley  Church,  which  had 
to  be  removed  some  years  ago,  and  which  obviously  was  not  made  for  the 
church,  was  traditionally  said  to  have  come  from  Hailes  Abbey.  It  had 
to  be  pulled  down,  as  it  had  become  unsafe,  but  some  of  the  timbers  were 
preserved  in  a  keeper's  lodge  which  he  erected  about  the  same  time. 

The  Rev.  W.  H.  T.  Wright  read  a  paper  on  the  connection  of  East- 
leach  Martin  with  Great  Malvern  Priory,  and  gave  an  attractive  account 
of  the  beauties  of  the  secluded  parishes  of  Eastleach  Martin  and  Turville, 
and  of  the  two  interesting  churches  of  SS.  Michael  and  Martin  and 
S.  Andrew,  but  a  hundred  yards  apart,  and  separated  but  by  the  river 
Leach  and  the  roadway.  He  mentioned  that  both  of  those  parishes  were 
for  a  time  served  by  John  Keble,  whose  signature  frequently  appeared  in 
the  registers,  and  it  was  said  that  his  beautiful  evening  hymn  was  com- 
posed in  the  Rectory  garden  of  Eastleach  Martin.  Mr.  Guy  Dawbek 
afterwards  read  a  paper  on  old  Gloucestershire  houses. 

On  Thursday,  in  beautiful  weather,  a  four-mile  drive  brought  the  party 
to  Lechlade.  "This  place  derives  its  name  from  a  lode  or  ford  that  flows  into 
the  Thames  below  St.  John's  Bridge.  Two  other  tributaries  join  that  river 
near  Lechlade:  the  Coin  and  Barker's  Brook.  It  is  stated  in  Domesday  Book 
that  Siward  Bar  held  the  manor  of  Lechlade  in  the  time  of  the  Confessor. 
Siward  was  apparently  a  great-nephew  of  King  Edward.  He  took  part  in 
the  rebellion  of  Hereward  the  Wake  in  1071,  and  was  imprisoned  till 
September,  1087,  when  on  his  deathbed  the  Conqueror  released  him. 
William  I.  conferred  the  manor  on  Henry  de  Ferrars,  and  his  descendants 
held  it  till  the  time  of  Henry  III.  It  formed  part  of  the  vast  estate  of 
Richard,  Earl  of  Cornwall,  King  Henry's  brother,  founder  of  Hayles 
Abbey,  who  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  Edmund.  Later  on  it  followed  the 
fortunes  of  Barnsley  and  was  held  by  the  1  >espencers,  by  the  Earls  of  Kent 
and  of  March,  and  by  Richard,  Duke  of  York,  and  the  Duchess,  Cecily.  It 
formed  part  of   the  dower  of   Queen  Elizabeth  of   York  and  of   Oueen 


Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

Catherine  of  Arragon.  Then  it  was  granted  to  Dennis  Toppes  and 
Dorothy,  his  wife.  At  the  close  of  the  16th  century  it  passed  into  the 
Bathurst  family,  who  retained  it  for  two  centuries.  About  1220,  Isabel  de 
Ferrars  and  her  husband,  Peter  Fitz  Herbert,  founded  a  hospital  near  the 
river,  and  dedicated  it  to  St.  John  the  Baptist.  A  few  years  later  St.  John's 
Bridge  was  built  over  the  Thames.  This  is  one  of  the  oldest  stone  bridges 
we  have,  for  though  it  has  often  been  repaired  it  still  retains  much  of  the 
original  design  and  work.  Richard,  Earl  of  Cornwall,  and  his  wife  Sancha 
enlarged  the  hospital  and  made  it  a  Priory  of  Augustinian  Canons.  In 
1472  the  Duchess  Cecily  obtained  permission  to  dissolve  the  Priory  and 
use  its  endowments  for  the  foundation  of  a  chantry  dedicated  to  S.  Mary 
in  the  parish  church,  which  about  this  time,  Bigland  says,  was  being  re- 
built by  the  vicar,  Conrad  Ney.     When  Leland  paid  Lechlade  a  visit  in 

1534,  he  saw 
_.   -^    .  a    chapel     at 

the  very  end 
of  St.  John's 
Bridge,  on  the 
right  hand,  in 
a  meadow, 
and  a  great 
enclosure  of 
stone  walls. 
He  also  men- 
pyramis  "  at 
the  west  end 
of  the  parish 
church.  Soon 
after      this 

William  Kyrbee  was  ordered  to  pull  down  an  old  church  and  use  the 
materials  in  repairing  the  bridge.  This  was  probably  the  chapel  Leland 
saw  near  the  bridge. 

It  was  a  tradition  many  years  ago  that  the  curious  sculpture,  on  the 
south  wall  of  Inglesham  Church,  of  our  Lord  and  His  Mother  came  from 
the  Priory  Church. 

The  church  of  St.  Lawrence  consists  of  a  nave,  north  and  south  aisles 
and  north  porch,  a  western  tower,  a  choir  with  aisle  of  the  same  width  as 
those  of  the  nave,  a  chancel,  and  a  vestry.  The  church  looks  as  if  it  had 
been  built,  or  rather  rebuilt,  at  one  period.  I  could  find  no  traces  of 
anything  earlier  than  the  14th  century,  not  a  sculptured  fragment  of 
Norman  or  Early  English  work. 

The  west  stage  of  the  tower  has  a  fine  vaulted  roof  of  stone.     At  the 

Lent  by  Mr.  Aldcn,  Fairford. 

Lechlade   Church. 


intersection  of  the  ribs  are  four  shields,  parted  per  pale.  Two  are  charged 
with  a  lozenge  voided.  The  west  windows,  like  the  Tudor  windows  at  the 
east  end  of  the  church,  appear  to  be  later  than  the  rest.  The  graceful 
hexagonal  spire,  with  its  ribbed  work  and  double  band  of  quatrefoils, 
seems  to  have  been  added  to  the  tower  early  in  the  16th  century.  The 
north  and  south  doorways  with  square  hood-moulding  have  excellent  oak- 
leaf  carving  in  the  spandrels  of  their  arches.  The  north  porch  blocks 
up  one  of  the  windows  of  the  nave.  It  has  a  groined  ceiling ;  I  do  not 
think  that  there  was  a  parvise.  The  windows  of  the  nave,  aisles,  and 
chancel  are  all  alike,  with  three  lower  lights  and  eight-foiled  heads. 

The    battlement    of    the   chancel    is   pierced    with  trefoils    and    has 

Taunt,  Oxford,  ph. 

crccketted  finials.     On  the  middle  finial  at  the  east  end  is  a  figure  of  the 
patron  saint,  St.  Lawrence,  robed  as  a  deacon  with  alb  and  dalmatic,  and 
holding  in  his  hands  a  book  and  a  gridiron,  the  symbol  of  his  martyrdom 
A  finial  or  turret  at  the  east  end  of  the  nave  has  been  at  one  time  pierced 
for  a  sanctus  bell. 

The  vestry  on  the  north  side  is  of  the  same  date  as  the  chancel,  and 
has  a  highly  decorated  battlement  of  similar  character. 

The  nave  has  two  arcades  of  four  arches  each  and  a  clerestory 
containing  eight  15th  century  windows  of  four  lights.  There  are  three 
arches  at  the  east  end  of  the  nave,  those  on  the  north  and  south  sides 
separating  the  aisles  from  the  chantry  chapels.     On  the  north  wall  of  the 


Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

nave  is  a  sculptured  stone,  much  defaced,  representing  a  bishop  baptizing 
a  child,  and  behind  him  an  animal  of  some  kind  and  a  Norman  Church. 
On  a  scroll  which  issues  from  his  mouth  are  written  the  words  "In 
Nomine  Patris  et  Filii  et  Spiritus  Sancti,  Amen."  The  pulpit  has  a  14th 
century  base.  The  entrance  to  the  roodloft  remains.  The  altar  of  St. 
Blaise  stood  at  the  east  end  of  the  south  aisle.  The  altars  of  St.  Mary 
and  St.  John  the  Baptist  stood  respectively  in  the  north  and  south  chapels 
of  the  choir. 

The  chancel  has  a  flat  15th  century  roof  with  carved  bosses,  resting  on 
six  large  and  twelve  smaller  corbels.  There  are  two  almeries  and  a  piscina 
in  the  chancel.  In  the  north  chapel  of  the  choir  will  be  found  eight  steps 
of  the  staircase  leading  up  to  the  roodloft. 

Bigland  gives  a  view  of  Lechlade  Church  from  the  north-east,  and 
drawings  of  the  two  brasses  which  still  remain.  On  the  south  side  is  the 
brass  effigy  of  John  Twinyhoe,  merchant,  founder  of  the  Chantry  of  St. 
Blaise,  and  on  the  north  side  are  two  figures— a  merchant  and  his  wife. 

The  effigy  of  John  Twinyhoe's  wife  is  gone ;  it  was  missing  in  1786. 
John  Twinyhoe  died  about  1510.  His  arms  were  Argent  a  chevron  between 
three  lapwings  sable,  or,  as  some  read  them,  3  poppingays  proper. 

The  second  brass  has  lost  its  inscription,  but  Dr.  Parsons,  who  made 
some  valuable  notes  in  the  17th  century,  has  handed  down  to  us  the  fact 
that  it  was  in  memory  of  John  Townshend,  merchant  and  woolman,  who 
died  in  1458.  There  are  some  fragments  of  stained  glass  in  the  Clerestory 
windows,  with  the  badges  of  Edward  IV.  and  his  mother,  the  Duchess 

Lent  by  Messrs.  Savory  &  Cole, 

Lechlade  Church.  47 

of  York.  There  is  also  one  of  the  Twinyhoe  poppingjays.  Shelley's 
beautiful  poem,  "  A  Summer  Evening,  Churchyard,  Lechlade,  Gloucester- 
shire," was  written  in  1815.  The  late  Mr.  Achin  Williams  wrote  a 
history  of  Lechlade  which  was  excellently  printed  by  E.  W.  Savory,  of 
Cirencester.  The  frontispiece,  giving  the  upper  bridge,  and  Lechlade  in 
the  distance,  has  been  produced  in  this  programme  by  Messrs.  Savory 
and  Cole's  kind  permission.  The  brasses  have  been  well  described  by  one 
of  our  members,  Mr.  Cecil  Davies,  Librarian  of  the  Wandsworth  Public 
Library,  and  also  by  the  late  Mr.  Haines.  Mr.  Hichin  says  that  in  the 
rectory  garden  is  the  statue  of  a  woman  wearing  a  crown  with  a  sword 
piercing  her  breast.  It  is  probably  an  image  of  our  Lady  of  Pity.  There 
is  a  fine  brass  Georgian  Candelabra  in  the  nave." 

The  ancient  parish  church  of  S.  John  the  Baptist,  Inglesham,  in  the 
adjacent  county  of  Wilts,  was  next  visited.  The  vicar,  the  Rev.  G.  W. 
Spooner,  received  the  party.  On  January  25th,  1205,  King  John  gave  the 
Manor  and  Church  of  Inglesham  to  the  Cistercian  Abbey  of  Beaulieu,  in 
the  New  Forest,  which  he  had  founded.  At  the  Dissolution  the  estates  of 
the  abbey  were  granted,  in  the  30th  year  of  Henry  VIII.,  to  the  Earl  of 
Southampton;  in  the  reign  of  William  III.  they  passed  by  marriage  with 
the  heiress  of  the  Wriothesleys  to  Ralph,  Lord  Montague,  and  have  since 
passed  by  marriage  to  the  Duke  of  Buccleugh. 

"The  church  possesses  a  nave  with  north  and  south  aisles,  a  south 
porch,  and  a  chancel.  It  is  very  small,  being  only  49  feet  long  and  36  feet 
wide.  The  anti-restorer  will  find  little  to  complain  of  here ;  all  that  has 
been  done  in  the  present  century  has  been  to  restore  the  roof  of  the  nave 
and  to  put  a  drain  at  the  feet  of  the  walls.  A  fund  is  now  being  raised  to 
restore  the  roof  of  the  chancel,  under  the  guidance  of  J.  T.  Micklethwaite, 
Esq.,  and  the  Society  for  the  Protection  of  Ancient  Monuments,  and  it 
deserves  support.  I  am  indebted  to  Mr.  Micklethwaite's  Report,  made  in 
1886,  which  he  has  kindly  sent  me,  for  much  information  about  this 
interesting  little  church. 

The  porch,  the  floor  of  which  is  far  below  the  level  of  the  churchyard, 
looks  as  if  it  had  been  rebuilt ;  but  it  contains  a  13th  century  niche.  The 
south  aisle  has  been  extended  to  half  the  length  of  the  chancel,  and  the 
walls  of  both  aisles  have  been  raised  and  covered  with  flat  roofs.  The 
chapel  at  the  east  end  of  the  south  aisle  contains  a  little  Norman  window, 
probably  brought  from  another  part  of  the  church  ;  all  the  other  windows 
of  the  aisles  are  15th  century  insertions.  The  chancel  has  a  13th  century 
east  window  of  three  lights.  The  bell-cot  at  the  west  end  of  the  gate  of 
the  nave  is  pretty,  and  looks  like  14th  century  work. 

But  the  chief  interest  of  the  church  lies  in  its  interior.  We  enter  it 
by  a  very  early  13th  century  south  doorway.  The  church  was  evidently 
commenced  late  in  the  12th  century,  for  the  south  arcade  of  the  nave,  the 


Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

pillar  of  the  north  arcade,  and  the  lower  part  of  the  north  wall  of  the 
chancel  are  of  this  date.  In  the  early  part  of  the  13th  century  the  east  and 
south  windows  of  the  chancel  were  constructed.  Mr.  Micklethwaite 
considers  that  at  least  half  a  century  elapsed  between  the  commencement 
and  completion  of  the  church,  say  from  1180  to  1230. 

Taunt,  Oxford,  ph. 

The  chancel  roof  is  an  early  example  of  13th  century  timberwork.  It 
is  of  plain  trussed  rafters,  and  the  eastern  half  over  the  sanctuary  has  a 
boarded  ceiling  with  light  transverse  ribs. 

The  wall-plate  cuts  into  the  drip  and  inner  arches  of  the  earlier 
windows  on  the  north  side,  but  fits  the  east  and  south  windows. 

The  eastern  part  of  the  aisles  has  been  screened  off  for  chapels. 
There  is  a  good  15th  century  font  and  a  Jacoba;an  pulpit.  The  cill  only  of 
the  rood  screen  remains.  An  hour-glass  is  affixed  to  the  pillar  of  the  north 
arcade.  The  pews,  cumbrous  as  they  are,  should  not  be  removed,  as  they 
are  interesting  relics  of  the  17th  century.  There  is  the  matrix  of  a  late 
14th  century  military  brass  in  the  chancel.  The  colouring  on  the  walls  is 
not  later  than  the  17th  century.  Some  original  13th  century  glass  remains 
in  the  south  window  of  the  chancel,  A  curious  piece  of  sculpture  has 
been  imbedded  in  the  south  wall,  representing  St.  Mary  and  the  Holy 
Child.  St.  Mary  wears  a  kind  of  turban.  From  the  right  corner  a  hand 
appears  pointing  to  the  Child  (S.  Matt.  iii.  17).  Below  the  figure  of  our 
Lord's  Mother  are  the  remains  of  a  sundial,  showing  that  this  sculpture 

Little  Farringdon. 


was  long  ago,  as  now,  on  the  outer  south  side  of  some  building.  The 
figures  are  badly  drawn,  and  appear  to  be  very  ancient — earlier,  Mr. 
Micklethwaite  thinks,  than  any  part  of  the  existing  church.  There  is  a 
15th  century  churchyard  cross,  with  steps,  base,  and  shaft.  It  is  to  be 
hoped  that  the  head  of  this  cross  will  be  found  and  restored,  as  at  Ampney 
Crucis  and  Ashleworth." 

Proceeding  to  the  village  of  Little  Farringdon,  the  quaint  church  was 
inspected  under  the  guidance  of  the  Rector,  the  Rev.  W.  F.  Adams. 

"  Little  Farringdon,  formerly  in  the  county  of  Berks,  is  now  in 
Oxfordshire.  It  was  granted  by  King  John  to  the  Abbey  of  Beaulieu  at 
the  same  time  with  Inglesham.  The  dedication  of  the  church  is  not 
known.  The  plan  comprises  a  nave,  with  north  aisle  and  south  porch. 
There  is  a  gabled  bell-turret,  with  two  bells,  at  the  west  end.  The  nave 
had  formerly  a  south  aisle,  but  this  has  been  destroyed.     The  clerestory 

Taunt,  Oxford,  ph. 

remains,  and  also  one  of  the  arches  of  a  14th  century  arcade,  into  which 
has  been  inserted  a  window  of  perhaps  17th  century  date.  In  this  window 
is  some  Flemish  glass  with  "  la  Cornells  Vanden  Berch,  1605  "  and  a  trade 
mark  There  is  also  some  good  Early  English  glass,  with  white  con- 
ventional flowers  on  a  ruby  ground.  The  Early  English  north  arcade 
consists  of  three  round  arches,  with  octagonal  capitals  and  bases,  and 
round  shafts.  The  conventional  foliage  on  the  capitals  is  well  carved. 
Over  the  centre  of  each  arch,  and  between  every  two  arches  at  the  junction 

Vol.  XXII. 


Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

of  the  hood-moulding,  is  a  small  round  head.  The  roof  of  the  nave  rests 
on  plain  corbels,  on  several  of  which  appears  a  shield  bearing  three 
annulets,  and  on  one  a  lion  rampant.  A  north  doorway  has  been  stopped  up. 
At  the  west  end  of  the  nave  is  a  round-headed  window,  deeply  splayed, 
and  above  it  a  square-headed  15th  century  window,  with  two  lower  lights 
and  six  quatrefoils.     It  has  some  old  glass. 

The  chancel  arch  is  late  12th  century.  The  chancel  has  two  deeply- 
splayed  lancet  windows  at  the  east  end,  and  two  round-headed  windows  on 
either  side.  There  is  a  14th  century  piscina  on  the  south  side,  with  an 
almery  in  the  east  wall. 

There  is  a  holy-water  stoup  on  the  east  side  of  the  south  door." 
At    Langford,   where   the   party    were   received    by   the   Rev.    C.    G. 

Wodehouse,  the 
Rector,  another  inter- 
esting church,  St. 
Matthew's,  was 

"  The  plan  of  the 
church  comprises  a 
nave,  with  norlh  and 
south  aisles  (which 
extend  eastwards  half 
the  length  of  the 
tower),  a  central 
tower,  and  a  chancel. 
In  the  outer  wall  of 
the  porch,  above  a 
plain  doorway  with 
segmental  arch  and 
hood-moulding,  is  a 
recess  into  which  has 
been  inserted  a  carv- 
ing of  the  Crucifixion. 
It  will  be  seen  that 
the  arms  of  the  dead 
or  dying  Saviour  have 
been  reversed,  and  are 
inclined  downwards. 
I  doubt  whether  the 
recess  is  high  enough 
to  allow  them  to  be  placed  in  their  proper  position.  If  so,  we  may 
conclude  that  this  rood  was  originally  above  the  eastern  arch  of  the  nave, 
and  was  removed  when  roods  were  ordered  to  be  taken  down  or  destroyed. 

Taunt,  Oxford,  ph. 



The  attendant  figures  of  St.  John  and  St.  Mary  have  also  been  reversed, 
for  instead  of  gazing  upon  the  Crucified  One,  they  look  outwards. 

The  principal  figure  is  in  high  relief,  and  is  carved  on  four  separate 
stones.  The  head  inclines  towards  the  right  shoulder,  and  behind  it  is  a 
nimbus,  with  a  cross  in  relief.  The  loins  are  clad  in  a  kilt  which  only 
reaches  the  knees.     SS.  Mary  and  John  have  each  a  nimbus. 

On  the  east  side  of  the  porch  has  been  inserted  another  crucifix,  the 
head  of  which  is  missing.  The  Crucified  One  is  dressed  in  a  long  cassock, 
which  is  girt  around  with  a  cincture.     The  artistic  treatment  is  one  which 


From  a  Photograph  by  '1  aunt,  Oxford. 

belongs  to  the  pre-Norman  period,  and  is  very  uncommon  in  England. 
The  figure  is  perfectly  upright,  as  though  alive,  and  there  are  no  wounds 
in  hands,  feet,  or  side.  The  feet  are  separate  It  is  probable  this  sculpture 
may  have  been  removed  hither  from  behind  the  high  altar  of  a  Saxon 

In  the  two  crucifixes  here  and  the  crucifix  on  the  churchyard  cross  at 
Ampney  Crucis  we  have  examples  of  the  treatment  of  this  most  sacred  of 
all  subjects  by  the  sculptors  of  the  10th  or  nth,  12th,  and  15th  centuries. 
They  should  be  compared  with  the  early  sculpture  at  Daglingworth,  so 


Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

well   described   by   Mrs.   Bagnall-Oakeley   in   our  Transactions,  vol.   xiii., 
pp.  260 — 267. 

Inserted  in  the  middle  pilaster  of  the  tower,  on  the  south  side,  is  a 
projecting  block  on  which  are  carved  the  figures  of  two  men,  with  bare 
heads,  clad  in  short  kilts  and  close-fitting  tunics.  They  support  over  their 
heads  a  disc  or  sundial,  of  which  the  gnomon  is  gone.  They  appear  to  be 
contemporary  with  the  crucifix  above  the  porch. 

In  the  porch  are  two  portions  of  a  coped  coffin-lid  with  floriated  cross. 
If  we  pass  round  the  church  outside  it  will  be  seen  that  the  roofs  of 
the  nave  and  chancel  have  been  raised  many  feet,  thus  dwarfing  the  fine 
Norman  tower  and  hiding  its  lower  windows  on  the  east  and  west  sides. 

The  west  end  of 
the  nave  has  two 
tower -like  pinnacles 
crowning  the  Norman 
buttresses  and  an  in- 
serted window  of  a 
debased  character. 
On  the  north  side  the 
wall  is  supported  by 
two  flying  buttresses, 
bearing  the  inscrip- 
tion—  "Anno  Dmi., 
1574  Ao  Regni  Eliza- 
beth Reginae  Decimo 
Septimo."  I  cannot 
remember  any  similar 
Elizabethan  but- 
tresses. In  the  north 
wall  are  a  15th  century 
window,  an  Early 
English  doorway,  a 
14th  century  window 
of  flamboyant  char- 
acter, and  a  little 
square  -  headed  win- 

The  Norman  tower 
has  two  large  round-headed  windows  on  each  side,  two  smaller  ones  in 
niMition  on  the  south  side,  and  one  on  the  north  side.  On  the  north  side 
is  a  gabled  staircase  turret  leading  to  the  belfry,  which  is  both  picturesque 
and  uncommon.  The  tower  is  strengthened  by  pilasters  or  flat  buttresses 
on  the  north  and  south  aisles. 


Southrop.  53 

The  chancel  has  been  unmercifully  treated  by  the  Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners'  architect,  Mr.  Christian,  and  has  lost  its  former  simple 
religious  character.  The  addition  of  a  diamond-shaped  light  to  each  pair 
of  lancet  windows  is,  I  venture  to  think,  no  improvement.  The  Early 
English  doorway  on  the  south  side  must  have  been  placed  in  its  present 
position  by  restorers.     It  is  too  far  east  to  have  served  as  a  priest's  door. 

On  entering  the  church  we  see  that  the  nave  is  separated  from  its 
aisles  by  arcades  of  three  wide  and  lofty  arches  with  circular  shafts  and 
bases.  The  upper  part  of  the  capitals  is  cruciform  and  the  lower  part 
round,  with  conventional  foliage  deeply  undercut.  The  west  arch  of  the 
centre  tower  is  semi-circular,  with  plain  chamfered  abaci.  Above  the  arch 
is  a  doorway  which  led  from  the  belfry  into  the  chamber  above  the  flat 
roof  of  the  nave.  A  similar  doorway  led  into  a  chamber  above  the 
chancel.  The  easternmost  window  of  the  south  aisle  of  the  nave  has  a 
beautiful  inner  frame.  There  is  a  Jacobaean  pulpit.  There  are  no  tower 
arches  on  the  north  and  south  sides,  showing  that  the  so-called  transepts 
are  merely  prolongations  of  the  nave  aisles.  The  chancel  contains  an 
almeryof  six  compartments  of  unusual  character,  a  13th  century  credence, 
and  the  remains  of  a  piscina.  In  the  south  wall  are  remains  of  the  stair- 
case which  led  up  to  the  parvise.  This  church  possesses  a  pre-Reformation 
chalice."  Some  property  in  Langford  was  granted  by  King  John  to  the 
Abbey  of  Beaulieu. 

Leaving  Langford,  where  luncheon  was  served,  Southrop  was  visited, 
where,  under  the  guidance  of  the  Vicar,  the  Rev.  C.  E.  Squire,  the  Church 
of  S.  Peter  was  inspected. 

"  There  were  four  manors  described  in  Domesday  Survey,  1086,  under 
the  name  of  Lecce  :  Northleach,  Eastleach  Martin,  Eastleach  Turville, 
and  Southrop,  the  south  village. 

Walter  FitzPonz,  who  with  his  four  brothers,  Drogo,  Simon,  Richard, 
and  Osbert,  took  part  in  the  Conquest  of  England,  held  ten  hides  at 
Southrop,  which  belonged,  in  the  time  of  the  Confessor,  to  Earl  Tosti. 
On  Walter's  death,  s  p.,  the  heirs  of  his  brother  Richard  succeeded  to  his 
estates.  The  de  Clares,  Earls  of  Gloucester  and  Hertford,  seem  to  have 
been  subsequently  the  chief  lords  of  the  manor,  for  we  find  Earl  Richard 
confirming  a  grant  of  the  church  by  Alice  de  Clermont  to  the  Knights 
Hospitallers  in  the  13th  century.  Various  families  in  succession  held  the 
manor,  none  of  them  greatly  distinguished,  till  the  reign  of  James  I., 
when  it  was  acquired  by  Wadham  College,  Oxford.  Rudder  says  that  the 
two  effigies,  now  in  the  chancel  of  the  church,  without  an  inscription, 
represent  Sir  Thomas  Conway,  once  lord  of  the  manor,  and  his  lady,  the 
arms  being  sable  on  a  bend  cotiscd  argent  a  rose  proper  between  two  annulets  gules. 
The  costume  is  Elizabethan.  The  manor  house  adjoining  the  church 
contains  the  remains  of  a  very  early  dwelling,  perhaps  that  of  the  Fitz- 


Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

Ponzes,  or  of  the  parish  priest,  early  in  the  12th  century.  The  cellars 
have  deeply  splayed  narrow  lights,  and  there  is  a  Norman  doorway  with 
zigzag  moulding,  in  a  good  state  of  preservation. 

The  Church  of  S.  Peter  consists  of  a  nave  (without  aisles),  north 
porch,  south  transept  and  chancel. 

A  priest  is  mentioned  in  1086,  so  probably  there  was  a  church  at  that 
period.  The  north  doorway,  the  two  round-headed  lights  deeply  splayed, 
and  the  eastern  arch  of  the  nave  are  all  Norman.  The  herring-bone  work 
in  the  north  and  south  walls  is  evidence  of  their  great  antiquity.  Two 
pseudo-Norman  windows  have  superseded  in  modern  times  an  original 
Norman  light  on  the  north  side  and  a  large  square-headed  window,  similar 
to  that  in  the  transept,  on  the  south  side. 

The  chancel  and  south  transept  were  built  in  the  13th  century. 
Probably  there  was  a  small  Norman  apse  previously.  I  cannot  guess  the 
purpose  for  which  a  small  light  was  inserted  below  the  westernmost 
window  on  the  south  side  of  the  chancel.  No  one  in  the  churchyard 
could  see  through  it  the  high  altar.     There  is  another  low  window  in  the 

west  wall  of  the  transept,  opposite 
the  site  of  an  altar.  This  may 
have  been  a  so  -  called  leper 
window  or  hagioscope  of  an 
anchorite's  cell.  The  north  door- 
way of  the  nave  is  Early  English. 
Interior.  —  The  abaci  of  the 
chancel  arch  are  ornamented 
with  rope  moulding,  and  on  the 
south  side  with  a  lozenge  pattern; 
otherwise  the  arch  is  quite  plain, 
and  has  no  shafts  or  bases.  Steps 
have  been  inserted  in  the  church, 
raising  the  floor  of  the  chancel 
far  above  its  original  level,  as 
may  be  seen  from  the  position  of 
the  13th  century  piscina  —  the 
arch  and  bowl  of  which  remain, 
though  separated. 

As    at    Langford,    there    is    a 

diamond-shaped  recess  above  the 

two    13th    century    east    windows 

of  the  chancel.     This  was  pierced 

some  fifty  years  ago  to  make  a  quatrefoil  light.     There  are  the  Conway 

effigies  alluded  to  above,  an  altar-tomb  on  the  north  side  of  the  chancel,  and  a 

monument  to  the  Keble  family,  dated  1670,  the  arms  being :  argent,  a  chevron 

Lent  by  the  Vicar. 

Hatherop.  55 

engrailed  gules,  on  a  chief  azure  three  mullets  or.  The  Keble  family,  descended 
from  Sir  Henry  Keble,  Lord  Mayor  of  London  in  1510,  held  the  manor  of 
Eastleach  Turville  for  many  generations. 

There  are  three  almeries  in  the  chancel.  High  up  in  the  chancel  arch 
is  a  square  opening  with  six  quatrefoils  pierced  in  its  ceiling. 

The  most  interesting  fitting  of  the  church  is  an  early  13th  century 
font  somewhat  similar  to  the  font  of  Stanton  Fitzwarren,  drawn  for 
Paley's  Fonts.1  The  upper  part  is  ornamented  with  beaded  interlacing  and 
the  acanthus  leaf.  Within  eight  trefoil-headed  arches,  above  the  shafts  of 
which  are  eight  conventional  churches,  castles  or  towers,  are  eight  figures :  — 
(1)  Moses,  with  horns  on  his  head,  holding  the  two  tables  of  stone  and 
stretching  out  his  right  hand ;  he  turns  his  back  on  (2)  Synagoga,  who  holds 
a  broken  shaft,  the  pennon  of  which  has  knocked  off  her  crown  and  blinded 
her  eyes  ;  her  crown  is  falling  off,  and  the  jar  or  lamp  which  she  holds 
upturned  is  losing  its  contents;  but  he  looks  approvingly  at  (3)  Ecclesia, 
who  holds  upright  a  staff  with  pennon  and  Maltese  cross  in  her  right  hand 
and  a  chalice  in  her  left.  The  remaining  five  figures — soldiers  with  heater- 
shaped  and  round  bossed  shields  alternately — represent  five  virtues 
trampling  on  five  vices: — (4)  Pity  on  Envy,  (5)  Temperance  on  Luxury, 
(6)  Benevolence  on  Avarice,  (7)  Patience  on  Anger,  (8)  Modesty  on 

Driving  through  the  villages  of  Eastleach,  and  glancing  at  their 
churches  already  mentioned,  Hatherop  was  reached,  and  at  his  stately 
residence,  Hatherop  Castle,  the  President  and  Miss  Bazley  received 
the  members  to  afternoon  tea,  and  later  on  Fairford  was  reached  in  time 
for  dinner. 

"  In  the  days  of  Edward  the  Confessor,  Dunning  and  Ulward  held  the 
two  manors  of  Hatherop.  Dunning's  manor  was  given  by  the  Conqueror 
to  Roger  de  Laci,  and  he  held  it  of  the  King  in  1086.  Ulward's  manor 
was  given  to  Ernulph  de  Hesding,  who,  in  the  time  of  Serlo  the  first 
Norman  Abbot  of  Gloucester,  gave  the  advowson  of  the  Church  of 
Hatherop,  &c,  to  that  Abbey.  Atkyns  thinks  that  later  on  Hatherop  was 
held  by  Walter  d'Evreux,  a  grandson  of  one  of  the  Conqueror's  com- 
panions, of  the  same  name.  Walter  d'Evreux  and  Sybilla  de  Chaworth 
his  wife,  founded  the  Priory  of  Bradenstoke,  in  Wilts,  and  were  buried 
there.  Their  son,  Patrick,  the  first  Earl  of  Salisbury,  slain  13  Henry  II., 
was  succeeded  by  William  the  2nd  Earl.  Ela,  his  daughter  and  heiress, 
married  William  Longespe,  son  of  Henry  II,  by  Fair  Rosamond.  She 
survived  her  husband,  and  bestowed  the  manor  on  the  nuns  of  Lacock 
Abbey,  who  held  it  until  the  Dissolution.  Edward  VI.  granted  it  to 
Sir  W.  Sherington,  and  in  1559  it  came  into  the  possession  of  the 
Blomers.  Mary,  the  daughter  and  last  surviving  heir  of  John  Blomer, 
1  Illustrations  oj  Baptismal  Fonts,  London,  1844. 




Votes  of  Thanks.  57 

who  died  in  1640,  married  Sir  John  Webb,  the  2nd  Baronet  of  that  name, 
of  Canford,  Dorset,  who  died  in  1700.  Sir  John  Webb,  3rd  Baronet, 
married  Barbara,  daughter  of  John,  Lord  Belasyse,  and  died  in  1745. 
Sir  Thomas,  4th  Baronet,  died  in  1763,  leaving  Sir  John  Webb,  5th 
Baronet,  son  and  heir.  He  had  an  only  child,  Barbara,  who  married  ia 
1786  Anthony,  5th  Earl  of  Shaftesbury,  by  whom  she  had  an  only  child, 
Lady  Barbara  Ashley.  This  lady  married,  in  1814,  William  Francis. 
Spencer  Ponsonby,  who  in  1838  was  created  Baron  De  Mauley  by  revival 
of  a  title  in  his  wife's  family.  In  his  time  the  old  house,  of  which  a 
bird's-eye  view  by  Kip  is  given  in  Atkyns'  History,  and  reproduced  here, 
was  partly  taken  down,  and  rebuilt,  as  Hatherop  Castle. 

Amongst  the  traditions  of  the  place,  for  the  truth  of  which  we  will 
not  vouch,  are  (1)  the  visit  of  Charles  I.  and  his  queen,  Henrietta,  who 
are  said  to  have  held  a  court  here,  and  (2)  the  affecting  farewell  of  Lord 
Derwentwater  and  his  wife,  Anna  Maria,  daughter  of  Sir  John  Webb,  the 
3rd  Baronet,  before  he  joined  the  Pretender  in  1715.  This,  however, 
must  certainly  be  placed  at  Dilston,  near  Hexham.  Lord  Derwentwater 
lost  his  head  on  Tower  Hill,  on  February  24th,  1716. 

In  connection  with  the  old  Yew  Tree  Avenue,  there  are  tales  of  a 
white  lady  seen  at  midnight. 

Hatherop  Castle  was  purchased  by  the  trustees  of  Maharajah 
Duleep  Singh  in  1862,  and  by  the  present  Sir  Thomas  Sebastian  Bazley 
in  1867." 

A  concluding  meeting  of  the  Society  was  held  at  Fairford  on  Friday, 
August  nth,  under  the  presidency  of  G.  S.  Bazley,  Esq. 

The  following  votes  of  thanks  were  unanimously  passed  : — 

1.  That  the  thanks  of  this  Society  be  given  to  the  Chairman  and 
Members  of  the  Local  Committee  for  the  assistance  which  they  have 
given  to  the  General  Secretary  in  drawing  up  the  programme  for  the 

2.  To  Mr.  F.  P.  Bulley,  the  Local  Secretary,  for  his  untiring  energy 
in  carrying  out  the  arrangements. 

3.  To  Mrs.  Carbonell  and  the  other  ladies  of  Fairford  and  the 
neighbourhood,  who  so  kindly  entertained  the  members  of  the  Society 
and  their  friends  at  the  Conversazione  on  the  9th. 

4.  To  the  Incumbents  and  Clsrgy-in-charge  of  Ampney  Circus 
(Rev.  T.  C.  Johnson),  Meysey  Hampton  (The  Rev.  J.  A.  Ford),  Fairford 
(The  Rev.  F.  R.  Carbonell),  Lechlfde  (The  Rev.  A.  Clementson),  Inglesham 
(The  Rev.  G.  Spooner),  Little  Farringdon  (The  Rev.  W.  F.  Adams), 
Langford  (The  Rev.  G.  Wodehouse),  Southrop  (The  Rev.  C.  E.  Squire), 
Eastleach  (The  Rev.  W.  H.  Wright),  Hatherop  (The  Rev.  R.  P.  Davies), 
yuenington  (The  Rev.  F.  Steavenson),  Bibury  (The  Hon.  and  Rev.  F. 
Dutton   and   the   Rev.   J.   A.    B.   Carches),    Barnesley   (The    Rev.  J.   D. 

58  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

Compton),  and  Cirencester  (The  Rev.  J.  Sinclair);  and  to  the  Church- 
wardens of  Ampney  St.  Mary  (R.  Darboney,  Esq.,  and  H.  Cole,  Esq.), 
for  so  kindly  receiving  the  members  at  their  interesting  churches. 

5.  To  E.  W.  Cripps,  Esq.,  the  President  (G.  S.  Bazley,  Esq.), 
Sir  Michael  Hicks-Beach,  R.  B.  Cooper,  Esq.,  Mrs.  George  Gibbs, 
\Y.  Wykham  Musgrave,  and  Wilfred  T.  Cripps,  Esq.,  C.B.,  for  their 
courteous  invitations  to  Ampney  Park,  Hatherop  Castle,  Coin  St.  Alvvyn 
Manor  House,  Bibury  Court,  Ablington  Manor,  Barnsley  Park,  and  the 
Walnut  Trees,  Cirencester,   respectively. 

6.  To  the  Rev.  F.  R.  Carbonell,  who  so  lucidly  described  to  the 
members  the  beautiful  series  of  stained-glass  windows  in  Fairford 

7.  To  the  Ladies  and  Gentlemen  of  Fairford  and  the  neighbourhood 
who  have  so  hospitably  received  the  members  of  this  Society  at  their 
houses  during  the  meeting,  and  also  to  Mrs.  Carbonell,  F.  Bulley,  Esq., 
and  A.  Hitchman  lies,  Esq.,  who  have  acted  as  a  Hospitality  Committee. 

8.  To  the  President  for  his  able  address ;  St.  Clajr  Baddeley,  Esq., 
the  Rev.  W.  H.  Wright,  Guy  Dawber,  Esq.,  and  the  General  Secretary, 
for  the  excellent  papers  prepared  by  them  and  read  at  the  Conversazione. 

9.  To  the  Rev.  G.  Wodehouse,  for  allowing  the  Lunch  Tent  to  be 
erected  in  his  field  at  Langford,  and  to  the  Rector,  Churchwardens,  and 
Bellringers  of  Meysey  Hampton  for  the  merry  peal  of  welcome  on  their 
arrhal  in  that  picturesque  village. 

10.  That  the  selection  of  a  place  of  meeting  for  the  Annual  Meeting 
of  1900,  and  the  election  of  a  President,  be  left  in  the  hands  of  the 

11.  The  Society  wishes  to  record  their  entire  satisfaction  with  the 
way  in  which  Mr.  Busby,  of  "The  Bull  Hotel,"  Fairford,  has  carried  out 
his  contract  for  luncheon,  dinner,  and  carriages;  Mr.  Coombes,  of  "The 
New  Inn,"  Lechlade,  his  contract  for  lunch.  They  feel  sure  that  the 
same  was  felt  with  regard  to  Mrs.  Woodman's  arrangements  for  lunch  at 
"  The  Swan,"  Bibury  ;  and  also  of  the  Motor  Car  Syndicate's  conveyance 
of  passengers  and  luggage  under  exceptional  difficulties. 

The  excursion  which  followed  was  fully  as  successful  and  enjoyable 
as  its  predecessors.  It  was  pleasantly  occupied  with  a  carriage  excursion 
through  some  of  the  most  charming  of  the  Cotswold  country — that  part, 
in  fact,  to  which  the  late  Mr.  J.  A.  Gibbs  has  so  delightfully  introduced 
the  public  in  his  book,  A  Cotsivold  Villagf.  The  route  lay  along  the  course 
of  the  Coin,  and  the  first  stop  was  at  the  little  village  of  Quenington, 
where  the  Rev.  F.  R.  Steavenson,  the  Rector,  showed  the  party  over  the 
interesting  little  church  of  St.  Swithin. 

Rudder  thinks  that  the  name  was  formerly  written  "  Colnington  "  and 
signifies  a  village  on  the  river  Coin. 



"At  the  time  of  the  Survey,  a.d.  1086,  "  Quenintone"  was  held  by 
Roger  de  Laci,  son  of  Walter  de  Laci,  who,  taking  part  in  the  conquest  of 
England  in  1066,  and  in  the  defeat  of  Earl  Roger  in  1074,  was  rewarded 
by  William  I.  with  a  vast  fief  of  116  manors,  including  27  in  Gloucester- 
shire. Walter  died  from  a  fall,  at  Hereford,  in  1085,  and  was  buried  in 
the  Chapter  House  at  Gloucester. 

He  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Roger,  who  was  banished  by  William 
Rufus  for  siding  with  Duke  Robert,  and  his  possessions  were  conferred  on 
his  brother  Hugh,  who  in  the  time  of  Abbot  Serlo,  1072 — 1104,  gave  the 
Church  of  Quenington  to  Gloucester  Abbey.  This  is  the  earliest  mention 
of  the  church,  but,  as  there  was  a  priest  in  1086,  in  all  probability  there 
was  a  Saxon  church. 


From  a  Drawing  by  Lysoiis,  A.D.  !''■>!. 

In  the  present  fabric  we  have  the  remains  of  an  early  12th  century 
church,  probably  built  by  Hugh  de  Laci  or  the  monks  of  S.  Peter's, 
Gloucester.  The  county  histories  tell  us  that  the  de  Laci  family,  assisted 
by  the  de  Maras  and  the  de  Leys,  founded  and  endowed  a  preceptory  of 
Hospitallers  here.  We  should  expect  to  find  that  the  manor  was  in  the 
first  place  given  to  the  Templars,  and  that  at  their  suppression  it  passed 
into  the  hands  of  the  Knights  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem,  known  as  the 
Hospitallers.  They  were  seized  of  it  in  the  ninth  year  of  Edward  II.  At 
the  Dissolution  the  manor  was  granted  to  Sir  Anthony  Kingston,  and 
passing  through  the  families  of  Vachell,  Powell,  Ireton,  Forrester,  Mack- 
worth  Praed,  and  Blackwell,  it  came  at  last  to  the  ancestors  of  Sir  Michael 

60  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

The  Court  Farm,  which  stands  on  the  site  of  the  Preceptory,  retains 
its  ancient  entrance  gate  and  a  portion  of  the  moat  which  once  surrounded 
it  and  tha  church.  At  the  end  of  the  17th  century  the  Preceptory^ 
Chancellor  Parsons  says,  was  still  standing. 

The  Church  of  S.  Swithin  consists  of  a  nave  and  chancel.  If  we 
compare  the  present  building  with  the  drawings  of  it  made  by  Samuel 
Lysons  in  1792,  we  shall  realise  how  much  it  has  been  altered  in  this 
century.1  The  nave  appears  to  have  been  lengthened  westwards,  while 
the  west  window  and  the  bell-turret  are  modern.  Atkyns  says  that  there 
was  formerly  a  spire  between  the  nave  and  chancel.  If  so,  it  must  have 
been  a  small  Early  English  campanile  or  bell-turret.  The  north  and  south 
doorways,  the  most  interesting  features  of  the  church,  several  pilasters,  a 
string  course,  two  deeply-splayed  windows,  and  various  parts  of  a  chancel 
arch  and  a  corbel  table  similar  to  that  at  Elkstone,  and  carefully  preserved 
by  being  built  into  the  wall  of  the  nave,  are  all  relics  of  the  12th  century 

The  chancel  arch  has  been  rebuilt  in  the  style  of  the  13th  century. 
The  east  window  was  inserted  in  the  15th  century.  I  am  of  opinion  that 
for  three  hundred  years  previously  there  was  no  window  in  the  east  wall, 
as  was  the  case  in  so  many  Gloucestershire  churches  before  the  restorations 
of  modern  times.  The  floor  of  the  chancel  appears  to  have  been  on  a 
level  with  that  of  the  nave,  as  in  many  Norman  churches.  It  has  been 
lately  raised  by  four  steps.  The  position  of  the  almery  shows  this.  There 
are  two  corbels,  one  on  either  side  of  the  modern  reredos,  which  probably 
held  statues  of  saints — St.  Swithin  and  another. 

The  north  doorway,  which  is  the  more  richly  carved  of  the  two,  has 
for  the  subject  of  its  tympanum  the  Triumph  of  Christ  over  Death  and 
Satan.  Three  souls  are  rising  from  Hades,  symbolised  by  a  whale,  and 
are  adoring  their  Saviour.  Satan  lies  on  his  back,  bound  hand  and  foot, 
pierced  through  the  mouth  by  the  staff  of  our  Lord's  cross.  The  figure 
of  the  sun  may  represent  the  First  Person  of  the  Holy  Trinity ;  more 
probably  it  is  simply  the  sun,  which,  with  the  moon,  frequently  appears  in 
representations  of  the  Crucifixion.  Above  the  doorway  is  a  ram's  head 
much  mutilated. 

The  subject  of  the  tympanum  of  the  south  doorway  is  the  mythical 
Coronation  of  the  Virgin  Mother,  which,  when  thus  treated,  was  con- 
sidered to  be  symbolical  of  the  Church  Triumphant.  The  Second  Person 
of  the  Holy  Trinity  is  placing  a  crown  on  the  head  of  His  mother,  who 
holds  a  dove,  the  symbol  of  purity  and  also  [of  the  Third  Person.  On 
either  side  are  two  symbols  of  the  Evangelists  :  on  the  right  the  Angel  of 
St.  Matthew  and  the  Lion  of  St.  Mark,  on  the  left  the  Bull  of  St.  Luke 
and  the  Eagle  of  St.  John.  There  are,  moreover,  two  angels,  one  with 
1  Reproduced  from  his  paper  on  yuenington,  in  Arch(rologia,\o\.  x.,  pp.  128 — 130. 

Coln  St.  Aldwyns. 


two  and  another  with  four  wings,  representatives  of  the  denizens  of  heaven 
above  whom  Mary  is  exalted.  On  the  extreme  right  is  a  Norman  building 
of  three  stories,  with  a  square  tower  and  a  gable,  representing  the  Church 
militant  here  on  earth,  or  perhaps  more  probably  the  Holy  Jerusalem,  as 
on  the  tympanum  at  Autun  and  elsewhere. 

At  the  east  end  of  the  church  is  a  stone  which  I  thought  might  be  the 
pedestal  of  a  crucifix,  but  archaeologists  have  declared  it  to  be  a"  treasure- 
stone,"  signifying  the  concealment  or  discovery  here  of  something  of  great 

Proceeding  onwards,  the  party  arrived  at  the  picturesque  village  of 
Coin  St.  Aldwyns.  Here,  in  addition  to  the  nicely-kept  church,  the  party 
"were  able  to  view  the  beautiful  old  Manor  House,  now  the  residence  of  the 
Lord  of  the  Manor,  Sir  Michael  Hicks-Beach,  which  contains  a  fine  old 
•oak  staircase,  and  many  other  relics  of  the  Elizabethan  age.  Sir  Michael 
has  recently  restored  it  for  his  own  occupation,  the  family  mansion  at 
Williamstrip  being  let. 

"This  parish  derives  its  name  from  the  river  Coin,  and  from  Aelhun 
■or  Aldwyn,  Bishop  of  Worcester,  ad.  844  ;  or  perhaps  more  probably  from 
Aldwine,  Bishop  of  Lichfield,  716 — 727. 

In  1086  the  manor  was  held  by  S.  Peter's  Abbey,  Gloucester,  to  which 
church  it  had  been  given,  according  to  the  Abbey  Chartulary,  by  Aldred, 
Subregulus  of  the  Huiccians,  757 — 780,  and  it  continued  in  the  possession 
of    the   monks   till    1540,  when    it    was    granted    to  the    new    Dean    and 

THE      MANOR      HOUSE,      COLN      ST.      ALDWYNS. 
[Kindly  lent  by  Mr,  Murray  from  "  A}CoUwold  Village." 

62  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

Chapter  of  Gloucester.     They  still  hold  the  manor  and  the  advowson  of 
the  living. 

There  is,  however,  another  manor  of  which  Sir  Michael  Hicks-Beach 
is  lord,  consisting  of  lands  in  Coin  St.  Aldwyns  and  Williamstrip.  This 
was  held  in  the  14th  century  by  the  Handelos,  and  in  the  15th  by  the 
Appleby s.  In  the  time  of  Charles  II.  and  William  III.  it  was  held  by 
Henry  Powle,  Speaker  of  the  House  of  Commons.  His  only  daughter 
married  Henry  Ireton,  who  was  lord  in  1712.  Williamstrip  House  was 
built  in  the  time  of  George  I.,  and  came  to  the  family  of  the  present 
owner  in  1784. 

Mr.  Gibbs,  in  A  Cotswold  Village,  says:  "The  beautiful  gabled  house 
close  to  the  Norman  Church  of  Coin  St.  Aldwyns  is  the  old  original  manor 
house.'  " 

Next  the  party  proceeded  to  the  still  prettier  village  of  Bibury,  with 
whose  beauties,  together  with  those  of  the  adjacent  hamlet  of  Ablington^ 
readers  of  Mr.  Gibbs'  A  Cotswold  Village  must  be  familiar.  In  addition 
to  the  striking  church,  with  its  remains  of  Saxon  work  and  many  interesting 
architectural  problems,  the  visitors  were  able  to  inspect  the  beautiful 
manor  house,  Bibury  Court,  built  in  1623,  and  now  occupied  by  Mr  R.  B. 
Cooper,  and  also  the  manor  house  at  Ablington,  where  Mr.  Gibbs  spent 
the  last  five  years  of  his  life,  and  of  which  he  speaks  with  such  rapture. 
It  was  built  by  John  Coxwell  in  1590.  Luncheon  was  served  at  the  "  Swan 
Hotel  "  by  Mrs.  Woodman. 

Between  721  and  743,  Wilfrith,  Bishop  of  Worcester,  granted  five 
cassates  out  of  fifteen  cassates  by  the  river  Cunuglae  or  Colne  to  the 
Earl  Leppa  for  the  term  of  his  life  and  that  of  his  daughter  Beaga ;  the 
five  cassates  were  afterwards  known  as  Beaganbyrig  or  Bibury,  the 
remaining  ten  cassates  as   Eadbaldingtun  or  Ablington. 

It  is  likely  enough  that  Beaga  founded  a  minster  on  her  estate,  the 
site  of  which  is  now  occupied  by  the  parish  church. 

"  In  10S6  (us)  the  manor  of  Bibury,  then  called  Bechberie,  was  held 
by  St.  Mary's  Priory,  Worcester,  and  contained  21  hides  of  land.  There 
was  a  priest,  and,  no  doubt,  also  a  church.  In  11 30  John  Pagan,  Bishop 
of  Worcester,  assigned  the  tithes  to  the  monastery  of  Osney,  founded  at 
Oxford  for  secular  canons  by  Robert  d'Oily.  From  this  time  until  the 
Dissolution  the  monks  of  Osney  presented  to  the  living  of  Bibury  and 
supplied  clergy  to  perform  the  services.  The  church  was  formerly  a 
peculiar,  before  the  Dissolution  under  the  Convent  of  Osney,  since  that 
time  under  the  lord  of  the  manor.  Concerning  this  matter,  it  is  stated  in 
Ecton's  Thesaurus,  ed.  1742,  p.  187:  "The  jurisdiction  of  Biberie  con- 
tains Biberie  with  Winston  Chap.  Barnsley  R.  and  Aldsworth  Chap 
which,  as  to  Visitations,  are  only  subject  to  the  chief  Officer  of  their 
Peculiar  ;  the  Bishop  and  the  Archdeacon  having  no  more  to  do  with  them 

H  ° 

*-*  N 

P  : 

O  = 

O  S 

>  ^ 

35  = 

3  * 


Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

after  their  admission."  After  the  Reformation,  this  peculiar  jurisdiction 
was  disputed  by  some  of  the  Bishops  of  Gloucester,  but  the  ground  on 
which  they  rested  their  contention  is  not  clear 

In  the  time  of  Edward  VI.,  the  manor  was  alienated  from  the  See  of 
Worcester  and  granted  to  John  Dudley,  Duke  of  Northumberland,  who 
was  tried,  and,  being  found  guilty  of  treason,  was  beheaded. 

In  1608  W.  Westwood  was  lord  of  the  manor.  In  1708  Henry 
Sackville,  then  high  sheriff,  held  it.  The  manor  is  now  vested  in  Lord 
Sherborne.  The  beautiful  manor  house,  known  as  Bibury  Court,  of 
which,  through  the  courtesy  of  Mr.  Murray,  a  view  is  reproduced  from 
Mr.  Gibbs    Cotsuvld   Village,  was   built    in   the   time  of  James  I.  by   Sir 

Iii&ibary  Village 

Kindly  lent  by  Mr.  Murray  from  "A  Cotswold  Village.' 

Thomas  Sackville.     The  date,  1623,  appears  on  the  front  of  the  Manor 

The  plan  of  the  parish  church  comprises  a  nave,  75  ft.  by  24  ft. ;  a 
south  aisle,  half  the  length  of  the  nave  and  14^  ft.  wide;  a  north  aisle 
with  a  tower  at  its  west  end  ;  a  chancel,  44  ft.  by  15  ft.,  and  a  south  porch. 
The  original  Norman  church  had  probably  a  nave  and  short  apsidal 
chancel.  Late  in  the  12th  century  the  south  wall  was  taken  down  and  a 
Transitional  arcade  of  three  arches  and  a  south  aisle  were  constructed. 
Later  on,  the  north  side  was  treated  in  the  same  way.  In  the  13th  century 
the  nave  was  lengthened  westward  from  the  point  where  the  12th  century 
arcade  comes  to  an  end.  At  the  west  end  of  the  nave  and  on  the  south  side 
are  lancet  13th  century  windows,  one  being  lower  down  than  the  others  ; 

Ablingtox.  65 

above  which  is  a  circular  window,  splayed  inside  and  out  like  the  windows 
thought  to  be  Saxon  or  even  British  at  Abury.  It  has  been  a  matter  of 
considerable  doubt  to  what  period  this  window  belongs.  Was  it  part  of 
the  church  of  1086  ?  Its  position  is  very  unusual  and  requires  explanation. 
Was  there  at  one  time  a  chamber  above  the  nave  which  it  lighted  ? 

The  chancel  was  rebuilt  or  enlarged  in  the  13th  century.  There  is 
some  stonework  in  the  wall,  just  where  the  earlier  church  would  have 
ended  eastward,  which  may  be  Saxon. 

The  windows  of  the  north  aisle  are  Decorated  or  14th  century,  and 
there  is  a  Perpendicular  window  in  the  south  aisle. 

There  are  two  piscinae  with  credence  shelves,  and  four  almeries  or 
cupboards  for  communion  table,  &c,  in  the  chancel. 

This  church  is  exceedingly  interesting,  but  full  of  architectural 

The  village  of  Bibury  runs  parallel  with  the  river  Coin,  and  is  a 
favourite  haunt  of  fishermen. 

In  the  neighbourhood  a  Norman  villa  was  discovered  a  hundred  years 
ago,  and  many  antiquities  were  taken  out  of  it." 


was  a  manor  in  the  time  of  King  John,  when  a  moiety  of  it  was  purchased 
by  Ralph  de  Willington  and  Olympias,  his  wife,  of  Willington  Court 
Sandhurst,  near  Gloucester.  This  good  couple  built  and  endowed  the 
Early  English  Lady  Chapel  of  the  church  of  Gloucester  Abbey,  now  the 
Cathedral.  Their  descendants  held  Ablington  till  the  15th  century,  when 
the  Beaumonts  possessed  it.  Lord  d'Aubeny  died  seized  of  it  in 
6  Henry  VIII.,  and  Edward,  Duke  of  Somerset,  in  the  reign  of  Edward  VI. 
In  the  reigns  of  Mary  and  Elizabeth  the  Bassets  held  it.  When  Atkyns 
wrote  his  History  of  Gloucestershire  Mr.  Coxwell  owned  the  manor  and 
dwelt  in  the  Manor  House. 

Over  the  doorway  of  the  porch  is  the  following  inscription  : 

"  I'LEAD    THOU    MY    CAVSE    OH    LORD 

This  was  evidently  the  name  of  the  lord  of  the  manor  who  built  the  house, 
and  the  date  when  he  built  it.  Underneath  this  inscription  are  five  heads, 
which,  Mr.  Gibbs  thought,  were  representations  of  Queens  Mary  and 
Elizabeth  and  Kings  Henry  VIII.,  James  I.,  and  Philip  of  Spain.  Over 
the  solid  oak  door  are  the  words — 


The  old  oak  in  the  hall,  Mr.  Gibbs  says,  was  brought  lure  when  it 
was  turned  out  of  Bibury  Church.  The  house  contains  portraits  of  the 
Coxwells,    amongst   others   of    John    Coxwell,    who   employed    Cornelius 

Vol.  XXII. 



Jansen  to  build  the  house.  Over  one  of  the  windows  is  "Post  tenebras  lux." 
The  garden,  with  the  river  Coin  running  through  it,  is  delightful ;  and  we 
can  realise,  when  we  see  it  basking  in  the  August  sunshine,  how  Mr.  Gibbs 
loved  it,  and  how  he  looked  forward  with  delight  to  the  prospect  of 
spending  many  years  in  this  charming  hermitage.  But  it  was  otherwise 
ordered.  In  the  spring  of  this  year,  after  a  brief  illness,  he  was  taken 
away  from  his  many  friends  amongst  rich  and  poor,  leaving  as  a  legacy, 
not  only  to  us,  but  to  Anglo-Saxons  everywhere,  his  delightful  notes  on 
country  life  and  pursuits  in  the  Cotswolds.     We  are  greatly  indebted  to 




"      "fl"  — -       -=-l^^^^«J/!^SK 

The  Old  Manor  House 

Kindly  lent  by  Mr.  Murray  from  "A   Cotswold  Village." 

Mr.  Murray  for  allowing  some  of  the  charming  illustrations  from  his  work  1 
to  be  reproduced  here." 

It  was  intended  that  a  halt  should  be  made  at  Barnsley,  where  the 
church  would  have  been  shown  by  the  Rector,  the  Rev.  D.  G.  Compton, 
and  permission  had  been  obtained  to  visit  also  Barnsley  Park,  belonging  to 
Mr.  Wykeham-Musgrave,  built  by  Henry  Perrot,  early  in  the  18th  century 
in  the  Italian  style,  but  this  was  found  impossible. 

"Barnsley  was  part  of  the  Bishop  of  Worcester's  Manor  of  Bibury,  and 
was  held  in  1086  (u.s.)  by  Durand  and  Eudo.  In  the  time  of  King 
Stephen  it  formed  part  of  the  possessions  of  Milo,  Earl  of  Hereford,  and 
it  passed  in  moiety  with  Margery  and  Lucy,  his  daughters,  to  the  De 
Bohuns  and  Fitz  Herberts.  Subsequently,  it  was  held  by  the  Despencers, 
by  the  Earls  of  Kent,  one  of  whom  was  beheaded  at  Cirencester  in  the 

i.l   Cotswold  Village,  by  J.  Arthur  Gibbs;  London:  John  Murray,  1898. 

68  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

first  year  of  the  reign  of  Henry  IV.,  by  the  Earls  of  March,  by  Richard 
Duke  of  York  and  his  widow  the  Duchess  Cecily.  Henry  VII.  granted  it 
to  Thomas  Merton,  and  it  passed  with  his  grand-daughter,  Dorothy,  to 
Ralph  Johnson,  who  sold  it  to  William  Bouchier.  This  family  still  held 
it  in  1712.  Soon  after  this  it  came  by  marriage  with  an  heiress  of  the 
Bouchiers  to  Henry  Perrot,  of  Northleigh,  Oxfordshire,  who  built  Barnsley 
Park,  in  the  Italian  style  prevalent  in  England  during  the  reigns  of  George 
I.  and  George  II.  His  two  daughters  were  unmarried,  the  survivor, 
Cassandra,  leaving  the  manor  by  will  to  James  Musgrave,  who  held  it 
in  1807. 

The  arms  of  Bouchier  are:  azure  a  chevron  or  between  three  martlets  argent, 
a  crescent  for  difference.  The  arms  of  Perrot  are  :  gules,  three  pears  or;  on  .( 
chief  argent  a  demi-lion  rampant  sable. 

The  plan  of  the  parish  church  comprises  a  nave  with  north  aisle  and 
porch,  western  tower,  and  choir  with  vestry  and  organ  chamber.  The 
upper  part  of  the  tower  appears  to  be  later  than  the  rest,  and  was 
perhaps  rebuilt  in  the  17th  century.  The  chancel  has  a  good  corbel  table 
with  heads  of  men  and  beasts.  The  nave  contains  a  small  Norman  light 
which  was  brought  from  Daglingworth.  The  Norman  horse-shoe  chancel 
arch  is  probably  of  two  dates.  The  chancel  has  two  good  14th  century 
windows  and  a  new  east  window. 

The  font  is  an  exact  copy  of  one  which  was  turned  out  of  Broadwell 
Church,  Oxfordshire,  which  lay  desecrated  in  a  builder's  yard  for  some 
ten  years,  and  was  then  bought  and  given  to  Barnsley.  After  a  time  the 
parishioners  of  Broadwell  awoke  to  a  sense  of  their  loss  and  begged  to 
have  their  font  back  again.  Canon  Howman,  then  rector  of  Barnsley, 
very  generously  acceded  to  their  request  on  condition  that  he  might  have 
a  copy  made  of  it  for  his  church." 

Cirencester  was  reached  in  the  afternoon.  Here  Mr.  Wilfred  Cripps, 
C.B.,  and  Mrs.  Cripps  (Countess  Bismark)  very  kindly  received  the 
members  to  tea  at  the  Walnut  Trees;  and  Mr.  Cripp's  museum  was 
inspected,  where  much  attention  was  directed  to  the  recent  valuable  finds 
in  Ashcroft." 

Mr.  Cripps  contributed  the  following  notes  to  the  programme  of  the 
Meeting: — 

"  The  museum  contains  all  that  has  been  found  of  Roman  remains  of 
recent  years,  and  is  carefully  arranged  and  labelled  to  make  its  contents  of 
general  interest.  It  is  opened  to  the  public  on  certain  occasions,  and 
always  on  proper  application.  The  cases  contain  a  large  collection  of 
Samian  ware,  and  also  of  Anglo-Roman  pottery  from  Durobrivae, 
Upchurch,  and  other  potteries  in  England;  also  mortaria,  some  of  them 
inscribed  with  the  names  of  the  makers.  The  Samian  ware  gives  the 
names  of  some  200  potteries,  many  of  them  identified  with  the  potteries 



at  Aries  and  other  places  in  the  South  of  France.  Other  cases  Contain 
bronze  implements  and  ornaments,  enamelled  fibulae,  rings,  keys,  styli,  a 
perfect  series  of  bone  pins,  bodkins,  counters,  and  other  objects  made  of 
the  horn  of  the  red  deer,  coins,  iron  objects,  horns  of  red  deer  sawn  into 
lengths  for  making  handles — architectural  fragments,  columns,  capitals, 
reliefs,  &c,  &c. 

The  altar  and  reliefs  found  in  April,  1899,  at  Cirencester,  are  of 
special  interest  owing  to  the  curious  way  in  which  they  connect  themselves 
with  a  similar  altar  previously  found  at  Bath  and  described  in  Hiibner  and 
by  other  authors. 

The  altar  at  Cirencester  is  dedicated  to  the  Sulevce,  goddesses  like  the 
Deae  Matres— and,  by  some  antiquaries,  thought  to  be  the  same — but  to 

SULE/E    OR    DE/E    MATRES,    IN    Mr.    CRIl'PS'     MUSEUM. 

whom  few  inscriptions  have  been  found  in  England.  Only  two  have 
hitherto  been  published,  and  of  these  one  is  dedicated  by  the  very  same 
individual  as  this  recently  found  at  Cirencester. 

The  Sulevac  were  seldom  called  "mothers,"  but  usually  Suleva only ; 
and  it  is,  in  point  of  fact,  not  known  for  certain  whether  they  were  the 

70  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

usual  goddess  mothers  under  another  name,  or  were  cognate  divinities, 
distinct  though  somewhat  similar.  About  a  century  and  a  half  ago  a 
votive  altar  to  the  Sulevae  was  found  at  Bath,  known  as  well  in  Roman 
times  as  in  our  own  for  its  famous  medicinal  springs;  this  altar  had  been 
erected  in  their  honour  by  one  Sulinus,  the  son  of  Brucetus,  who  described 
himself  upon  it  as  a  scultor,  or  carver  in  stone.  Nothing  was  then  known 
about  these  Sulevse,  and  nothing  has  been  known,  till  the  discovery  of  the 
stones  we  are  now  describing,  of  their  worshipper,  Sulinus  son  of  Brucetus. 
But  in  the  course  of  building  operations  conducted  by  Messrs.  Saunders 
and  Co.,  at  Ashcroft,  in  Cirencester,  the  present  stones  have  been  found, 
throwing,  after  this  lengthened  interval,  some  little  light  upon  the  older 
discovery.  They  consist,  to  mention  the  more  important  pieces,  of  an 
altar  and  two  sculptured  reliefs,  the  former  bearing  an  inscription  which 
identifies  the  unknown  Sulinus  oi  Bath  as  an  inhabitant  of  Cirencester. 
The  inscriptions  are  almost  identical,  for  both  at  Bath  and  at  Cirencester 
describing  himself  as  Sulinus  the  son  of  Brucetus,  he  adds  at  Bath,  where 
he  perhaps  would  be  less  well  known,  that  he  was  a  sculptor  by  profession. 
The  large  quantity  of  carved  stone,  pedestals,  reliefs,  portion  of  statues, 
and  the  like  found  near  and  around  the  altar  justifies  the  belief  that  they 
were  part  of  his  stock-in-trade  and  of  his  own  workmanship.  And  it  is 
more  than  probable  that  the  similar  dedication  at  Bath  to  the  one  found  at 
Cirencester  owed  its  origin  to  the  simple  fact  of  the  honest  stoneworker  of 
Corinium  receiving  relief  from  his  gout,  rheumatic  pains,  or  what  not  at 
Bath,  and  erecting  there  to  the  divinities  who  had  so  blessed  the  Bath 
waters  to  his  use  a  similar  altar  to  the  one  he  maintained  to  their  honour 
at  his  own  home.  No  doubt  at  Bath  he  found  it  convenient  to  add  a  note 
of  his  occupation  to  that  of  his  parentage,  being  comparatively  a  stranger 
there,  but  it  is  a  very  interesting  addition,  especially  from  the  point  of  view 
of  those  who  had  already  imagined  that  they  had  discovered  a  Roman 
stonemason's  yard,  before  the  coincidence  of  finding  the  owner  actually 
describing  himself  as  such.  There  can  be  no  mistake  in  the  identity  of 
the  dedicator.     The  inscription  is  as  follows  : — 

S  VLI  N  vs 
B  R  V  C  E  T  I 


"Dedicated  to  the  Suleae  by  Sulinus,  the  son  of  Brucetus."     The  Bath 
inscription  is  : — 

F.  L.  M. 

The   slight    difference   of    the   spelling   of   the    names   of   the   divinities 
honoured  as  SVLE>E  and  S  V  LE  V/E  is  of  no  importance  ;  sometimes 

Cirencester.  71 

the  spelling  is  SVLEVI/E.  The  two  reliefs  of  the  goddesses  which 
we  now  proceed  to  describe  are  in  many  ways  even  more  interesting  than 
the  altar  itself.  There  is  nothing  actually  to  prove  what  divinities  the 
reliefs  represent — they  would  be  well  described  as  Deae  Matres — but  it 
is  fair  to  conclude  from  their  being  found  with  an  altar  such  as  that 
discovered  with  them  in  Cirencester  that  they  represent  the  Sulevae 
rather  than  the  Deae  Matres  or  any  other  similar  triads.  One  of  these 
reliefs  represents  the  goddesses,  if  goddesses  we  can  call  them,  sitting  on 
a  sort  of  bench  in  a  row  under  a  canopy,  and  holding  the  baskets  of  fruit 
and  other  gifts  to  men,  with  which  they  are  usually  represented.  The 
stone  is  from  the  local  oolite,  and  notwithstanding  its  crumbling  nature 
the  figures  are  in  wonderful,  indeed  perfect,  preservation,  as  fresh  as  when 
left  by  the  hand  of  the  artist,  and  it  may  be  doubtful  whether  any  example 
of  Romano-British  work  is  in  a  similar  state  of  perfection  at  the  present 
day.  The  other  relief  is  of  a  different  character,  but  even  more  interesting 
in  its  way.  It  represents  the  divinities  as  seated  in  various  attitudes  on  a 
bench,  accompanied  by  three  children  grouped  with  them,  and  the  centre 
figure  has  a  small  animal,  either  lamb  or  kid,  reposing  in  her  lap,  together 
with  some  fruit.  The  whole  represents  the  attributes  of  fertility  and 
bounty.  This  relief  is  not  so  stiff  and  conventional  as  the  other,  and  is 
carved  in  an  altogether  higher  style  of  art,  but  it  is  less  perfect,  the  canopy 
which  had  once  covered  the  figures  in  a  kind  of  alcoved  seat  being  wanting, 
and  with  it  the  upper  part  of  the  heads  of  each  of  the  adult  figures,  which 
had  been  formed  out  of  the  missing  stone.  The  tops  of  these  heads  are 
therefore  cut  off  in  a  straight  line,  together  with  the  missing  arches  of  the 

We  may  gather  from  these  reliefs  confirmation  of  the  opinion  that 
though  distinct  from  the  Decs  Matres  the  attributes  of  the  Suleva  were 
almost  exactly  the  same ;  but  it  does  not  solve  for  us  the  natural  query  as 
to  how  they  ever  came  to  be  distinguished  from  each  other.  Mr.  F. 
Haverfield  inclines  to  the  belief  that  the  Suleva-  were  first  confused  with 
the  Dee  Matres,  rather  than  that  they  were  at  first  identical  and 
subsequently  distinguished.  Mr.  Haverfield  has  also  pointed  out  how 
plainly  both  reliefs,  though  in  different  degrees,  show  an  attempt  to  rise 
above  the  conventional.  Even  the  more  stifily  treated  relief  shows  a 
careful  difference  in  the  treatment  of  the  dress  of  each  figure  and  of  the 
fruit  in  each  different  lap;  whilst  the  freedom  of  design  shown  in  the  less 
perfectly  preserved  relief  places  it  on  quite  a  high  level  of  art  and  one 
worthy  of  a  classical  origin,  although  there  is  nothing  to  show  that  it  is 
necessarily  of  a  different  period  to  that  of  the  more  conventional  example. 
It  may  be  added  that  there  is  no  good  reason  for  connecting  the  Suleva 
specially  with  Bath.  The  prevailing  god  at  Bath  had  the  somewhat 
similar  sounding  name  of  Sul-Minerva;  but  there  is  no  known  connection 


Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

between  them,  except  the  perhaps  accidental  similarity  in  the  sound  of  the 
name.  There  is  only  one  example  of  a  dedication  to  them  found  at  Bath, 
and  one  at  Colchester,  whilst  there  are  some  twenty  on  the  Continent  of 
Europe,  of  which  no  less  than  eleven  are  found  in  Rome  itself.  It  may  be 
mentioned  in  passing  that  these  eleven  seem  to  have  been  dedicated  by 
soldiers  coming  from  the  Rhine,  and  not  by  natives  of  the  capital.  It  is 
probable  that  Sulinus  adopted  these  Sulevae  as  his  patron  divinities  owing 
to  his  name,  just  as  in  later  days  a  child  would  be  named  after  one  or 
more  saints  of  the  church,  whom  he  would  naturally  venerate  and 
specially  invoke  ;  and  just  as  an  altar  to  the  above-mentioned  god  Sul- 
Minerva  dedicated  by  another  Sulinus,  this  last  Sulinus  being  the  son  of 
one  Maturus,  would  be  equally  suggested  by  the  similarity  of  name." 


VIRTUES,     HY    SIR    J      REYNOLDS.    NEW    COLL.,    OXFORD. 



By    GARDNER    S.    BAZLEY,    Esq. 

Ladies  and  Gentlemen, — A  study  of  the  presidential 
addresses  which  have  been  delivered  from  time  to  time  at 
your  Annual  Meetings  discloses  not  only  the  eminence  of  the 
gentlemen  who  have  hitherto  been  selected  for  that  office,  but 
also  the  diffident  and  apologetic  tone  in  which  they  have 
respectively  approached  the  task  before  them.  But  what  is 
to  be  said  when  an  archaeologist  of  only  three  months' 
standing  ventures  to  address  a  learned  Society  on  one  of 
their  special  subjects  (Stained  and  Painted  Glass),  his  own 
acquaintance  with  that  subject  being  of  extremely  recent 
origin  ?  I  think  that  such  an  undertaking  can  only  be 
warranted  by  the  confidence  that  the  circumstances  justify, 
to  an  unusual  degree,  an  appeal  to  your  indulgence. 

Let  me  disclaim,  however,  any  intention  of  anticipating 
the  extremely  valuable  and  interesting  lecture  on  the  Fairford 
windows  which  will  shortly  be  given  by  the  Vicar,  to  whose 
energy  and  enterprise  the  windows  may  be  said  to  owe  their 
preservation,  and  who  is,  therefore,  better  qualified  to  speak 
on  that  subject  than  any  living  man.  But  it  may  be 
interesting  simply  as  an  introduction  to  the  subject  if  we 
refresh  our  memories  on  one  or  two  points.  First,  in  the 
history  of  stained  and  painted  glass  ;  and  secondly,  in  the 
modern  art  of   making  a  window. 

Another  way  to  describe  the  subject  is  :  "  How  a  Stained 
Glass  Window  differs  from  a  Picture"  ;  for  to  the  uninitiated 
I  think  that  a  stained  glass  window  is  apt  to  appear  a 
somewhat  roughly-drawn  and  crudely-coloured  picture,  dis- 
figured by  staring  black  lines  as  if  it  were  badly-mended 
china.  But  when  one  discovers  the  meaning  of  such 
expressions  as  "brilliancy"  and  "  translucency  "  applied  to 

74  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

early  glass,  it  becomes  evident  that  the  art  in  question  has 
certain  special  qualities,  as  well  as  special  limitations,  all  of 
which  are  more  easily  understood  after  acquiring  some 
knowledge  of  the  technique.  It  has  been  well  remarked, 
*'  In  order  to  appreciate  windows  one  must  have  developed 
a  glass  eye."  Now,  as  to  the  history  of  the  art,  Pliny's  story 
of  the  discovery  of  glass  by  certain  fishermen  will  always  be 
attractive  ;  but  there  is  another  theory,  for  which  we  are 
indebted,  not  to  Pliny,  but  to  The  Times'1  reprint  of  the 
Encyclopedia  Britannica.  It  is,  that  straw  and  reeds  contain 
in  a  crude  form  the  chief  component  parts  of  glass ;  that 
when  a  rick  is  burnt  down  lumps  of  coarse  glass  are  occasion- 
ally found  in  the  ashes,  and  that  the  ancient  Egyptians  who 
used  much  fuel  in  the  shape  of  reeds  for  their  smelting 
furnaces,  may  have  thus  made  the  discovery  of  glass. 

However,  once  discovered,  colouring  in  imitation  of 
precious  stones  was  a  natural  step.  A  well-known  instance 
is  that  of  Aventurine  glass,  which  was  made  by  Venetians 
in  very  early  times  in  imitation  of  the  stone  of  that  name, 
and  the  effect  of  which  is  due  to  the  reflection  of  crystalline 
spangles  of  oxide  of  copper,  produced  by  exposing  glass 
treated  with  copper  to  a  reducing  agent.  Again,  blue  glass 
in  windows  was  for  centuries  known  as  "  sapphire,"  and 
red  glass  is  still  technically  called  "  ruby."  So  the  origin  of 
coloured  windows  may  have  been  due  to  the  idea  of  jewellery, 
set  in  plaster  or  stone  instead  of  in  gold. 

Or  the  idea  may  have  been  taken  from  Cloisonne  enamel, 
an  art  which  was  practised  as  early  as  the  eighth  century. 
As  Mr.  Westlake  says,  "  Place  a  cloisonne  enamel  vertically, 
substitute  lead  lines  for  the  copper  cloissons,  and  transparent 
for  opaque  glass,  and  you  have  a  coloured  window."  But 
whatever  may  have  been  their  origin,  the  world  is  ultimately 
indebted  for  them  to  Western  civilisation,  for  in  the  Italian 
churches  side  windows  were  unnecessary,  owing  to  the  very 
different  quality  of  light  in  those  latitudes  (thus  one  sees 
how  in  the  Pantheon  at  Rome  a  small  circular  opening  in  the 
roof  lights  the  whole  vast  interior),  and  the  opaque  mosiac 

Stained  and  Painted  Glass.  75 

pictures   of    Italian    churches   were   naturally   replaced    by 
coloured  windows  in  more  northern  climates. 

Now,  if  we  watch,  in  imagination,  the  methods  of  a 
glazier  about  a  thousand  years  ago,  we  see  that  he  has 
before  him  a  number  of  small  pieces  of  coloured  glass  (for  it 
was  as  yet  produced  only  in  small  pieces)  of  about  seven 
different  colours  only,  and  that  he  fits  them  together  like  a 
puzzle,  each  colour,  or  even  shade  of  colour,  being  repre- 
sented by  a  separate  piece,  and  joins  together  the  whole  with 
lead  strips.  He  has  two  chief  difficulties  to  overcome  :  first, 
to  prevent,  so  far  as  possible,  the  lead  lines  from  interfering 
with  the  design,  and  secondly  to  avoid  weak  points  in  the 
construction.  For  instance,  if  any  piece  of  glass  had  to  be 
cut  into  the  shape  of  an  hour-glass,  it  would  be  strengthened 
by  a  lead  joint  at  the  waist.  It  has  been  said  that  the 
earliest  glaziers  "  thought  in  lead,  and  designed  in  lead." 
And  as  an  Irishman  once  defined  a  net  as  "  a  number  of 
holes,  joined  together  with  pieces  of  string,"  so  an  early 
window  consisted,  in  the  artist's  mind,  of  a  number  of  coloured 
spaces  connected  with  lead  lines. 

In  following  the  history  of  coloured  windows,  we  ought  to 
trace  the  course  both  of  design  (or  treatment)  on  the  one 
hand,  and  of  technique,  or  workmanship,  on  the  other.  In 
other  arts,  such  as  painting  and  sculpture,  the  enquirer  is,  in 
a  manner,  solely  concerned  with  the  design.  The  materials 
and  the  methods  employed  are,  I  believe,  of  comparatively 
slight  importance  in  determining  the  date  of  any  particular 
work  of  art ;  but  in  glass  painting  the  possibilities  of 
variation  in  design  are  naturally  very  limited.  Such  varia- 
tions have  been  due,  generally  speaking,  to  the  influence  of 
the  contemporary  schools  of  painting  and  of  architecture. 
For  instance  the  costumes  of  the  figures  and  those  repre- 
sentations of  a  stone  canopy  which  are  usually  seen  in  the 
upper  part  of  windows  followed  the  current  fashions  in  dress 
and  in  architecture  ;  or,  to  speak  more  strictly,  as  the 
glass-painters  were  a  conservative  race,  they  often  copied  a 
style  which  had    become  old-fashioned.     Thus  glass  of  the 

76  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

"Early  Perpendicular"   period  would  show  a  "  Decorated  " 
spirit  in  its  architectural  details. 

To  quote  a  few  salient  points  in  the  history  of  style  : 

In  the  thirteenth  century  the  design  is  very  flat  and 
conventional,  in  fact  archaic  ;  also  medallion  windows  (a 
name  which  explains  itself)  may  be  generally  ascribed  to  this 

In  the  fourteenth  century  the  drawing  is  already  somewhat 
improved  ;  there  is  more  life  and  action  in  the  figures,  and 
conventional  ornament  is  dying  out. 

In  the  fifteenth  century  we  find  less  colour  in  windows; 
white  glass  often  preponderates  ;  also  this  period  is  often 
recognisable  by  the  exaggeration  of  the  canopies.  (To  the 
end  of  this  period  belong  the  Fairford  windows — about  1500. 
Regarding  their  authorship,  one  may  just  notice  the  statute 
passed  in  1483,  "on  the  petition  of  the  glaziers  of  London 
and  other  large  towns,"  against  the  importation  of  painted 
glass. — 2nd  Richard  III.,  cap.  2.) 

In  Renaissance  windows  (about  the  sixteenth  century)  the 
subjects  are  frequently  extended  across  several  lights,  dis- 
regarding the  mullions ;  also,  instead  of  the  severity  of  early 
ornament,  this  style  is  often  distinguished  by  festoons  of 
flowers,  ribbons,  cupids  and  similar  devices.  Of  the  seventeenth 
century  style,  it  may  be  enough  to  say  that  it  became  more 
and  more  like  a  picture  and  less  like  a  window. 

Now,  as  to  the  history  of  techique.  At  first,  as  has  been 
said,  the  artist  confined  himself  to  piecing  together  bits  of 
glass,  each  of  one  colour  throughout  (this  has  always  been 
known  as  "  pot-metal,"  from  being  coloured  by  the  addition 
of  certain  substances  while  in  the  melting-pot).  But  he  soon 
began  to  call  in  the  aid  of  a  certain  brown  enamel — not  by 
any  means  as  a  pigment,  but,  in  the  first  place,  for  drawing 
outlines,  such  as  the  eyes  and  nose  (for  which  purpose  the 
lead  strips  were  not  only  too  clumsy,  but,  if  used  to  outline, 
say,  the  lingers  of  a  hand,  the  narrow  enclosures  they  caused 
would  soon  be  choked  with  dust)  ;  also  to  obstruct  light 
where  shading  was  required,  as  in  folds  of   drapery;    and,. 

Stained  and  Painted  Glass. 


lastly,  to  correct,  or,  as  photographers  say,  "  retouch,"  the 
rough  outlines  given  to  the  glass  by  his  chipping- tool. 

This  enamel  was,  and  is,  composed  of  metallic  colouring 
matter  (iron,  manganese,  or  copper)  mixed  with  pounded 
glass.  The  effect  was 
that  on  placing  a  piece 
of  glass  so  painted  in  a 
furnace,  the  pounded 
glass  fused,  and  the 
surface  of  the  solid  glass 
itself  becoming  slightly 
softened,  the  enamel  was, 
as  it  were,  welded  to  the 
surface,  and  therefore 

The  shading  required 
was  produced,  in  different 
periods,  by  different 
modes  of  applying  this 
brown  enamel,  such  as  stippling,  scratching-out,  and  cross- 
hatching ;  but  the  general  principle  soon  became  "to  take 
out  lights  instead  of  putting  in  darks  " — like  the  system  of 
line-engraving   as  opposed  to  mezzotint. 

The  next  improvement  in  technique  was  the  introduction, 
early  in  the  fourteenth  century,  of  a  new  process,  called 
yellow  stain.  By  painting  the  surface  of  glass  with  a  solution 
of  silver  (either  oxide  or  sulphuret)  and  firing  it  in  the  kiln, 
it  was  found  that  a  delicate  yellow  tint  was  produced  in  the 
part  so  painted,  and  not  only  on  the  surface  but  in  the 
glass,  and  absolutely  permanent.  Lapse  of  centuries  has 
shown  that  this  stain  has  also  the  great  advantage  of 
preserving  the  glass.  It  will  be  noticed  how  the  outside  of 
the  Fairford  windows  is  honeycombed  almost  all  over  with 
thousands  of  little  pits  (due  to  the  gradual  dissolution  of  the 
alkali  in  the  glass  by  the  action  of  the  weather).  Now,  one 
of  the  specimens  of  early  glass  kindly  lent  by  Mr.  Bazeley 
from  his  collection  shows  in  a  most  interesting  manner  how 

78  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

the  portions  of  glass  which  were  treated  in  this  way  are 
practically  free  from  pits.  I  fancy,  however,  that  this  result 
is  either  entirely  confined  to,  or  much  more  marked  in,  cases 
where  the  stain  was  applied  to  the  back  of  the  glass.  This 
was  generally  done  where  much  brown  enamel  was  used  on 
the  front,  otherwise  the  two  applications  would  "  run  "  into 
one  another. 

Now  this  new  process,  neither  an  enamel  nor  a  pot-metal 
colour  (and  it  can  generally  be  distinguished  from  pot-metal 
yellow  by  its  cooler  and  purer  tint),  was  a  godsend  to  the 
glass-painter,  for  it  enabled  him  for  the  first  time  to  have  two 
colours  next  to  each  other  without  a  strip  of  lead  between 
One  has  only  to  look  at  the  halo  of  a  saint,  and  the  hair  of 
almost  all  figures  in  windows,  to  see  what  awkward  lead  lines 
were  thus  avoided.  Again  (though  this  discovery  came 
later),  blue  glass  could  thus  be  stained  green,  and  red 
glass  orange,  etc.,  enabling,  for  instance,  the  foliage  of  a 
tree  to  be  represented  on  the  same  piece  of  glass  as  the  blue 
sky,  or  green  grass  against  the  edge  of  a  blue  robe,  without 
the  necessity  of  a  separate  piece  of  glass  for  each  colour. 

A  third  great  resource,  also  discovered  in  the  fourteenth 
century,  was  due  to  the  use  of  "  coated  "  or  "  flashed  "  glass. 
Ruby  and  blue  pot-metal  were  often  made  with  a  backing  of 
white  glass.  The  ruby,  especially,  is  so  intense  and  deep  a 
colour  that  if  it  went  right  through  the  effect  would  be 
almost  black :  so  ruby  glass  is  only  white  glass  veneered 
with  red.  As  Mr.  Day  describes  it,  "  The  colour  is  only  the 
jam  upon  the  bread."  Now,  an  ingenious  person  discovered 
that  by  grinding  away  the  film  of  red,  a  white  spot  of  light 
showed  through,  which  could  be  enlarged,  of  course,  to  any 
size.  (This  is  illustrated  by  another  of  Mr.  Bazeley's 
specimens,  where  white  pin-holes  appear  in  red  glass — the 
ruby  film  evidently  being  in  this  case  on  the  back,  and 
attacked  by  "  pitting.")  So,  where  the  glazier  wished  to 
represent,  say,  pearls  on  a  red  robe,  or  a  white  centre  in  a 
scarlet  flower,  he  could  accomplish  it  without  "  leading  in  " 
the  white  separately  from  the  red  ;  if  he  chose,  he  could  go 

Stained  and  Painted  Glass. 



a  step  further,  and  after  abrading  a  patch  of  the  ruby- 
coating,  he  might  apply  the  yellow  stain  to  part  of  the  white 
ground  so  obtained,  thus  actually  producing  three  separate 
colours  with  a  single  piece  of  glass,  instead  of  three  pieces 
joined  together,  which  his  predecessors  would  have  used.  It 
is  obvious  that  other  variations  would  result  from  using,  say, 
ruby  glass  "backed"  with  blue,  or  yellow  "backed"  with 
purple.  Modern  glaziers  escape  the 
tedious  abrading  process  by  the  use  of 
fluoric  acid,  which  dissolves  away  the 
coloured  film  like  magic. 

Here  the  legitimate  methods  at  the 
disposal  of  the  glass-painter  end,  and 
they  are  practically  those  in  use  at 
the  present  day.  But  it  is  plain  that 
all  these  improvements  tended  in  one 
direction — namely,  dispensing  with  the 
leads ;  and  whereas  the  early  makers 
of  windows  designed  primarily  in  lead- 
work,  which  by  itself,  without  any 
colour  at  all,  would  give  a  fair  idea  of 
the  picture,  the  glaziers  after  the 
fifteenth  century  began  to  consider 
leading  as  a  necessary  evil  to  be 
avoided  as  far  as  possible.  Forgetting 
the  special  qualities  of  glass  and  the 
purpose  of  windows,  they  tried  to 
make  them  resemble  oil-paintings,  and 
with  this  object  introduced  a  wholly 
new  and  most  pernicious  method — the 
use  of  coloured  enamels,  which  were 
necessarily  opaque  or  nearly  so.  It 
became  the  practice  towards  the  end  of 
the  sixteenth  century  to  glaze  windows 
in  large  rectangular  panes,  to  discard 
all  coloured  glass,  and  deliberately  to 
set  to  work  to  paint  a  picture  on  the 

-8o  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

window.  It  is  evident  that  this  method,  known  as  the 
"  Enamel  Method,"  is  as  different  as  possible  from  the 
"  Mosaic  Method"  hitherto  described,  and  it  had  three  great 
defects  : 

First. — The  lead  strips,  being  no  longer  used  for  the 
outlines  of  the  drawing,  now  became  ugly  black  bars  running 
across  it,  and  making  the  figures  look  as  if  they  were  in  a 
cage ;  and  as  the  bars  were  kept  as  far  apart  as  possible  (to 
make  them  less  obtrusive)  the  glass  was  less  strongly  sup- 
ported than  in  the  old  method.  Secondly. — The  glass  lost  its 
special  quality  of  translucency  or  brilliancy,  it  assumed  a 
dull,  cotton-woolly  aspect,  ali  the  "  jewelled  "  effect  was 
gone,  and  the  light  struggled  through  in  one  monotonous 
blurr.  Thirdly,  and  worst  of  all,  the  colours  rapidly  deterio- 
rated and  decayed ;  they  flaked  off,  sometimes  in  large 
pieces,  and  visitors  have  been  known  to  gaze  reverently  at 
a  much-dilapidated  window,  thinking  it  is  old,  whereas  it  is 
comparatively  modern,  but  instead  of  growing  mellow,  like 
early  glass,  has  merely  become  shabby. 

Perhaps  the  most  striking  instance  is  that  of  the  well- 
known  designs  by  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds  in  the  great  west 
window  of  New  College,  Oxford.  Comparing  these  exquisite 
but  rather  woolly  figures,  disfigured  by  the  straight  black 
lines  of  the  lead-work,  with  the  rich  and  lustrous  effect  of 
the  fourteenth  century  windows  on  either  side,  it  is  sad,  on 
the  one  hand,  to  think  of  valuable  window-space  so  unsuitably 
filled,  and,  on  the  other  hand,  to  see  such  beautiful  designs 
wasted  by  being  executed  in  such  a  perishable  medium  and 
exhibited  in  such  an  ineffective  manner. 

It  may  be  asked,  Why  should  these  coloured  enamels 
flake  off,  if  the  old  brown  enamel  was  permanent  ?  The 
answer  is,  that  the  early  artists  were  not  afraid  to  use  good 
hard  enamel,  and  a  fierce  heat  to  fuse  it  to  the  glass ;  whereas 
the  user  of  coloured  enamels  feared  to  risk  his  delicate  tints 
in  a  very  hot  furnace,  and  so  was  tempted  to  use  borax  as  a 
flux,  whereby  the  enamel  fused  more  easily,  but  was 
imperfectly  welded    to   the   glass.     Windows    are    naturally 

Stained  and  Painted  Glass.  8i 

exposed  to  extremes  of  temperature,  under  which  the  glass 
slightly  expands  and  contracts  ;  now,  these  coloured  enamels 
not  being  so  hard  as  the  glass  to  which  they  adhered,  had  a 
different  rate  of  expansion  and  contraction,  and,  so  to  speak, 
the  paint  and  the  canvas  sometimes  pulled  in  different 
directions,  so  the  paint  had  to  crack  off.  It  may  also  be 
remarked  that  when  brown  enamel  did  perish  it  was  not  so 

Thus  we  find  several  rough-and-ready  tests  for  criticising 
a  window  and  determining  its  date,  in  workmanship  alone, 
quite  apart  from  the  evidences  of  style  ;  such  are,  brown 
enamel  and  the  different  methods  of  shading;  yellow  stain; 
abrasion  of  coated  glass ;  and  also  the  thickness  of  the  film 
itself,  which  has  varied  from  -Jth  of  an  inch  in  the  twelfth 
and  thirteenth  centuries  to  about  T-^th  of  an  inch  in  the 
present  day ;  and,  lastly,  the  use  of  coloured  enamels. 

[Since  this  address  was  delivered  a  further  test  for  age  in 
glass  has  been  suggested  to  me  by  Mr.  F.  F.  Tuckett, 
F.R.G.S.,  whose  interesting  paper,  "  On  Some  Optical 
Peculiarities  of  Ancient  Painted  Glass,"  1  deals  with  the 
curious  fact  that  whereas  modern  windows  throw  patches  of 
colour  on  the  floor  or  walls  of  a  building,  early  glass  fails  to 
do  so.] 

As  regards  the  modern  process  of  window-making,  it  may 
be  interesting  to  notice  that  the  glass  used  (crown  and  sheet 
glass)  is  still  made  by  hand,  with  few  more  appliances  than 
were  in  use  two  thousand  years  ago ;  consequently  we  get 
certain  imperfections  which  are  not  found  in  mechanical 
processes,  but  which  are  most  valuable  artistically;  as,  for 
instance,  variations  in  thickness,  and  therefore  (in  coloured 
glass)  in  depth  of  tint.  These  naturally-shaded  pieces  are 
much  prized  by  the  glazier,  who  sooner  or  later  finds  a  use 
fur  every  irregularly-tinted  bit.  In  "  coated  glass"  especially 
the  film  is  liable  to  taper  off,  giving  a  range  horn  dark  red 
to  palest  pink  on  one  piece  of  glass.  An  excellent  example 
of   this  is    the    representation    of    the    "Soul    in    Hell,-'    at 

1  Proceedings  of  the  Clifton  Antiquarian  Club,  1.SS7-S. 

Vol.  XXII. 

82  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

Fairford,  the  red-hot  bars  rising  to  an  almost  white  heat  in 
the  centre  of  the  picture.  Similarly,  in  King's  College 
Chapel,  a  beautiful  marbled  effect  is  produced  by  using  a 
piece  of  "spoilt  ruby"  in  the  representation  of  certain 
columns.  There  is  one  valuable  quality  in  early  glass  which 
obviously  cannot  be  reproduced  ;  namely,  the  growth  of 
lichens,  which  in  the  course  of  centuries  gradually  spread 
over  the  surface,  and  which  undoubtedly  contribute  a  soft 
and  mellow  effect.  One  is  reminded  of  the  question  which 
is  ascribed  to  an  American  tourist,  as  to  the  secret  of  the 
perfection  of  English  lawns,  and  of  the  reply  of  the  old 
gardener:  "We  rolls  it  and  we  mows  it,  and  we  waters 
it — for  hundreds  of  years." 

In  the  production  of  the  different  pot-metal  colours, 
again,  modern  science  has  not  very  materially  improved 
upon  early  methods.  The  fine  sand,  before  it  goes  into 
the  melting-pot,  is  saturated  with  the  required  metallic 
solution  (such  as  copper  for  red,  iron  for  yellow,  cobalt  for 
blue,  gold  for  pink,  manganese  for  violet)  and  then  dried, 
leaving  the  metal  in  the  sand.  "  Coating"  is  simply  effected 
by  dipping  the  white-hot  bulb  of  glass,  before  it  is  blown, 
into  a  pot  of  coloured  glass  in  a  liquid  state.  And  here 
may  be  noticed  a  somewhat  new  departure,  of  recent  date, 
originating  in  America.  Mr.  Tiffany,  whose  exhibition  this 
summer  (1899)  at  the  Grafton  Gallery,  in  London,  attracted 
much  interest,  carries  the  dipping  process  above  described  a 
step  farther.  In  his  method,  the  molten  bulb  is  "  charged  " 
or  dabbed  with  spots  of  colour  of  various  shades  and  sizes ; 
then,  as  the  bulb  is  expanded  by  blowing,  these  patches 
of  colour  expand  with  it  into  streaks  and  veins  of  every 
conceivable  form.  It  is  claimed  that  by  this  means  can  be 
produced  every  marking  and  outline  required  for  foliage  and 
flowers,  sea  and  sky,  and  that  the  use  of  brown  enamel  is 
unnecessary,  and  is,  indeed,  wrong  in  principle,  for  Mr. 
Tiffany  considers  that  a  window  should  be  composed  of 
glass  in  the  state  in  which  it  leaves  the  glassblower's  hands. 
With  this  object  in  view,  when  the  leadwork  does  not  suffice 

Stained  and  Painted  Glass.  83 

for  all  the  outlines  required,  he  resorts  to  such  devices  as 
modelling  in  the  glass  before  it  hardens  by  cooling,  producing 
a  kind  of  bas-relief;  by  this  means  he  represents,  for 
instance,  folds  and  wrinkles  of  drapery ;  or  he  joins  several 
thicknesses  of  glass  together,  sometimes  to  a  depth  of  two 
or  three  inches,  in  such  a  manner  that  the  edges  of  the  inner 
pieces,  when  seen  from  in  front,  show  a  faint  outline  through  the 
outer  surface.  It  may,  however,  be  objected  that  by  the 
use  of  this  variegated  and  opalescent  and  extra  thick  glass 
much  light  is  lost,  and  that  a  church  with  such  windows 
would  be  extremely  dark ;  and  though  in  theory  the  use  of 
brown  enamel  may  be  wrong,  still  it  appears  to  actually 
enhance  the  brilliancy  of  glass  by  the  force  of  contrast.  In 
other  words,  shading  "throws  up"  the  light  parts.  Never- 
theless, Mr.  Tiffany's  windows  are  the  only  ones  which 
resemble  the  earliest  glass,  in  that  they  are  strictly  neither 
"  stained  "  nor  "  painted." 

We  are  now,  perhaps,  in  a  position  to  say  something 
about  what  can  and  what  cannot  be  done  in  this  art  ;  in 
other  words,  how  a  coloured  window  differs  from  a  picture. 

Plainly,  the  material  is  different  :  glass  derives  its  effect 
from  transmitted,  not  from  reflected,  light ;  indeed,  a  building 
should  have  all  its  windows  coloured  or  none,  since  reflected 
light  kills  the  glass. 

And  the  method  of  production  is  different,  for  in  windows 
the  range  of  colour  is  limited  and  they  must  be  constructed 
like  a  mosaic,  whereas  a  picture  is  painted  all  in  one 

And  the  purpose  is  different,  since  the  function  of  a  window 
is,  or  should  be,  to  admit  light  ;  here,  therefore,  are  further 
limitations  as  to  amount  of  shading  and  deep  colour, 
and  also  as  to  size  and  shape,  which  do  not  apply 
to  a  picture. 

And  the  position  is  different,  for  windows  are  seldom  "  hung 
on  the  line;"  often,  as  in  the  case  of  the  clerestory,  they  are 
"  skied,"  so  what  is  wanted  is  a  rich  or,  as  it  is  often  called, 
kaleidoscopic  effect,  at  a  distance. 


Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

If  I  may  say  so,  the  fault  of  many  modern  windows  is 
that  their  subjects  are  too  conspicuous,  often  to  the  point  of 

aggressiveness ;  their  figures 
are  too  distinct,  and  stand 
out  too  sharply  from  the  back- 
ground. Thus  such  windows 
lack  the  mystery  and  the 
dignified  reserve  of  early 
glass ;  they  are  in  such  a 
hurry  to  tell  their  story  that 
they  seem  to  shout  it  at  you 
as  soon  as  you  enter  the 
church.  Much  of  the  charm 
of  windows  like  those  at  Fair- 
ford  consists,  I  think,  in  "  the 
pleasure  of  surprise."  There 
is  almost  the  fascination  of  a 
child  finding  faces  in  the  fire 
or  castles  in  the  clouds.  One 
is  always  discovering  some 
new  feature,  some  new  fancy 
of  the  artist  (often  merely 
indicated  by  symbol) ;  and 
meanwhile,  even  if  one  makes 
no  effort  to  interpret  their 
story,  the  colour-effect  is  both 
satisfying  and  restful.  On  the 
other  hand,  certain  modern 
windows  seem  to  assert  them- 
selves and  challenge  attention 
almost  like  a  pictorial  adver- 
tisement in  a  London  thorough 
fare  ;  and  whatever  may  he 
the  qualities  most  appropriate 
to  a  church  window,  surely 
it  should  not  resemble  a 
poster  ! 

Stained  and  Painted  Glass.  85 

And  if  it  be  objected  that  the  windows  at  Fairford  are 
"  grotesque,"  the  answer  would  be  that  so  are  the  gurgoyles, 
and  that  a  certain  rude  force  and  monumental  character  are 
more  in  keeping  with  the  seventy  of  Gothic  architecture  than 
to  the  more  ornate  and  florid  beauty  which  distinguished 
later  schools  of  glass  painting. 

Note. — The  materials  for  this  address  are  largely  borrowed  from  the 
works  of  Judge  Winston,  Mr.  Westlake,  and  Mr.  Lewis  Day,  to  whom  I 
am  much  indebted  ;  and  I  have  to  thank  Mr.  B.  T.  Batsford  of  95  High 
Holborn,  for  the  four  illustrations  from  Windcvs,  by  Mr.  Lewis  Day. — 
G.  S.  B. 

OF    ALMAINE,     1209—1272. 


Born    at    Winchester,    January    5th,    1209,    Richard    Plan- 
tagenet  was  six  years  of  age  at  the  signing  of  Magna  Charta, 
and   seven   when    his   brother,    Henry   III.,   succeeded  to   a 
kingdom  which  was  practically  being  governed  by  William 
Marshal,  Earl  of  Pembroke.     His  education  was  entrusted 
to  Peter  de  Manley,  at  Cone  Castle.     As  he  survived  until 
his    sixty-third    year,    and    died   in    1272,    his   life    was    co- 
temporaneous  with  a  period  of  exceptionally  grave  moment 
in  English  history  ;  and  even  if,  as  an  individual  character, 
there  be   found    in   him   a   certain   lack    of  solidity,    on    the 
other  hand,   as  compared   with   the  King,  his  brother,  this 
defect  would  not  be  manifest.     But  neither  his  high  position, 
as  for  some  years   heir  to   the   throne,    nor    his  continuous 
contact   with  several  of  the  greatest  men  of  a  great  age — 
such    as    Frederick    II.,    Robert    Grosteste,    and    Simon    de 
Montfort, — nor    his    immense    fortune    (for    he    became   the 
foremost   millionaire  of  his  time),   contrived  to  render  him 
a  really  impressive  figure.    Nevertheless,  position  and  fortune, 
not  unassisted  by  a  certain  average  adroitness,  enabled  him 
to  bear  a  conspicuous  part  in  the  political  life  of  England 
during  her  long  and  precarious  struggle  for  popular  freedom, 
and   this  could  not   but   confer  upon   him  an   unmistakable 
significance.     I  am,  however,  here  concerned  with  him,  not 
merely    as    a    political    personage,    but    as   the    founder    of 
Hayles   Abbey    and    a    Royal    figure    intimately    connected 
with   Gloucestershire  by  many  and  various  ties,   especially 
as  the  father  of  four  princes  and  the  husband  of  one  Queen, 
whose  bones  still  lie  beneath  the  quiet  pastures  around  the 
remains  of  the  Abbey. 

And   the   first   question   in   this   connection   which   arises 
must    be,    How    came    there   to    be   a   Crown    property   at 

Richard,  Earl  of  Cornwall.  87 

Hayles   upon    which    Richard    might    eventually    build    his 
Abbey  of  S.    Mary  ?      It  is  certain  that   in  the    large  field 
north  of  the  parish  church  of  Hayles,  in   1225,  there  stood 
a  castle,  then  held  by  John  de  Julin — a   castle  which  can 
be  traced  back  to  the  possession  of  Ralph  de  Worcester,  in 
the  reign  of  Stephen.     At  the  owner's  death  in  that  year  it 
passed  with  its  lands   to    the  Crown.     King   Henry  almost 
immediately  discharged  the  inhabitants  of  Hayles  from  the 
Hundred  of  Winchcomb,  and  conferred  the   property  witli 
its  belongings  upon  his  brother,  probably  on  the  occasion  of 
knighting  him,  and  when  he  was  also  created  Earl  of  Cornwall. 
This  done,  Earl  Richard  and  his  uncle,  William  Longespee, 
Earl  of  Salisbury,  and  Philip  de  Albini,  sailed  to  Gascony, 
where   they    spent    a    year    or    more,    afterwards    incurring 
grave  perils  at  sea  on  their  way  home.     This   visit  thither 
of  Richard  was  productive  of  a  deputation  of  the  nobles  of 
Gascony,  Aquitaine,  and  Poitou,  who,  headed  by  the  Bishop 
of  Bordeaux,   waited   on    King   Henry  at   Oxford   in    1229, 
where    he    was    spending    Christmas,    and    begged    him    to 
come  over  sea  to  them  in  order  that  they  should  help  him 
to  recover  his  rights,  and  win  back  English  predominance 
in   Aquitaine,   which   had  been  lost   by   King   John.      "But 
when  Hubert  [de  Burgh]  the  Justiciary  heard  this  he  post- 
poned the  matter  to  a   future  time,  till   a  more  favourable 
opportunity  should   arise.      And    the    messengers,   receiving 
no   other   reply,   returned   to   their    own    country,   like    men 
deceived."     However,  this  was  made  the  motive  for  a  heavy 
requisition  upon  the  Clergy  of  all  orders,  from  the  city  of 
London,  and  from  the  Jews,  on  the  strength  of  which  the 
King  set    out    with    an   expedition   to    Brittany   that   ended 
most  ignominiously,  and  led  to  the  fall  of  Hubert  de  Burgh. 
Among  those  who  died  in  Brittany  was  Gilbert  de  Clare, 
Earl  of   Gloucester  and   Hertford,   leaving   behind   him   his 
widow  Isabel,  daughter  of  William  Marshal,  Earl  of  Pem- 
broke (d.  1 231).     This  lady,  scarcely  twenty  years  of  age,  so 
completely  attracted  the  admiration  of  Earl  Richard  that  he 
married  her,  with  the  King's  consent,  in  the  following  April 

88  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

( 1 231),  and  with  her  he  enjoyed  Sundon,  in  Bedfordshire,  which 
later  passed  to  her  son,  Richard  de  Clare.  On  this  occasion 
the  King  granted  Richard  the  Crown  property  of  Wallingford 
Castle  and  a  number  of  other  manors.  Still  heir-presumptive 
to  the  throne,  what  with  his  rich  estates  and  the  development 
of  his  Cornish  mines,  he  was  on  the  way  to  become  as  dis- 
tinguished for  his  wealth  and  the  conserving  thereof  as  King 
Henry  was  already  become  for  its  dissipation.  It  was  doubtless 
no  difficult  matter  for  those  about  the  Court  to  contrast  the 
two  brothers,  and  perhaps  to  flatter  Richard  for  his  prudence. 

After  three  years  of  matrimony,  Earl  Richard  was  led 
to  doubt  whether  he  could  longer  remain  in  lawful  matrimony 
with  Isabella  owing  to  someone  having  informed  him  that 
he  had  been  related  to  her  first  husband  in  the  fourth  degree. 
He  therefore  wrote  to  Gregory  IX.  concerning  the  matter, 
and  from  him  received  a  reply  from  Perugia  in  July,  1235,  to 
the  effect  that  he  was  to  lay  aside  all  doubt  and  remain  in 
matrimony.  On  the  following  November  5th  Isabella  gave 
birth  at  Hayles  Castle  to  a  son,  who  was  baptized  in 
Hayles  Church  with  the  name  of  the  King.  He  was 
afterwards  to  become  known  as  Henry  of  Almaine. 

At  the  same  period  we  find  Richard  taking  serious  interest 
in  the  monastery  of  Beaulieu,  in  Hampshire,  a  Cistercian 
house  which  had  been  ibunded  by  his  father,  King  John, 
in  1205,  and  a  daughter  of  Citeaux  in  France.  Among  other 
causes,  bitter  antagonisms  that  had  begun  to  manifest  them- 
selves between  the  popular,  but  rival,  orders  of  Dominic 
and  Francis  were  tending  to  accentuate  the  especial  favour 
with  which  the  Cistercian  Order  was  now  being  regarded. 
Beaulieu,  although  its  church  had  not  yet  been  finished, 
enjoyed  an  annual  rental  of  ^"1,000,  and,  being  situated 
in  a  lonely  spot,  it  needed  little  money  for  the  purposes  of 
hospitality.  The  Abbot,  however,  found  himself  engaged 
in  litigation  with  the  rector  of  S.  Keveran,  in  Cornwall,  to 
recover  moneys  due  to  his  Abbey  from  that  living,1  for  the 
patronage  of  which  it  was  indebted  to  Earl  Richard. 
1  Cal.  Pafal  Registers,  vol.  i.,  p.  155. 

Richard,  Earl  of  Cornwall.  89 

In  the  following  year,  the  Earl,  with  his  kinsman  Gilbert 
Marshal,  Earl  of  Pembroke,  and  others,  assumed  the  cross 
with  the  intention  of  setting  forth  together  to  the  Holy 
Land  ;  and  Matthew  Paris  tells  us  that  Richard  cut  down 
much  timber  in  order  to  raise  funds  for  that  purpose. 
He  had,  in  fact,  been  spending  vast  sums  upon  Walling- 
ford  and  Berkhampstead,  and  perhaps,  also,  upon  Hayles 
Castle.  But  though  his  wish  to  join  the  Crusade  was 
unquestionably  sincere,  he  was  the  next  heir  to  the  throne, 
and  this  circumstance  gave  pause  to  the  advisers  of  the  Crown, 
especially  to  the  Pontiff  himself.  The  dangers  at  home  as 
well  as  abroad  were  manifold.  The  King,  who  had  put 
aside  a  vow  of  celibacy,  had  at  length  married  Eleanor, 
daughter  of  Raymond  Berenger,  Count  of  Provence,  and 
sister  of  the  Queen  of  France,  in  January,  1236.  The 
sudden  increase  of  French  influence — already  far  too  power- 
ful in  the  eyes  of  Englishmen — around  the  King,  and  the 
absence,  as  yet,  of  offspring  from  the  King's  union,  made 
it  imperative  the  Earl  should  remain  in  England.  Con- 
sequently, we  find  special  Papal  mandates  addressed  both 
to  him,  to  Simon  de  Montfort,  Earl  of  Leicester,  and  to 
William,  Earl  of  Salisbury,  forbidding  them  to  set  forth, 
under  pain  of  losing  the  Indulgence  granted  to  Crusaders, 
owing  to  "  their  councils  being  very  necessary  to  the  safety 
of  England."  The  wisdom  of  this  precaution  becomes  fully 
apparent  when,  in  the  wave  of  indignation  caused  by  the 
King's  new  exactions,  Richard  makes  himself  a  popular 
mouthpiece,  and  actually  reproaches  Henry  with  occasioning 
so  much  desolation  throughout  the  kingdom,  and  with  allowing 
himself  to  become  the  mere  puppet  of  the  Legate  and  his 
Consort's  relations.  Consequently,  the  Earl  and  his  illustrious 
friends  and  kinsmen  postponed  their  enterprise,  although  at 
the  same  time  carrying  on  active  correspondence  with  the 
Emperor  Frederick  II.  (who  had  lately  married  his  sister 
Isabella)  relative  to  the  practical  ordering  of  their  future 
undertakings  in  the   Holy   Land. 

This  postponement  brought  other  important  matrimonial 

90  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

events  to  the  front,  especially  the  marriage,  in  1238,  of  the 
Earl's  younger  sister,  Eleanor  (widow  of  William  Marshal, 
Earl  of  Pembroke),  with  Simon,  Earl  of  Leicester,  and 
that  of  Richard  de  Clare,  Earl  of  Gloucester,  with  Matilda, 
daughter  of  John  de  Lacy,  Earl  of  Lincoln,  both  of  which 
unions  proved  not  only  extremely  displeasing  to  Earl 
Richard  and  to  the  people  generally,  but  nearly  led  to 
violence.  The  King,  in  fact,  had  secretly  obtained  dispen- 
sations from  Rome  for  these  marriages,  omitting  to  consult 
either  his  brother  or  his  nobles.  In  acting  thus  he  had 
deliberately  broken  a  former  pledge  to  them.  In  consequence, 
Earl  Richard,  much  to  his  credit,  "rose  against  the  King, 
and  was  joined  by  Gilbert,  Earl  of  Pembroke,  together  with 
all  the  earls  and  barons  of  England,  and  the  citizens  and 
people  in  general.  It  was  then  most  confidently  hoped  that 
Earl  Richard  would  release  the  country  from  the  wretched 
slavery  with  which  it  was  oppressed  by  the  Romans  and  the 
other  foreigners ;  and  all  parties,  from  the  old  man  to  the 
boy,  heaped  blessings  upon  him.  The  King,  in  finding  how 
matters  stood,  both  felt  and  showed  his  alarm,  and  sent 
messengers  to  each  of  the  nobles  of  the  kingdom,  making 
earnest  enquiries  if  he  could  rely  on  them  for  assistance  ;  to 
which  they  all,  and  especially  the  citizens  of  London, 
answered  that  what  Earl  Richard  had  begun  was  brought 
about  with  a  view  to  their  own  honour  and  the  advantage  of 
the  whole  kingdom,  though  he,  the  King,  did  not  approve  of 
his  proceedings,  and  that  therefore  they  would  not  oppose 
his  designs.  The  Legate,  Otto  (Cardinal  of  San  Niccolo  in 
Carcere)  on  finding  this  to  be  the  case,  saw  that  danger  was 
imminent,  and  applied  himself  with  the  utmost  diligence  to 
reconcile  the  King  to  his  natural  subjects,  secretly  advising 
Earl  Richard,  who  was  the  chief  promoter  of  this  discord, 
to  desist  from  his  purpose,  promising  that  the  King  should  confer 
on  him  still  larger  possessions,  and  that  the  Pope  would  after- 
wards confirm  the  grants  of  these;  adding  also,  that,  although 
the  entire  realm  should  rise  against  Henry,  he,  who  was  his 
brother,  ought  patiently  to  stand  by  him  against  all  men." 

Richard,  Earl  of  Cornwall.  91 

To  this  Earl  Richard  replied  with  a  vigorous  defence  of 
his  position  and  a  peremptory  rejection  of  the  terms  offered. 
Whereupon  the  Legate  and  the  Bishop  of  Winchester  (Peter 
de  Roches)  went  to  the  King,  and  their  persuasions  led  to 
a  convocation  of  nobles  in  London,  which,  unfortunately, 
resulted  in  a  compromise,  owing  to  Simon  de  Montfort 
arid  the  Earl  of  Lincoln  having  meanwhile  effected 
reconciliation  with  Earl  Richard.  "  By  these  irregular 
proceedings"  (writes  Matthew  Paris)  "the  whole  business 
was  in  a  great  degree  impeded,  and  the  miseries  of  the 
kingdom  in  great  degree  prolonged  ;  moreover,  they  clouded 
the  reputation  of  Earl  Richard,  who  thus  came  to  be  an 
object  of  suspicion,  when  he  had  been  regarded  as  the 
staff  of  strength."  Simon  de  Montfort  made  a  temporary 
and  adroit  absence  from  England  and  visited  Rome,  in  order 
to  obtain  a  Pontifical  ratification  of  his  union  with  Eleanor. 
On  his  return  later  on,  however,  he  was  affectionately 
received  by  the  King,  and  soon  became  his  chief  councillor. 
Moreover,  Kenilworth  Castle  was  assigned  to  him  for  a 

In  1239,  on  the  17th  June  (late  at  night)  was  born  to 
the  King  and  Queen,  at  Westminster,  a  son,  "and  he  was 
called  Edward,  which  name  he  received  after  the  glorious 
King  and  Confessor,  Edward,  whose  body  rests  in  the 
Church  of  St.  Peter  at  Westminster."  At  his  baptism, 
four  days  later,  by  the  Legate,  Earl  Richard  and  the 
Earl  of  Leicester  were  present  in  person  as  sponsors. 

It  is  manifest  that  Richard  had  missed  a  great  opportunity. 
He  had  resisted  the  blandishments  of  the  Legate,  whose 
words,  as  given  by  the  chronicler  above,  were  addressed 
clearly  to  his  financial  proclivities  ;  but  he  had  given  way  to 
the  flattering  self-humiliations  of  Simon  de  Montfort  and  of 
the  powerful  De  Lacy,  Earl  of  Lincoln.  Had  he  at  this 
moment  led  the  Baronage  in  a  whole-hearted  manner,  and 
backed  it  with  his  great  resources,  the  King  and  his  alien 
magnates  must  have  given  way.  The  birth  of  an  heir  to 
the  throne  increased  his  distance  from  it  at  the  same  time 

92  Transactions  tor  the  Year  1899. 

that  his  reconciliation  with  De  Montfort  and  King  Henry 
distanced  him  from  the  baronage  and  the  affections  of  the 

In  the  following  year,  14th  January,  1240,  Isabella, 
Countess  of  Cornwall,  died  in  childbed  at  Berkhampstead 
while  the  Earl  was  in  Cornwall.  Matthew  Paris  writes 
that  a  son  was  then  born,  to  whom  was  given  the  name 
of  Nicholas  ;  but  he  also  died.  "  The  noble  lady  Isabella, 
Countess  of  Gloucester  and  Cornwall,  was  taken  dangerously 
ill  of  the  yellow  jaundice,  and  when  her  time  arrived  she 
became  insensible;  and  after  having  had  the  ample  tresses 
of  her  flaxen  hair  cut  off,  and  having  made  a  full  confession 
of  her  sins,  she  departed  to  the  Lord,  together  with  a  boy  to 
whom  she  had  given  birth."  The  Earl,  who,  as  has  been 
already  observed,  was  intimately  associated,  as  a  patron, 
with  Beaulieu  Abbey,  over-ruled  her  expressed  desire  to  be 
buried  at  Tewkesbury,  and  meaning  to  be  buried  beside  her 
when  his  own  time  should  come,  he  caused  her  body  to  be 
buried  before  the  high  altar  at  Beaulieu,1  her  heart  in  a 
silver  cup  to  be  interred  before  that  of  Tewkesbury,  while 
the  intestines  went  to  a  similar  resting-place  with  the  monks 
at  Missenden.2 

All  these  circumstances,  it  may  be  conjectured,  combined 
in  determining  the  Earl  to  postpone  no  longer  his  departure 
for  the  Holy  Land,  and  being  made  ready  he  came  from  his 
castle  at  Wallingford  to  Reading,  where  he  met  the  Arch- 
bishop of  Canterbury  and  some  of  the  Bishops,  to  whom  he 
bade  farewell,  leaving  his  children  and  possessions  protected 
by  a  special  Papal  indult,  but  nevertheless  with  little  comfort 

1  In  1862  her  tomb  was  discovered  at  Beaulieu  Abbey  by  means  of  a 
horse  accidentally  putting  its  leg  into  a  hole  in  the  meadow  beyond  the 
cloisters.  The  sculptured  and  inscribed  slab  was  then  found,  and  beneath  it 
lay  her  skeleton,  some  of  the  above-mentioned  hair  being  still  attached  to 
the  skull.  Her  effigies  are  crowned,  and  the  inscription  bears  traces  of 
lead-ing.  (Cf.  Arclurological  Journal,  1863,  p.  107.)  By  kind  permission 
of  Lord  Montagu,  the  writer  has  been  allowed  to  examine  these  relics. 

2  Arms  of  Marshal :  Party  per  Pale,  or  and  vert  ;  a  lion  rampant  gules, 
armed  and  langued,  azure. 

•   Richard,  Earl  of  Cornwall.  93 

at  heart.  "  The  prelates,  when  they  saw  this,  all  burst  into 
tears,  and  said  :  '  Why,  Earl,  our  only  hope,  do  you  abandon 
us  ?  or,  for  whom  do  you  desert  us  ?  We  shall  be  desolate 
without  you.  In  your  absence  rapacious  foreigners  will 
invade  us  ! '  The  Earl,  then,  in  tears,  replied  to  the  Arch- 
bishop of  Canterbury:  'My  father  and  Lord,  of  a  truth, 
even  had  I  not  assumed  the  cross,  yet  would  I  go,  and 
absent  myself  so  that  I  might  not  behold  the  evils  of  our 
people  and  the  desolation  of  the  kingdom,  which  'tis  believed 
I  am  able  to  prevent,  although  I  cannot  really  do  so! '  "  And 
so  he  departed. 

He  had  not  been  long  gone  when  King  Louis  IX.,  taking 
-advantage  of  his  absence  and  the  weakness  of  Henry  III., 
conferred  upon  his  brother,  Alphonse,  the  Earldom  of  Poitou, 
which  belonged  to  Earl  Richard.     With  the  latter,  however, 
affairs   prospered,    both    on    his   journey    and    in    the    Holy 
Land.      Nothing   effectual   had   been    achieved    against    the 
Saracen  for  several  years.     Papal  authority  had  sent  abroad 
throughout    Christendom     an     army     of     Dominicans     and 
Franciscans,     ostensibly     to     procure     funds     for    a    fresh 
crusade,     but     the     chief     result      had     been      an     extra- 
ordinary    enrichment    of    both    those    orders    so    especialy 
vowed    to    poverty,    as    well    as    of    the     Roman    treasury. 
Another  conspicuous  means  of  raising  these  riches  is  made 
apparent  by  the  Papal  registers.    Crusaders  were  encouraged 
to  take  vows   and   buy  indults   for  the   protection   of  their 
families  and  heirs  during  their  projected  absence,  or  in  case 
of  their  deaths.      Thereafter  they  were  forbidden  to  go,  and 
induced   to  purchase  commutation   of  their  vows.      At  the 
meeting    of    Earl    Richard    and    his    comrade    barons    and 
knights   at   Northampton,  however,  they  swore  to  God  and 
each    other    at    the    altar,    that    they    would    no    longer    be 
hindered    by    the    Church    from    fulfilling    their    honourable 
vows,   nor   allow   their  arms  to   be    diverted   for   service    in 
Europe  against  the  merely  personal  enemies  of  the  Pontiff. 
The  French  Crusaders  had  preceded  their  English  colleagues, 
but    having    fallen    out    with    the    Templars,    and    having 

94  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

suffered  a  severe  defeat  near  Gaza,  they  now  returned 
discomfited  to  France. 

The  Earl  acted  with  worthy  decision  and  rapidity,  and 
having  demanded  in  vain  from  the  Emir  of  Karat  fulfilment 
of  his  agreement  to  liberate  the  Christian  captives,  he 
jnarched  with  his  English  host  to  Jaffa.  This  movement 
was  followed  by  immediate  and  remarkable  results.  The 
captives  were  liberated,  and  the  Sultans  of  Cairo  and 
Damascus  opened  negotiations  with  him.  From  them 
he  contrived  to  obtain  a  restoration  of  the  territories 
lost  to  the  Latin  kingdom,  and  an  absolute  cession  of 
Jerusalem,  on  whose  walls  he  presently  planted  the  banner 
of  Christendom.  (Cf.  Sanudo,  lib.  iii.,  xi.,  c.  15.  Matt.  Paris. 
Ad.  Annum.)  And  thus  he  brought  the  sixth  Crusade  to  a 
successful  issue,  due  in  great  part,  doubtless,  to  his  having 
acted  upon  the  advice  of  his  brother-in-law,  the  Emperor 
Frederick    II. 

On  his  return  journey  he  landed  at  Trapani,  in  Sicily, 
and,  being  received  with  great  honour,  journeyed  to  Naples, 
where  he  rested  for  some  time  as  the  Emperor's  guest.  "  He 
was  received  in  the  various  cities  through  which  he  passed 
with  the  greatest  joy  and  honour,  the  citizens  and  their 
ladies  coming  to  meet  him  with  music  and  singing,  bearing 
branches  of  trees  and  flowers,  dressed  in  festal  array,  &c. 
When  at  length  he  did  reach  the  Emperor,  he  was  received 
by  him  with  all  honour ;  and  after  mutually  embracing  one 
another,  amidst  the  applause  of  all  the  Imperial  attendants, 
they  indulged  in  long-desired  converse  and  various  sorts  of 
consolation,  and  enjoyed  themselves  as  friends  for  many 
days.  The  Emperor,  moreover,  ordered  him  to  be  gently 
and  mildly  treated  with  blood-letting,  baths,  and  divers 
medicinal  fomentations  to  restore  his  strengtli  after  the 
dangers  of  the  sea  ;  and  at  the  end  of  some  days,  by  the 
Emperor's  permission,  he  enjoyed  a  free  and  lengthened 
conversation  with  his  own  sister,  the  Empress  [Isabella].  .  . 
After  some  days  had  thus  passed  in  repose  from  his  toils,  the 
Emperor  sent  Earl  Richard,  in  whose  fidelity  and  prudence 

Richard,  Earl  of  Cornwall.  95 

lie  had  learned  to  confide,  to  the  Court  of  Rome,  in  order  to 
cement  peace  between  the  Pontiff  and  himself.  The  Emperor 
likewise,  in  addition  to  the  honours  he  had  already  conferred 
on  the  said  Earl,  gave  him  a  document,  sealed  with  the 
Imperial  seal,  binding  himself  to  abide  by  his  decision  on 
whatsoever  conditions  peace  should  come  to  be  re-established 
by  him.  On  the  Earl's  arrival  in  Rome,  however,  he  was 
received  with  insult  and  contempt ;  and  he  found  the  Pontiff 
so  inexorable  and  adverse  to  peace  that  he  would  agree  to 
nothing  the  Earl  could  propose,  and,  on  the  contrary,  the 
Pontiff  insisted  that  at  all  events  the  Emperor  should  submit 
unconditionally  to  his  own  will  and  pleasure,  abide  by  the 
commands  of  the  Church,  and,  furthermore,  should  take  oath 
so  to  do.  But  to  this  the  Earl  would  not  agree;  and  after 
seeing  and  hearing  many  things  which  rightly  displeased 
him,  he  went  away,  having  effected  nothing.  Having  thus 
discovered  the  tergiversation  of  the  Roman  Court  and  city, 
the  Earl  returned  to  the  Emperor,  and  told  him  his  experi- 
ences. The  Emperor  then  replied :  '  I  am  glad  that  you 
have  learned  personally  the  truth  of  those  things  which  we 
have  heretofore  spoken  to  you  verbally.'  After  remaining 
about  two  months  with  the  Emperor,  as  a  son  with  his 
father,  and  enjoying  much  converse  with  him,  the  Earl 
departed,  loaded  with  costly  gifts."  L  Later  in  the  year 
Isabella,  the  Empress,  died  in  childbirth,  leaving  a  son  and 
a  daughter. 

We  follow  Earl  Richard  on  his  return,  accompanied  by 
many  of  the  French  nobles  and  knights  whom  he  had 
liberated  in  the  East  and  by  special  attendants  provided  for 
him  by  Frederic,  and  find  him  joyfully  received  at  Cremona, 
where  one  special  feature  of  his  entertainment  was  the 
Imperial  elephant  with  its  howdah,  in  which  sat  a  band  of 
musicians  "playing  on  trumpets  and  clapping  their  hands." 

Earl  Richard  arrived  in  England  at  Epiphany-tide  of  1242, 
and  found  London  decorated  to  receive  him  upon  the  feast 
of  S.  Agnes,  the  meeting  of  the  King  and  his  brother  proving 
1  Cf.  Matt,  l'aris,  ad.  Ann.  1241. 

g6  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

to  be  of  a  most  cordial  description.  The  first  question  which 
arrested  their  political  attention  related  to  the  county  of 
Poitou  and  its  recent  seizure  by  King  Louis ;  for  the  Count 
de  la  Marche  had  urged  King  Henry  to  come  without  delay 
to  defend  the  rights  of  the  Poictevins.  These  solicitations 
had  so  worked  upon  the  King  that  he  was  determined  to 
take  aggressive  measures.  Now,  however,  the  barons, 
feeling  galled  by  his  exactions  and  those  of  his  Ministers, 
refused  him  needful  supplies.  As,  nevertheless,  they  had  not 
yet  been  able  to  thoroughly  compact  themselves  under  a 
single  strong  leader,  the  King,  by  persuasions  carefully 
addressed  to  each  one  individually,  finally  succeeded  in 
obtaining  means  to  equip  an  expedition.  Accordingly,  on 
May  15th,  1242,  they  set  out;  the  Poictevins  anticipating 
their  arrival  by  commencing  hostilities  against  Louis.  The 
King  and  Earl  Richard,  seven  other  earls,  and  three  hundred 
knights  reached  the  mouth  of  the  Gironde  and  went  to  Pons 
and  Saintes,  where  they  were  received  by  Reginald,  Lord  of 
Pons.  The  French  King  was  meanwhile  marching  with  four 
thousand  men-at-arms  to  repel  the  "  invasion  "  (as  it  was 
regarded),  and  in  good  sooth  to  win  the  campaign,  greatly  at  the 
expense  of  English  prestige.  No  doubt  his  forces  were  increased 
before  he  reached  Tailleburg,  on  the  other  side  of  which  the 
English  army  arrived  too  late  to  prevent  its  surrendering.  In 
the  events  which  rapidly  followed,  Earl  Richard  played  a  more 
prudent  and  dignified  part  than  King  Henry,  and  by  grasping, 
before  it  was  too  late,  the  utterly  false  position  in  which  he 
now  found  the  English  forces  to  have  gotten  themselves — 
partly  owing  to  the  double-dealings  of  the  Count  de  la 
Marche  and  his  Countess,1  —  he  may  even  be  said  to  have 
made  the  best  of  a  bad  situation,  albeit  it  involved 
the  disgraceful  flight  of  his  kingly  brother  and  himself. 
Discovering,  then,  the  Poictevin  treachery,  and  addressing 
recriminations  to  the  said  Count,  who  was  King  Henry's 
stepfather,  Earl  Richard  laid  down  his  sword,  and,  taking  a 

1  Isabella,  widow  of  King  John,  and  called  "Jezebel  "  by  the  Poictevins 


Richard,  Earl  of  Cornwall.  97 

staff,  went  over  to  the  French  camp  to  try  and  arrange  a 
truce.  He  was  received,  we  learn,  with  marked  respect,  in 
regard  for  his  having  freed  so  many  French  captives  in 
the  Holy  Land.  But  King  Louis  only  granted  a  truce  until 
the  morrow,  saying  to  him  :  "  My  Lord  Earl,  I  have 
granted  this  truce  to  last  for  to-day  and  to-night,  so 
that  you  may  meditate  what  may  be  best  to  be  done ; 
for  night  brings  counsel  with  it."  The  Earl  replied:  "On 
that  account  I  asked  for  the  truce."  He  then  returned 
and  informed  Henry  of  their  imminent  peril  of  capture,  in 
consequence  of  which  the  King  and  his  army  at  once  retreated 
in  disorder  begotten  of  panic,  and  Henry  did  not  draw  rein 
until  he  reached  Saintes.  Next  day  the  French  closely  followed 
them,  and  a  considerable  skirmish  took  place,  in  which 
Simon  de  Montfort  and  John  Mansel  distinguished  them- 
selves. It  is  not  surprising  to  find  among  the  results  of  this 
disaster  that  the  Count  de  la  Marche  immediately  set  about 
procuring  his  own  reconciliation  with  King  Louis,  who, 
moreover,  had  already  captured  two  of  his  sons.  But  Henry 
and  Richard  were  not  permitted  to  remain  at  Saintes.  Louis 
intended  to  surround  and  besiege  them  there.  The  main 
result  of  the  French  plan  becoming  known  to  Richard  while 
staying  there,  was  a  further  ignominious  flight  to  Blaye. 
The  whole  of  Poitou  was  then  turned  against  Henry,  and 
a  lasting  truce  between  French  and  English  was  only 
brought  about  owing  to  a  decimating  outbreak  of  pestilence 
in  the  French  army. 

The  King  had  been  twice  in  actual  danger  of  capture, 
and  we  may  be  sure  that  Earl  Richard  was  heartily  ashamed 
of  the  whole  expedition.  It  would  appear,  however,  that  he 
and  Henry  soon  quarrelled  very  seriously  in  regard  to 
the  Earl's  rights  over  Gascony,  which  Henry  had  attempted 
to  take  from  him  and  confer  upon  Prince  Edward.  The 
Earl,  after  taking  refuge  in  a  convent  at  Bordeaux,  made  his 
way  home  from  that  city  alone  in  October,  1242.  Caught 
in  a  gale,  however,  his  vessel  with  difficulty  made  one  of  the 
Scilly  islands.     In  gratitude  for  his  escape,  the   Ear]  regis- 

Vol.  XXII. 

98  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

tered  a  vow  to  build  an  abbey  for  the  Cistercian  Order  on 
his  estate  at  Hayles,  in  Gloucestershire- 
It  is  not  a  little  curious  to  observe  that,  at  the  same 
moment,  King  Henry  was  laying  pitfalls  for  the  Cistercian 
Order  throughout  England,  so  as  to  extract  money  from 
them,  by  the  instrumentality  of  Boniface,  Archbishop  of 
Canterbury.  This  prelate,  therefore,  convened  all  the  English 
abbots  of  the  Order,  or  met  them  "with  anxious  entreatings 
and  fair  words."  The  reply  of  the  abbots  might  be  placed 
fittingly  in  the  mouth  of  a  representative  Quaker :  "  We  are 
not  permitted  to  assist  anybody  in  carrying  on  war,  in  which 
blood,  especially  Christian  blood,  is  spilled,  lest  by  so  doing 
we  depart  from  the  rules  of  our  Order,  which  has  a  great 
horror  of  blood.  But  we  will  willingly  help  our  Lord  and 
patron  in  efficacious  and  indefatigable  prayers,  charities,  and 
other  pious  works."  They,  therefore,  quietly  refused  the  King 
his  demand  of  the  year's  wool  from  their  flocks,  and  retired. 

The  following  year,  1243,  was  destined  to  prove  eventful 
in  the  domestic  as  well  as  the  political  career  of  the  Earl. 
He  had  learnt  to  sympathise  with  his  brother-in-law,  Simon 
de  Montfort,  Earl  of  Leicester,  and  with  the  baronial 
tendency  to  exercise  patriotic  resistance  towards  the  King,  to 
the  Provencal  party,  and  to  the  Court  of  Rome  which  was 
working  behind  these.  The  weight  of  his  position,  energy,  and 
wealth  were  become  of  extreme  value  to  the  barons,  just  at  a 
time  when  a  most  untoward  event  occurred,  namely,  a  second 
marriage,  which  was  negotiated  between  him  and  Sanchia  de 
Provence,  sister  of  the  Queens  of  France  and  England. 
In  fact,  Beatrice,  Countess  of  Provence,  brought  her 
daughter  in  great  state  to  England,  and  on  S.  Clement's 
day  she  and  Richard  were  united  at  Westminster  in 
circumstances  of  surpassing  splendour.  But  in  spite  of  the 
merry  feasting  and  unbounded  prodigality  of  the  occasion, 
there  were  men  who  took  part  in  it  with  bitter  hearts, 
who  perceived  that  this  union  would  both  commit  the  Earl 
to  the  unpopular,  or  Court,  party,  as  well  as  import  a  farther 
batch  of  Provencals  into  the  country.     This  was  a  moment, 

Richard,  Earl  of  Cornwall.  99 

probably,  when  the  Saxon  and  Norman  elements  in  England 
looked  each  other  full  in  the  face,  not  as  heretofore,  hostile 
to  one  another,  but  rather  as  acquaintances  united  by  a 
common  calamity.  Well  does  Matthew  Paris  exclaim  :  "  How 
contemptible  and  transitory  are  such  joys  !  how  shadowy  and 
deceptive,  this  world,  when  the  morrow's  dawn  dissipated  like 
a  cloud  all  these  great  and  varied  doings  !" 

Meantime  there  had  arisen  a  new  Pope  in  the  person  of 
Sinibaldo  Fieschi,  styled  Innocent  IV.,  who  lost  no  time  in 
asserting,  with  the  combined  ingenuities  of  his  Genoese 
nature  and  legal  education,  his  intention  of  grinding  the  last 
penny  from  the  English  people ;  so  much  so,  that  letters — 
"  such  as  might  have  softened  hearts  of  iron" — were  addressed 
to  him  and  his  Cardinals  by  both  the  King,  Earl  Richard,  and 
the  Magnates  of  the  realm ;  but  to  little  purpose.  The 
agent  sent  by  the  Pope  found  that  he  might,  as  a  last  resort, 
freely  use  Excommunication  as  a  process  for  extracting  ore 
from  most  unpromising  materials.  He  suspended  English 
prelates,  in  all  directions,  from  their  benefices,  until  the 
Church,  as  well  as  the  people,  groaned. 

Up  to  the  year  1246,  Earl  Richard  had  taken  no  steps  to 
fulfil    his    vow,    made    three    years    before,    of    building    a 
Cistercian  abbey.     The  reason  seems  to  be  forthcoming  in 
circumstances  attending  the  dedication  of  the  Abbey  Church 
at  Beaulieu.     That  abbey,  begun  in   1204,  had,  for  some  yet 
unexplained  reason,  not  been  dedicated,  although  the  monks 
had  been  able  to  use  their  church  as  early  as  1227.     In  the 
middle  of  June,   1246,  however,  we  find  Beaulieu  visited  by 
the  Royal  family,  including  Earl  Richard  and  his  Countess — 
the    Abbot,    moreover,    entertaining    the    Bishops   of    Bath, 
Exeter,    and    Chichester.     Shortly    after   the   festival,    Earl 
Richard    took    thirteen  monks  and   some   'conversi,'  or  lay 
brethren,  from  the  abbey,  with  probably  the  architect,  Prater 
Johannis  Cementarius,  and  his  workmen,   to  his  Gloucester- 
shireestate  of  Hayles,  and  there  proceeded  to  hi)'  the  founda- 
tions of  another  royal  abbey.     That  it  must  have  ri  len  with 
unusual  rapidity  seems  certain,  owing   to   the    fact    that    on 

ioo  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

November  5th,  1251,  it  was  dedicated.  The  author  of  the 
Chronicle  of  Haylcs  cannot  resist  the  opportunity  offered  him 
by  the  name  of  Hayles  to  make  play  on  it :  "  Heylis,  quod 
sanus  es,  vel  est,  intelligitur.  Et  hoc  ipsum  nomen  in  Monas- 
terium  primum  sua  morte  fere  septennis,  Frater  Johannis 
Cementarius,  die  Lunae  Rogationis,  presente  Comite,  con- 
firmavit."  x 

Although  reconciliation  over  the  matter  of  their  personal 
differences,  and  above  all  the  marriage  of  the  Earl  to  the 
Queen's  sister,  had  drawn  Richard  nearer  to  Henry,  we 
find  him  with  Simon  de  Montfort,  Grosteste,  Walter  de 
Cantelupe  and  William  Marshall,  Earl  of  Pembroke, 
heading  the  committee  of  twelve  at  Westminster  who  were 
now  appointed  to  effect  reform  in  the  Royal  expenditure 
and  regulation  in  the  King's  conduct.  The  instability  of  the 
King,  incurable  as  it  had  become,  had  so  far  not  infected  his 

Money  was  being  arduously  collected  during  the  ensuing 
years  for  the  purposes  of  another  Crusade,  and  both  political 
parties  were  to  some  extent  united  in  this  pious  purpose,  Earl 
Richard  himself  collecting  six  hundred  and  more  pounds. 
In  1247,  however,  the  King  received  from  one  of  the 
Templars  a  crystal  vase  containing  some  drops  of  the  Holy 
Blood  which  had  been  shed  from  the  side  of  the  Redeemer, 
to  which  was  attached  a  certification,  with  seals  of  the 
Patriarch  of  Jerusalem,  the  Grand  Master,  and  other 
ecclesiastical  dignitaries.  In  October  of  that  year,  having 
invited  his  magnates  to  London,  the  King  carried  this  sacred 
relic  from  St.  Paul's  to  the  newly-rebuilt  Abbey  Church  of 
Westminster,  when  Walter  de  Suffield,  Bishop  of  Norwich, 
preached  a  sermon  exalting  the  virtue  of  this  wonderful 
treasure,  concerning  which,  by  report  of  his  words,  it  is  evident 
that  not  a  little  scepticism  obtained.  This  grand  festival  was 
held  purposely  on  the  anniversary  of  the  sainted  Edmund 
Rich,  formerly  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  whose  remains  had 

'Arms  of  Hayles. — Arg:  A  Bend.     A  Crosier  gules  surmounted  with 
a  lion  rampant  of  the  last.     All  within  a  Bordure  Bezantee. 

Richard,  Earl  of  Cornwall.  ioi 

recently1  been  translated2  at  Pontigny  with  great  honours, 
in  the  Cistercian  Abbey  there.     Regretting  his  absence  from 
the  great  ceremony  of  the  translation  at  Pontigny,  the  Earl  is 
reported  to  us  to  have  used  these  words:   "  Alas,  that  it  was 
not  ordained  on  high  for  the  King  and  myself  to  have  been 
present  at  this  glorious  and  solemn  translation  !     For  he  was 
ouv  Saint  by  birth,  education,  and  promotion,  although,  owing 
to  our  sins,  he   withdrew  from  England.     However,  what   I 
was  not  present  to  do  there,  I  will  do  absent — I  will  pay  due 
reverence  and  honour  to  him."    And  from  that  time  he  began 
to  love  the  Saint  more  sincerely,  and  to  honour  him   more 
devoutly.     Happening  to  be  oppressed  by  a  severe  and  secret 
illness,  endangering  his  life,  he  invoked  his  assistance,  and 
was  happily  freed  from  his  ailment ;  wherefore,  in  gratitude 
to  God  and  the  Saint,  he  took  upon  himself  to  build  a  fourth 
part,  that  is,  the  front  of  the  shrine  (cf.  Matt.  Paris,  a.d.  1247). 
This  is  not  without  considerable  bearing,  it  will  be  seen,  upon 
the  building  and  endowing  of  Hayles  Abbey,  and,  moreover, 
accounts    for   the    rapidity  of   its  erection    and   completion. 
Two  years  later  we  find  him  paying  a  visit  to  Pontigny  for 
the  purpose  of  devotion  at  the  Saint's  tomb,  and  not  only 
this,  but  he  christens  a   son,  whom  Countess  Sanchia  bore 
him  at  Berkhampstead  (1250),  Edmund,  in  his  honour,  as  did 
likewise  King  Henry,   in  naming    his  second  son   Edmund, 
surnamed  Crouchback,  afterwards  titular  King  of  Sicily. 

The  Cistercian  Order  was  now  at  the  height  of  its 
popularity.  Many  of  the  most  splendid  abbeys  in  the 
kingdom  were  in  its  possession,  including  Tintern,  presently 
rebuilding,  Melrose,  Waverley,  Netley,  Fountains,  Flaxley, 
Whalley,  Furness,  Rievaulx,  and  Croxden.  Nevertheless, 
the  powerful  Dominican  and  Franciscan  Orders  affected  to 
regard  the  White  Monks  with  contempt,  or  at  least  with 
indifference,  as  being  devoted  to  a  simpler  life  than  them- 
selves, and  especially  as  being  agriculturists,  albeit  this  side 

'June  G,   12.(7. 

2His  remains  suffered  frequent  "translation."    To  be  a  Saint  in  those  days 

connoted  disturbance  of  one's  remains,  not  to  speak  of  pilfering. 

102  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

of  their  life  was  for  the  most  part  delegated  to  lay-brethren. 
Consequently,  we  learn  of  the  endowing  of  Schools  at  Paris 
and  elsewhere,  for  the  study  of  Theology  and  Canon  law,  "  so 
that  they  might  not  appear  inferior  to  the  other  Orders." 

On  his  way  back  from  Pontigny,  Richard  contrived,  while 
at  Pans,  to  purchase  from  the  Abbot  of  S.  Denis  his  rights 
over  the  Priory  of  Deerhurst,  with  several  villages  pertaining 
thereto.  A  little  later  on  he  procured,  during  a  visit  to  the 
Roman  Court  at  Lyons,  ratification  of  this  purchase,  and  on 
returning  to  Gloucestershire  he  expelled  the  monks  thence  and 
took  possession,  according  to  Matthew  Paris,  in  a  somewhat 
violent  manner.  "  He  also  determined  to  build  a  castle 
there,  on  the  river  Severn." 

On  the  occasion  of  his  visiting  Innocent  IV.  at  Lyons,  he 
was  accompanied  by  Sanchia  and  his  son  by  his  first  countess, 
Henry,  now  a  lad  of  fifteen.  They  were  richly  attended  by 
a  retinue  of  forty  knights,  three  bishops,  and  five  loaded 
waggons.  Innocent  had  desired  to  see  the  Earl,  probably 
for  several  reasons.  The  French  King  was  fallen  in  great 
difficulties  at  Damietta  while  leading  a  crusade,  and  on  the 
very  day  that  Earl  Richard  was  feasting  with  the  Sovereign 
Pontiff,  it  happened  that  he  and  his  brother,  Charles,  Count 
of  Anjou,  and  Alphonse,  Count  of  Poitou,  were  taken  prisoners 
by  the  Sultan,  and  their  army  was  more  than  decimated.  But 
this  fact  was,  of  course,  not  known  until  some  time  later,  when 
Richard  had  reached  London,  in  August.  The  Emperor 
Frederick  continuing  under  excommunication,  his  throne 
of  Naples  and  Sicily  had  been  declared  vacant,  and  the 
arrogant  Pontiff  was  looking  about  for  a  candidate  to  place 
upon  it.  In  his  eyes  no  one  could  seem  so  well  fitted  for 
such  a  post  as  the  rich  and  pious  Earl  of  Cornwall,  whose 
wife  was  the  ambitious  sister  of  two  reigning  Queens. 
Prudence,  fear,  and,  perhaps,  silent  respect  for  Frederick, 
dictated  his  refusal  of  the  proffered  honour.  Furthermore, 
the  German  throne  was  similarly  declared  to  be  vacant ;  and 
England,  being  regarded  with  good  reason  as  the  Virgin's 
Dower,  the   Mexico   of   Rome,    Innocent    desired   to   obtain 

Richard,  Earl  of  Cornwall.  103 

information  viva  voce  regarding  the  actual  conditions  of 
parties  there  ;  as  to  where  pressure  could  be  exerted 
fruitfully,  and  where  it  could  not  be,  as  well  as  particulars 
respecting  both  the  King's  sons  and  those  of  the  Earl,  in  view 
of  their  possible  candidature  for  puppet-monarchies.  In  fact, 
there  was  almost  an  embarrassment  of  choice,  for,  besides 
these  Princes,  and  Earl  Richard  himself,  there  was  Charles  of 
Anjou,  who  had  married  (1246)  Beatrice  of  Provence,  the 
last  daughter  of  the  House  which  had  given  Earl  Richard, 
King  Henry,  and  King  Louis  IX.  their  respective  wives. 

In  the  following  December  (1250)  the  great  Hohenstaufen 
Emperor  succumbed  to  disease,  and  the  struggle  with  the 
Papacy  only  increased  in  intensity  in  the  hands  of  his 
excommunicated    heirs. 

But  by  this  time  the  quiet  Cotswold  vale  beyond  Winch- 
comb,  the  inhabitants  of  which  had  only  been  used  to  the  black 
Benedictines  of  Winchcomb  Abbey,  had  become  accustomed 
to  the  appearance  among  their  fields  of  the  white  monks 
and  their  throngs  of  workmen,  under  whose  energetic  hands 
had  already  arisen  far  toward  its  completion  a  splendid 
church  and  convent  within  three  hundred  yards  of  the  little 
Norman  church  and  Castle  of  Hayles.  This  Parish  Church 
of  Hayles,  together  with  Hagley  in  Worcestershire,  had 
been  recently  confirmed  to  the  new  Royal  Monastery  by 
the  Pontiff  (4  non.  Jan.,  1248,  Kal.  Papal  Registcvs).  By 
the  following"  November  all  was  sufficiently  complete  and  in 
order  for  the  great  Dedication,  which  it  was  arranged  should 
take  place  on  the  anniversary  of  .St.  Leonard's  Day  and 
the  birth  of  his  son  Henry,  afterwards  of  '  Almaine.'  The 
wealthy  Earl,  to  whom  the  King,  his  brother,  was  now 
become  deeply  in  debt  for  moneys  lent,  confessed  to  have 
spent  as  much  as  10,000  marks  (£1,600  of  that  day)  upon 
the  building.  The  King  and  Queen  reached  Winchcomb, 
where  they  stayed  a  few  days,  on  Saturday,  November  4th, 
1251.  On  Sunday  the  Abbey  of  Hayles  was  dedicated, 
twelve  bishops — Ely,  Lincoln,  Worcester,  London,  Norwich, 
Salisbury,   Exeter,  Chichester,  Bath  and  Wells,  St.  David's, 

104  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

Rochester,  and  St.  Asaph  (cf.  Landboc,  Reg.  Monast,  dc 
Winchelcomba,  vol.  i.,  p.  xx.) — taking  part  in  the  ceremony, 
besides  the  Abbot  of  Hayles.  Matthew  Paris  says  there 
were  thirteen,  "  who  celebrated  mass,  each  at  his  own 
altar,  while  the  Bishop  of  Lincoln  (Grosteste)  solemnly 
chanted  mass  at  the  High  Altar.  This  was  a  Sunday 
(first  after  All  Saints),  and  the  nobles  feasted  sumptuously 
in  company  with  the  bishops  and  others,  who  ate  meat, 
whilst  the  religious  men  took  their  places,  and  refreshed 
themselves  with  large  quantities  of  fish  of  divers  kinds. 
There  were  present  also  more  than  three  hundred  soldiers  ; 
indeed,  if  I  should  describe  in  full  the  splendour  of  that 
solemn  and  festive  gathering,  I  should  be  thought  to  be 
exceeding  the  bounds  of  truth.  When  I,  Matthew  Paris, 
desired  to  be  informed  upon  the  matter,  in  order  that  I 
might  not  insert  falsities  in  this  book,  the  Earl,  without 
hesitation,  informed  me  that  when  all  expenses  were 
reckoned  up,  he  had  laid  out  ten  thousand  marks  in  the 
building  of  that  church  ;  adding  this  venerable  and  laudable 
speech  :  '  Would  to  God  I  had  expended  what  I  have  laid 
out  on  the  Castle  of  Wallingford  in  as  wise  and  salutary 
a  manner.'  " 

In  such  a  manner,  therefore,  Earl  Richard  had  now 
fulfilled  his  vow  to  the  Virgin.  We  are  not  told  with 
what  Holy  Relics  the  Abbey  was  presented,  but  that,  at  a 
later  period,  it  possessed  several,  including  a  fragment  of 
the  Cross,  is  certain.  Moreover,  it  was  destined,  like 
Westminster,  to  be  enriched  in  1270  with  a  Relic  of  the 
Holy  Blood,  by  Edmund,  the  Earl's  son  by  Sanchia  of 
Provence,  which  came  to  be  known  as  the  "  Blood  of 

In  the  troubles  which  ensued  regarding  Simon  de 
Montfort,  his  brother-in-law,  who  had  been  governing 
unruly  Gascony  for  four  years,  and  against  whom  the 
Gascons  lodged  bitter  complaints,  the  Earl  took  Simon's 
part,  and  thus  made  his  weight  felt.  It  is,  however,  certain 
that  although  Earl  Richard  was  conspicuous  for  his  piety, 

Richard,  Earl  of  Cornwall.  105 

and  had  earlier  in  life  been  looked  up  to  with  sincere  respect 
by  the  people,  he  had  now  become  regarded  as  untrust- 
worthy, and  devoted  to  the  accumulation  of  wealth.  This 
was  in  part  attributable  to  the  mystery  which  had  been 
observed  in  regard  to  his  visit  to  the  Pope,  at  Lyons.  It 
was  also  known  that  the  King  was  financially  involved,  and 
had  given  him,  in  consequence,  a  general  concession  over  all 
the  Jews  in  England,  so  that  he  might  assist  the  King 
further,  as  well  as  himself.  Nevertheless,  it  sufficiently 
appears  that  although  Richard  extracted  money  from  them, 
like  most  princes  of  the  day,  he  behaved  with  conspicuous 
humanity,  being  apparently  moved  by  the  desperation  of 
their  poverty.  He  lent  the  King  a  further  sum  of  8,000 
marks,  and  received  from  him  security  "in  gold." 

In  the  year  1255,  Richard  is  found  making  a  pilgrimage 
to  the  tomb  of  his  lately-deceased  friend  and  fellow-traveller, 
Robert  Grosteste,  Bishop  of  Lincoln,  whose  resting-place 
had  already  become  associated  with  miracles.  Meanwhile, 
Innocent  IV.  died,  and  was  succeeded  by  an  inferior 
imitator,  in  the  person  of  Alexander  IV.,  who  pressed  King 
Henry  to  accept  for  his  second  son  Edmund  the  crown  of 
Naples  and  Sicily.  Henry  was  offered,  indeed,  exemption 
from  his  vow  to  go  on  the  Crusade  if  he  would  lead  an 
army  into  Italy  against  Manfred,  to  whose  successful  arms 
Naples  had  opened  her  gates.  Innocent  IV.  had,  in  fact, 
already  acknowledged  Edmund  as  titular  King  of  Sicily,  and 
his  imbecile  father  was  now  flaunting  the  boy  before  the 
public  in  England  in  an  Italian  costume.  But  in  all  this 
Henry  gained  no  favour  from  his  brother. 

Earl  Richard  was,  none  the  less,  occupying  his  own  mind 
with  a  scheme  not  unconnected  with  the  wearisome  struggle 
between  the  Hohenstaufen  and  the  Holy  See.  The  German 
Empire  had  been  again  rendered  vacant  through  the  death, 
in  battle  with  the  Frisians,  of  William,  Earl  of  Holland  and 
Vriesland,  upon  whom  its  throne  had  been  papally  conferred. 
The  election  of  Conradin,  the  infant  nephew  of  Manfred,  to 
the  throne  was  vetoed  by  the  Pontiff,  and  the  seven  electors 

106  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

were  compelled  to  look  abroad  among  the  various  princes  of 
Christendom  for  a  candidate.  Their  eyes  without  difficulty 
lighted  upon  Richard,  Earl  of  Cornwall,  and  having  elected 
him  among  themselves,  they  sent  envoys  to  Westminster, 
where  the  King  was  spending  Christmas,  in  1256,  in  order  to 
beg  the  Earl's  compliance  with  their  wishes.  The  Archbishop 
of  Cologne  wrote  further  to  Richard,  assuring  him  that  never 
had  there  been  known  so  spontaneous  and  unanimous  an 
election  among  them.  The  united  solicitations  of  the  King, 
the  Bishop  of  Winchester,  and  Sanchia,  his  countess,  prevailed 
over  the  Earl's  grave  misgivings,  and  he  at  last  used  a  solemn 
form  of  acceptance  of  the  honour  and  responsibility,  which 
gave  great  satisfaction  to  the  envoys.  We  are  told,  however, 
by  the  clever  and  picturesque  chronicler,  Matthew  Paris, 
that  a  satirist  exclaimed,  "The  money  cries,  For  my  sake, 
Cornwall  is  married  to  Rome!"  He  also  records  that  a 
valuation  of  the  Earl's  wealth  at  this  period  of  his  life  was 
made,  and  it  was  found  to  be  "  that  he  could  furnish  a 
hundred  marks  daily  for  ten  years,  without  counting  his 
daily  augmenting  profits  arising  from  his  revenues  in  England 
and  Germany." 

Accordingly,  in  May,  1257,  we  see  him  in  company  with 
Florenz  V.,  Lord  of  Holland,  Zeeland,  and  Vriesland,  the 
Bishop  of  London  (who  was  his  Agent-General),  his  Countess 
Sanchia,  and  his  son  Henry,  with  the  almost  incredible  sum 
of  seven  hundred  thousand  pounds,  "which  were  blood- 
stained by  many  crimes,  besides  his  daily  increasing  revenues 
in  England,"  setting  forth  from  Harwich  for  Aix-la-Chapelle. 
With  him  he  took  likewise  a  new  crown  and  sceptre,  which 
are  perhaps  among  the  somewhat  mended  ones  still  preserved 
there  in  a  building  called  the  Curia  of  King  Richard.  Both  the 
Earl  and  Countess  were  duly  crowned  by  Conrad,  Archbishop 
of  Cologne,  with  magnificent  ceremonies,  followed  by  a  banquet 
which  excited  the  wonder  of  the  Germans.  On  the  following 
day  he  knighted  his  son  Henry,  to  whose  career,  in  con- 
nection with  the  desperate  condition  of  English  affairs  and 
with    the   story  of   Hayles,    the    narrative   must   now   pass. 

Richard,  Earl  of  Cornwall.  107 

Henceforth,  Richard  is  known  as  King  of  the  Romans, 
"  Semper  Augustus";  and  his  son  by  Isabel  Marshall,  as 
Henry  of  Almaine. 

Part  II. 

The  young  Lord  Henry  was  four  years  senior  to  his 
cousin  Edward,  and  two  years  senior  to  Henry,  the  eldest  of 
his  five  De  Montfort  cousins.  They  had  all  been  brought  up 
witnesses  of  the  obstinate  but  vain  struggle  of  the  baronage, 
to  secure  the  right  administration  of  Magna  Charta  at  the 
hands  of  their  uncle,  King  Henry.  They  had  seen  the  tide 
of  national  exasperation  at  the  wholesale  exactions  both  of 
the  Pope  and  the  foreign  relations  of  the  Queen  rising  ever 
higher  and  higher,  until  it  veritably  threatened  to  overwhelm 
the  Kingdom.  Although  there  was  no  lack  of  divisions  and 
jealousies  among  the  more  powerful  of  the  barons,  the  conduct 
of  the  King  and  his  intimate  favourites  tended  to  give  them 
the  sorely  needed  cohesion,  and  their  mouthpiece  was  to  be 
none  other  than  Simon,  Earl  of  Leicester,  now  backed  by  the 
city  of  London.  Even  Edward  found  it  necessary  to 
espouse  the  cause  of  the  Wine-merchants  of  Bordeaux  in 
opposition  to  his  father.  Robert  Grosteste  was  in  his 
grave ;  Earl  Richard  had  become  a  foreign  Royalty  and  a 
money-merchant,  on  a  large  scale. 

The  Provisions  of  Oxford  in  1258  placed  the  power 
of  the  Crown  in  the  hands  of  fifteen  barons,  who  soon 
attempted  to  enact  a  drastic  scheme  of  reformation. 
Edward,  and  Henry  of  Almaine,  found  themselves,  in  spite 
of  their  affection  for  the  King,  carried  away  by  the  over- 
whelming force  of  this  risen  tide:  and  swearing  to  the 
Provisions,  they  acted  in  entire  accord  with  their  uncle, 
Simon  de  Montfort.  During  the  next  five  years  the  agonized 
but  not  despairing  country  witnessed  the  repeated  attempts 
of  the  King  to  undermine  and  throw  over  the  Provisions. 
Earl  Richard,  who  had  returned  to  England  in  1259  and 
reluctantly  taken  the  oath  to  maintain  the  Provisions  of 
Oxford,  at  the  hands  of  Richard  de  Clare,  Earl  of  Gloucester, 

ioS  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

found  himself  in  an  awkward  position,  and  perhaps  gladly 
revisited  Germany  the  following  summer.  In  1264  Civil  war 
had  actually  broken  out,  and  Henry  of  Almaine  was  found 
on  the  Baronial  side. 

The  first  glimpse  in  it  which  we  have  of  Henry  is  finding 
him  engaged  in  pursuit  of  the  fugitive  Minister  and  favourite, 
John  Mansel,  who  had  crossed  the  channel  in  order  to 
escape  the  wrath  of  people  and  barons,  '  fearing  for  his  skin.' 
A  French  Knight,  Ingelram  de  Fiennes,  however,  made 
him  prisoner  near  Boulogne,  by  contriving  (it  was  believed) 
of  Queen  Eleanor.  His  father  Richard,  in  consequence, 
made  an  effectual  outcry,  threatening  to  throw  his  weight 
entirely  on  the  side  of  the  barons  unless  his  son  was 
immediately  released.  Henry  was  presently  set  free  by 
his   captor,    and   duly   returned    to    England. 

Edward,  more  and  more  finding  himself  inevitably 
bound  to  his  father,  although  determining  his  own  course 
beneath  the  current  of  his  policy,  now  induced  his  cousin 
Henry  likewise  to  forsake  the  side  of  the  Barons, 
and  their  De  Montfort  cousins.  It  is  reported  that  he 
stimulated  his  decision  by  giving  him  the  Manor  of 
Tickhill,  in  Yorkshire.  His  father,  Richard,  who  was 
become  the  King's  chief  creditor,  had  likewise  drifted 
completely  away  from  the  National  cause.  Henry  of  Almaine, 
therefore,  wrote  to  Earl  Simon,  and  said:  "  My  Lord  Earl, 
I  cannot  any  longer  fight  against  my  father,  against  my 
uncle,  the  King,  and  my  other  relatives.  With  your  consent, 
I  will  leave  you  ;  but  I  will  never  bear  arms  against  you." 
To  which  the  great  leader  replied:  "  Lord  Henry,  it  is  not  on 
account  of  the  loss  of  your  sword  that  I  grieve,  but  for  the 
inconstancy  which  I  see  in  you."  At  the  same  time  Hamon 
L'Estrange,  Roger  de  Clifford,  and  others,  broke  the 
allegiance  they  had   formerly  sworn  to  the   barons. 

After  a  Royalist  success  at  Tonbridge  Castle,  in  which 
was  captured  Alicia  de  Clare,  Countess  of  Gloucester,  the 
struggle  culminated  to  a  crisis  in  the  battle  of  Lewes, 
although  the    Barons    had    tactfully    offered    to  compromise 

Richard,  Earl  of  Cornwall.  109 

with  the  King  by  giving  him  50,000  marks  for  alleged 
damages  done  to  his  property.  On  this  occasion,  Richard 
appeared  in  his  full-blown  financial  capacity,  and  demanded 
that  same  sum  from  them  for  his  personal  compensation 
alone.  The  Baronial  party,  in  vengeance  for  the  Earl's 
desertion  of  the  National  Cause,  had  plundered  and 
burned  his  Manor  of  Isleworth.  This  incident  is  somewhat 
derisively    commemorated     in     one    of    the     contemporary 

songs  :- 

"The  King  of  Almain,  by  my  loyalty, 
Thirty  thousand   Pounds,  ask't  he 
For  to  make  peace  in  the  countree, 
And  so  he  did  more." 

From  general  Referee  and  Arbitrator,  he  had  now  drifted 
into  a  speculative  middleman  ;  and  he  paid  a  heavy  price 
for  his  degeneration,  leaving  arbitration  in  the  hands  of  his 
brother-in-law,  King  Louis  of  France. 

At  the  battle,  Richard  had  with  him  not  only  his  eldest 
son,  but  Edmund,  his  son  by  Sanchia  of  Provence,  who  was 
but  fourteen  years  of  age.  Many  of  the  Gloucestershire 
barons,  such  as  John  de  Haresfield  and  Gifford  of  Brimsfield, 
were  with  their  enemies.  Suffering,  as  he  was,  from  the 
seizure  of  certain  of  his  properties  by  the  Barons,  he  himself 
sent  them  a  defiant  message. 

In  the  fight  which  ensued  then,  the  King  of  the  Romans 
with  his  two  sons  commanded  the  left  wing  of  the  Royal 
army,  which  was  opposed  to  the  force  led  by  their  cousins, 
the  sons  of  Simon  de  Montfort.  Moreover,  Richard  seems 
to  have  set  himself  the  ambitious  achievement  of  capturing 
the  great  Earl.  The  latter,  however,  by  masterly  tactics, 
so  completely  out-manceuvred  him  that  his  force  was  thrust 
over  upon  King  Henry's  in  great  disorder,  leaving  in  its 
wake  as  prisoners  de  Bohun,  FitzAlan,  Percy,  and  several 
Scottish  chieftains.  The  baronial  troops,  pressing  their 
advantage  home  over  Lewes  Downs,  finally  surrounded  the 
fugitive    Richard,    who    had    entered    a    windmill    ("  with 

no  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

sayles ")  toward  the  coast.  The  soldiers  now  made  free 
to  jest  on  his  sorry  situation  by  such  exclamations  as, 
"Come  out,  you  bad  miller!"  "You  mill-master,  'Semper 
Augustus'!"  The  Song  of  the  Battle  of  Lewes  sufficiently 
accentuates  the  point. 

The  Royal  fugitives,  later  in  the  day,  surrendered  to 
Gilbert  de  Clare,  Earl  of  Gloucester,  and  Sir  John  Bess ; 
but  Henry  of  Almaine  was  not  taken,  though  his  half- 
brother  Edmund  was,  and  shared  the  five  months'  detention 
suffered  by  their  father  at  Kenilworth  Castle.  In  the 
negotiations  which  followed  the  defeat,  however,  Edward 
and  Henry  of  Almaine  were  surrendered  as  hostages  to  the 
Barons  for  their  respective  fathers.  Richard  then  found  his 
estate  put  under  sequestration,  and  he  was  made  to  disgorge 
;£*i 7,000,  and  ,£"5,000  in  gold. 

In  March,  1265,  Henry  of  Almaine  was  sent  from  Dover 
into  France  in  order  to  treat  with  King  Louis,  and  there  he 
remained  still  treating,  or  else  breaking  parole  (for  he  had 
departed  conditionally),  till  August,  when  there  befell  the 
culminating  battle  of  Evesham.  So  that  then  he  returned 
to  England  to  share  in  the  triumph  of  his  uncle,  King  Henry, 
and  the  downfall  of  the  De  Montforts,  the  remnant  of  whom 
found  themselves  forced  to  release  Richard  from  Kenilworth 
and  flee  the  country.  When  the  news  of  the  death  of 
Earl  Simon  and  his  eldest  son  and  the  captivity  of  the 
wounded  Guy  reached  the  younger  Simon  and  Richard 
de  Montfort,  at  Kenilworth,  the  soldiers  on  guard  there 
were  for  killing  the  King  of  the  Romans  in  revenge.  It 
was  much  to  Simon  the  younger's  credit  that  he  prevented 
the  deed.  It,  however,  renders  perhaps  only  more  mysterious 
the  terrible  vendetta  perpetrated  on  Henry  of  Almaine,  at 
Viterbo,  six  years  later,  by  both  Simon  and  Guy,  who  had 
become  commanders  of  repute  in  the  army  of  Charles  of 
Anjou,  King  of  Naples  and  Sicily. 

We  next  hear  of  Henry  of  Almaine  being  despatched 
with  a  force  to  confront  Robert  de  Ferrers,  Earl  of  Derby, 
in  the  North,  whom  he  defeated  at  Chesterfield  and  brought 

Richard,  Earl  of  Cornwall.  hi 

in  fetters  to  London,  "acquiring  for  himself  much  glory."1 
(Matthew  of  Westminster,  a.d.  1266.)  He  was  likewise 
rewarded  with  the  Manor  of  Cringley,  near  Canterbury,  which 
had  belonged  to  William  de  Furnival.  In  1269  ne  married, 
at  Windsor,  Constance,  widow  of  Alfonso  of  Aragon,  and 
daughter  of  Eskivat  de  Chabannois,  Count  of  Bigorre,  and 
Agnes,  daughter  of  the  Count  de  Foix.  In  1270  he  joined 
his  cousin  Edward,  and  set  forth  with  him  to  the  Crusade  at 
Tunis.  Arrived  there,  they  found  that  the  King  of  France, 
their  uncle,  and  Tristan,  his  brother,  were  dead  of  the  plague, 
and  ignominious  truce  with  the  Moslem  had  been  concluded. 
Edward,  therefore,  determined  to  proceed  to  Acre;  but  he 
sent  Henry  back  to  Gascony  by  way  of  Italy,  under  protec- 
tion of  Charles  of  Anjou,  in  order  that  he  might  adjust 
various  difficulties  which  had  arisen  there.  In  consequence, 
he  joined  the  funereal  procession  of  Charles  and  Philip  III. 
of  France,  carrying  the  remains  of  the  deceased  Princes  to 
Rome  and  Viterbo,  on  the  way  to  France. 

They  at  length  reached  Viterbo,  where  the  Conclave  then 
sitting  seemed  to  require  the  presence  of  Charles  in  order  to 
arrive  at  the  election  of  a  new  Pontiff  in  place  of  Clement  IV. 
These  princes  took  up  their  lodgings  at  different  palaces  of 
the  nobles  in  that  city,  on  March  9th,  127 1.  It  is  probable 
that  Henry  of  Almaine  was  lodged  in  that  of  the  powerful 
family  of  Di  Vico,  hereditary  Prefects  of  Rome,  hard  by  the 
parochial  church  of  San  Sylvestro.  In  those  days  the 
piazza  of  that  church  (now  del  Jesu)  was  the  seat  of  the 

On  the  morning  of  March  10th,  while  the  two  monarchs, 
his  kinsmen,  attended  mass  in  the  church  of  S.  Francesco, s 
Henry  of  Almaine  went  to  that  of  S.  Sylvestro.  He  was 
kneeling  before  the  altar,   at   the  moment  of  the  elevation, 

1  Note. It  is  not  unworthy  of  remark  that  tiles  bearing  the  arms  of 

this  De  Ferrers,  but  within  a  Bordure,  have  been  lately  found  in  the  north 
aisle  of  the  Presbytery  of  Hayles  Abbey.  His  son  may  have  ended  his 
days  a  prisoner  at  Hayles. 

-  Xot  in  San  Lorenzo,  the  Duomo,  as  is  usually  stated. 

ii2  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

when  Guy  and  Simon  de  Montfort,  advancing  towards  him, 
shouted  to  him  :  "  Henry,  you  traitor,  you  shall  not  escape 
us!"  and  undeterred  by  the  deacons,  who  vainly  endeavoured 
to  defend  the  Prince,  they  commenced  hacking  at  him  with 
their  swords.  Clinging  to  the  altar,  four  of  his  fingers  were 
left  adhering  to  it.  One  of  the  deacons  was  killed. 
Aldebrandino  Rosso,  Count  of  Anguillara,  father-in-law  of 
Guy,  and  William  de  Baskerville,  who  had  fought  at  Evesham, 
took  part  in  the  murder.  The  former  was  afterwards  cited 
to  appear  in  answer  to  the  charge  by  Pope  Gregory  X. ; 
the  latter  was  presently  outlawed  for  his  participation,  and 
he  put  in  the  plea,  when  summoned,  that  he  could  not  be 
tried  for  a  deed  committed  in  a  foreign  country.  The  murder 
done,  the  De  Montforts  rode  away  from  the  town  with  the 
Count  and  their  accomplices  to  the  castle  of  Soana.  Later, 
fearing  the  emissaries  of  Edward,  they  took  refuge  in  the 
Cistercian  Abbey  of  Galgano,  towards  Siena. 

The  body  of  the  unfortunate  Prince  was  treated  in 
accordance  with  a  barbarous  usage  obtaining  in  that  day, 
the  origin  of  which  is  probably  to  be  attributed  to  the  vicissi- 
tudes of  the  Crusades.  I  refer  to  divisional,  or  tripartite, 
sepulture  :  that  is  to  say,  the  securing  of  the  prayers  of  three 
separate  congregations  by  means  of  distributing  important 
members  of  a  corpse  among  them.  As  crusading  Princes 
desired  their  remains  to  be  sent  back  to  their  family 
sepulchres  in  Europe,  it  became  necessary  to  embalm,  or 
preserve  them  in  some  other  manner.  King  Louis  and  his 
brother  Trislan,  who  had  recently  perished,  had  been  boiled 
in  wine  and  separated  into  flesh,  bones,  and  heart,  each  of 
which  was  destined  to  a  different  Shrine.  Cf.  the  indignant 
prohibition  uttered  by  Boniface  VIII.  ("  Detestanda  feritatis 
abusum  ")  of  the  custom.  This  prohibition,  however,  was  in 
vain,  and  the  custom  has  continued,  by  Papal  licence, 
down  to  our  own  century.  The  case  was  not  otherwise 
with  Henry  of  Almaine.  His  body  was  boiled  ;  while 
his  flesh  was  buried  in  the  Cathedral  of  Viterbo,  between 
the  remains  of  two  popes.     His  heart,  however,  was  placed 

Richard,  Earl  of  Cornwall.  113 

in  a  golden  vase  and  sent  to  the  Benedictines  at  West- 
minster, who  consigned  it  to  the  shrine  of  Edward  the 
Confessor.  Dante  refers  to  this  in  the  well-known  passage 
wherein  he  describes  De  Montfort  as  a  lonely  spirit  plunged 
np  to  the  throat  in  hot  blood,  and  shunned  even  by  other 
murderers,  as  having  smitten  in  the  church  "  the  heart 
which  still  bleeds  for  vengeance,  beside  the  Thames " 
(/;//.  xii.  119).  The  bones  of  the  murdered  Prince  were 
brought  to  London  and  thence  carried  to  Hayles,  where 
they  were  interred  in  front  of  the  then  high  altar,  on 
May  21st,  with  the  utmost  solemnity.  We  hear  of  a 
funeral  mass,  performed  in  his  honour,  at  Norwich  as  late 
as  July  22nd.  His  arms  were:  Or,  an  Eagle  Displayed, 
sable.     Armed   Gules. 

A  picture  representing  the  murder  is  recorded  by  con- 
temporary chroniclers  to  have  been  painted  at  Viterbo,  to 
which  certain  descriptive  verses  were  appended.  These  will 
be  found  in  Matthew  of  Westminster.  Another  picture, 
perhaps  a  copy  of  this  fresco,  was  extant  in  S.  Sylvestro 
until  thirty  years  ago,  and  Signor  Caposalvi,  an  architect  of 
that  city,  relates  that  he  and  others  still  living  well  recollect 
it.  It  is  possibly  yet  extant  as  a  "curio"  in  the  hands  of 
someone,  who  may  be  unaware  of  its  significance. 

Simon  de  Montfort,  the  younger,  perished  by  accident  at 
Siena,  within  a  year  of  the  murder.  Guy,  whose  abundant 
correspondence  with  the  Pope  respecting  it  I  have  obtained, 
underwent  certain  serious  penances,  but  survived  until  1288, 
when  he  was  captured  at  sea  by  Ruggiero  di  Loria,  the 
Aragonese  admiral,  then  fighting  against  Charles  of  Anjou 
lor  the  possession  of  Sicily.     He  died  in  a  Sicilian  prison. 

Earl  Richard,  whose  health  had  been  fast  failing,  at 
the  date  of  the  murder  of  his  son,  in  September  (1271), 
learned  of  the  partial  destruction  of  his  abbey  at  Hayles 
by  a  fire,  and  being  attacked  by  paralysis  while  at  his 
manor  of  Berkhampstead  in  December  of  the  same  year, 
he  presently  lost  his  reason.  He  lingered  until  February  of 
the  following  year,  when   he   died,     lie   was   buried   beside 


Vol.  XXII. 

ii4  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

his  queen,  Sanchia,1  at  Hayles.  His  son,  Edmund  (Earl  of 
Cornwall),  re-built  and  extended  the  church  for  the  monks, 
re-dedicating  it  in  1277,  and  enriching  it  with  the  famous 
relic  known  as  the  Blood  of  Hayles.  It  is  to  him  the  Abbey 
owed  the  fine  polygonal  Apse  lately  uncovered.  Richard  left 
behind  him  a  third  wife,  Beatrice,  daughter  of  Dietrich  von 
Falkenstein,  niece  of  Conrad,  Archbishop  of  Cologne,  reputed 
an  exceedingly  beautiful  woman,  whom  he  had  married  in 
1269,  and  another  son,  Richard,  who  was  killed  at  Berwick 
in   1296,  and  likewise  buried  at  Hayles.2 

1  Sanchia  of  Provence  died  in  1261,  and  was  buried  November  9th  at 
Hayles,  whither  her  body  had  been  brought  from  Berkhampstead  by 
Boniface,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  Peter  of  Savoy,  and  two  Bishops. 
Her  arms  are — Or,  four  pallets,  gules. 

2  Richard  had  other  issue  : — 

Richard,  buried  at  Hayles  in  1246, 

Philip,  in  Holy  Orders  1248, 

Isabella,  buried  at  Reading  Abbey, 

John,  died  at  Marlow,  and  buried  at  Reading  Abbey, 
besides  a  natural  son,  Richard,  to  whom  Edmund,  Earl  of  Cornwall,  gave 
the  manor  of  Thunnack,  co.  Lincoln,  a.d.  12S0.    Ancestor  of  the  Cornwalls 
of  Burford. 



By  the    Rev.  W.    H.   T.   WRIGHT, 
Curate-in-charge  of  Eastleach. 

Ox  the  edge  of  a  spur  of  the  Cotswold  Hills  lie  the  twin 
villages  of  Eastleach  Martin,  or  Burthorpe,  and  Eastleach 
Turville.  The  former,  a  collection  of  scattered  houses  and 
cottages,  finding  a  home  for  most  of  its  people  in  the  little 
hamlet  of  Fyfield  ;  the  latter,  as  described  in  the  Society's 
programme,  a  picturesque  village.  Perhaps  in  all  Gloucester- 
shire there  is  scarcely  a  less  known  spot — a  spot  which 
should  attract  the  artist  and  lover  of  the  beautiful  in  Nature, 
and  at  the  same  time  furnish  matter  of  interest  to  a  learned 
Society.  What  I  am  endeavouring  to  put  before  you  should 
be  called  a  few  notes  on  the  Parishes  of  Eastleach  Martin 
and  Turville,  rather  than  Eastleach  Martin  and  its  con- 
nection with  the   Priory  of  Great   Malvern. 

According  to  Fosbrooke,  both  parishes  take  date  from 
about  the  same  period,  between  the  eleventh  and  thirteenth 
centuries.  According  to  Domesday,  Drogo  Fitzpons  held 
the  Manor  of  Eastleach  Martin,  being  one  of  five  brothers 
of  that  name  who  came  over  with  the  Conqueror.  Of  these 
brothers,  Richard  Fitzpons,  or  son  of  Puncius,  was  a  great 
benefactor  to  the  parish.  In  the  latter  part  of  the  eleventh 
or  beginning  of  the  twelfth  century  the  Church  was  built, 
the  founder  being  the  said  Richard,  and  the  deed  of  gift  on 
his  part  of  the  Church  of  Lech  to  the  Priory  of  Malvern  is 
attested  by  his  two  brothers,  Simon  and  Osborn,  among 
others.  The  original  of  this  deed  may  be  seen  in  the 
British  Museum.  In  a  small  volume  entitled  The  Chitir/i 
and  Monastery  '/.//,   by  Mr.    Jas.    Nott,   will  be 

found   a   photographic    representation   of   the  original   deed, 
together    with    a    translation.       The    deed    sets    forth    that 

n6  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

Richard,  son  of  Puncius,  for  the  good  of  his  own  soul,  of 
that  of  his  wife  Mathildis,  and  the  souls  of  other  members 
of  his  family,  gave  the  Church  of  Lech  with  five  virgates  of 
land,  free  and  quit  and  absolved  from  all  service,  and  with 
the  whole  tithing  of  his  demesne  and  of  the  court  of  the 
same  vill,  and  with  all  things  appertaining  to  the  said 
Church  of  Lech  :  to  God,  and  to  St.  Mary,  and  to  St. 
Michael  of  Malvern,  and  to  the  monks  there  serving  God  : 
and  further  grants  to  the  aforesaid  monks  and  to  their  clerks 
for  the  service  of  their  Church  of  Lech  full  common  of  the 
whole  of  his  vill  and  land. 

Taken  in  connection  with  this,  the  Charter  of  the 
Dedication  of  the  Church  granted  by  Simon,  Bishop  of 
Worcester,  shows  again  the  influence  of  Malvern  in  the 
parish.  To  this  charter  is  affixed  the  seal  of  Thomas,  Prior 
of  Malvern,  thought  by  Mr.  Nott  to  be  perhaps  that  of 
Thomas  de  Wick,  who  was  Prior  in  121 7  :  this  date,  however, 
seems  too  late,  as  Simon  was  consecrated  Bishop  of 
Worcester  in  1125.  The  Prior  Thomas  in  question  may 
possibly  have  succeeded  Walcher  in  that  office  in  1135. 
This  date  would  of  course  coincide  with  the  period  of 
Bishop  Simon's  episcopate.  Since  Gilbert  Foliot,  Abbot  of 
Gloucester,  appears  one  of  the  witnesses,  we  know  that  the 
dedication  must  have  taken  place  between  June  nth,  1139, 
the  date  of  his  benediction  as  Abbot,  and  September  5th,  114S, 
when  he  was  consecrated  to  the  See  of  Hereford.  As  Bishop 
of  London,  he  became  one  of  the  chief  opponents  of  St.  Thomas 
of  Canterbury.  The  seal  is  a  pointed  oval  in  a  niche 
under  an  early  form  of  canopy,  the  Virgin  seated  holding  the 
Infant  Saviour,  between  St.  Michael  the  Archangel  on  the 
right,  and  a  Saint  on  the  left.  Now  the  Priory  Church  of 
Great  Malvern  is  dedicated  to  St.  Mary  and  St.  Michael, 
and  until  Mr.  Nott's  book  came  into  my  hands  it  was 
supposed  that  the  dedication  of  the  Church  of  Eastleach 
Martin  was  also  to  St.  Mary:  such  has  been  the  title  always 
used,  and  appearing  in  the  Ordnance  Survey  Map  ;  it  will 
be  altered  in  the  new  issue  of  the  map,  as  the  facts  of  the 

Churches  of  Eastleach.  117 

case  were  brought  before  the  officers  engaged  in  surveying 
the  district  last  year.  There  must  have  been  some  reason 
for  the  dedication  being  assigned  to  the  Blessed  Virgin : 
possibly  at  some  early  date  the  niche  in  the  eastern  gable  of 
the  chancel  may  have  been  filled  with  a  group  similar  to  that 
on  the  Malvern  Seal,  representing  St.  Mary,  SS.  Michael  and 
Martin;  and  from  the  prominence  of  the  central  figure,  the 
dedication  may  have  been  assigned  to  St.  Mary — or  perhaps 
the  transept  was  dedicated  to  her,  and  the  old  names  of  the 
church  gradually  dropped  out.  The  following  extract  refers 
to  that  portion  of  the  charter  dealing  with  the  dedication  of 
the  Church  at  Eastleach  Martin  :  "  To  all  the  sons  of  Holy 
Mother  Church,  Simon  by  the  grace  of  God,  Bishop  of 
Worcester,  greeting.  By  the  anxious  care  of  the  office 
which  has  been  committed  to  us  we  are  bound  to  corroborate 
with  the  diligence  of  Episcopal  authority  those  things  which 
are  delivi  red  to  Churches  and  divine  places  by  the  gift  of 
the  faithful,  in  order  that  they  may  obtain  firm  stability. 
Therefore  let  the  whole  body  of  those  who  now  exist,  and 
posterity  which  is  about  to  succeed  in  future  times,  know 
that  in  the  dedication  of  the  Church  of  St.  Michael  and  of 
the  Blessed  Martin  of  East  Lech,  which  was  celebrated  by 
our  ministration  at  God's  disposition  and  by  the  petition  of 

our  beloved  children  R ,  the  Prior  and  the  brethren  of 

Malvern  .  .  .  Therefore  to  the  end  that  it  may  stand 
settled  for  ever  and  unassailed  we  fortify  with  the  impression 
of  our  seal  the  text  of  this  present  document  and  commend 
it  to  public  knowledge.  These  being  witnesses:  Gilbert, 
Abbot  of  Gloucester,  Richard,  Archdeacon  of  Gloucester, 
Patrick  and  Ralph,  Monks  of  Gloucester,  Ernisius  and 
Hugh,  Monks  of  Malvern,  &c."' 

The  dedication,  therefore,  took  place  on  the  petition  of 
the  Prior  and  Monks  of  Malvern.  The  Abbot  of  Gloucester 
granted  land  in  Fifhida.  lie  also  confirmed  with  the  gift  of 
the  land  the  privileges  accorded  in  the  parish  by  Richard 
the  son  of  Puncius.  The  Monks  of  Malvern  also  gave  a 
1   British  Museum,  L.F.C.  xviii.  2,  ad.  1139—11  p. 

n8  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

hide  of  land  which  they  held  in  Sudtlirop  (Southrop),  with 
all  the  liberties  and  customs  which  they  themselves  held  in 
the  vill  of  Eastleach.  The  charter  also  notes  the  offering, 
on  the  part  of  the  parishioners,  of  the  parochial  things 
which  are  due  to  a  church.  In  1144  Walter  de  Clifford,  a 
descendant  of  Drogo  Fitzpons,  exchanged  this  manor  with 
the  Monks  of  Gloucester,  and  up  till  quite  recently  it  was 
the  property  of  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  Gloucester.  In 
the  minister's  accounts  (Great  Malvern)  for  the  years 
1541  — 1543  there  appear  amongst  other  names, — Estleche 
Merton  alias  Brondruppe,  Coteland,  the  latter  being 
apparently  the  same  as  Prior's  Cotes,  the  name  still 
remaining  in  Cote  Mill  and  Farm. 

Tradition  assigns  to  Cote  Farm  the  site  of  a  religious 
house ;  and  beneath  the  road  from  Southrop  to  Eastleach 
was  a  large  stone  vault,  traditionally  called  the  Monk's 
Cellar  (the  slope  is  now  called  Cellar  Hill),  which  was  filled 
up,  and  an  entry  to  that  effect  made  in  the  Parish  Register, 
1748,  October:  "This  month  also  was  buried  a  large,  strong, 
stone-built  vault  under  an  hill  in  this  parish  called  Cruel 
Hill ;  and  this  memorial  of  it  is  made  to  the  intent  posterity 
may  not  be  imposed  upon."  Some  very  good  specimens  of 
flint  arrowheads  have  been  found  in  the  parish,  and  may  be 
seen  at  Fyfield  Manor. 

The  Church  of  SS.  Michael  and  Martin  consists  of  nave, 
chancel,  north  transept,  with  a  low  western  tower,  and  south 
porch.  The  doorway  and  shafts  and  capitals  of  the 
chancel  arch  are  Norman,  the  arch  itself  being  of  much 
later  date;  transept,  fourteenth  century.  The  windows  in 
the  church  being  of  various  dates.  There  are  the  remains 
of  a  bell  cote  on  the  chancel  arch.  In  the  nave,  some 
ancient  oak  seats  very  roughly  worked.  In  the  churchyard, 
the  ruins  of  the  churchyard  cross. 

Separated  from  the  Church  of  S.S.  Michael  and  Martin 
by  the  river  Leach  and  the  roadway,  stands  the  sister 
Church  of  St.  Andrew,  Eastleach  Turville,  an  interesting 
building.     The  south  doorway  is  Norman.     In  the  centre  of 

Churches  of  Eastleach.  119 

the  tympanum,  a  representation  of  our  Lord  seated  with  the 
hand  raised,  on  either  side  an  angel  adoring;  the  decoration 
above  is  zigzag. 

The  Church  shows  evidence  of  having  been  at  some  time 
a  larger  building,  there  being  three  arches  on  the  north  side 
of  the  nave  and  one  on  the  north  side  of  the  chancel  ;  of 
these,  all  except  that  opening  into  the  north  transept  have 
been  filled  in.  The  original  windows  have  disappeared,  but 
there  are  two  two-light  windows,  apparently  of  the  Decorated 
period,  in  the  cellar  of  Fyfield  Manor,  which  are  supposed 
to  have  been  removed  thither  from  this  Church  at  some  time. 
The  chancel  is  of  Early  English  work,  and  the  threedight 
lancet  window  in  the  east  end  is  very  beautiful.  It  is  to  be 
hoped  that  the  Society  will  give  some  information  concerning 
this  window.  Mr.  Prior,  who  accompanied  the  Society, 
pronounces  it  to  be  a  very  fine  specimen  of  Early  English 
architecture.  There  is  a  canopied  tomb  in  the  north  transept, 
with  floriated  cross  on  the  lid  of  the  stone  coffin  ;  the 
ornamentation  of  this  has  been  much  damaged,  and  the 
shafts  of  the  chancel  arch  have  suffered  much  from  being 
cut  to  accommodate  the  pews.  The  tower  is  saddleback. 
In  the  churchyard  is  the  base  only  of  the  churchyard  cross. 
The  De  Lacys  held  the  manor  for  some  time  after  the 
Conquest,  and  in  the  reign  of  King  John,  Almain,  Earl  of 
Gloucester,  gave  land  here  to  the  monks  of  Bruerne,  near 
Chipping  Norton. 

Land  was  granted  in  the  reign  of  Edward  III.  to 
Osbern  d'Alitor,  then  parson,  to  enlarge  his  manse.  The 
vicarage  house  has  entirely  disappeared,  though  it  remained 
in  the  form  of  cottages  until  quite  recently,  some  of  the 
oak  work  being  of  considerable  age.  The  parish  of  East- 
leach Turville  seems  to  have  been  joined  with  Eastleach 
Martin  under  the  name  of  Long  Turville  when  the  abbeys 
of  Gloucester  and  Bruerne  divided  the  parish. 

The  Blomer  family  bought  the  manor  in  Queen  Elizabeth's 
time.  The  name  Blomer  yet  remains  in  Blomer's  Mead, 
a  meadow  on  the  bank  of  the  Thames  at  Lechlade,  which 

120  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

is  still  a  portion  of  the  Eastleach  estate.  Through  this 
family,  by  intermarriage,  the  manor  passed  on  through  the 
Webbs  to  the  Ponsonbys.  Both  parishes  were  at  times 
served  by  John  Keble,  whose  signature  appears  often  in  the 
Register:  and  whether  rightly  or  not,  his  beautiful  Evening 
Hymn  is  claimed  to  have  been  composed  in  the  Rectory 
garden  of  Eastleach  Martin.  He  lived  at  Southrop  from 
1823,  when  he  permanently  left  Oxford,  until  October,  1825, 
when  he  settled  at  Hursley  as  Curate.  Among  his  pupils 
or  visitors  at  Southrop  during  this  period  were  Robert 
Wilberforce,   Isaac  Williams,  and  Hurrell  Froude. 

If  by  these  few  imperfect  notes  some  members  of  the 
Society  are  encouraged  to  spend  a  short  time  in  the  viewing 
of  our  churches,  the  object  of  this  paper  will  be  accom- 
plished, which  is  to  create  some  interest  in  parishes  so 
unusually  situated  as  to  have  two  ancient  churches  within 
one  hundred  yards  of  each  other.  The  information  with 
regard  to  Eastleach  Martin  and  Great  Malvern  is  entirely 
taken  from  Mr.  Nott's  book  on  Great  Malvern. 


FtEre Re/vex. 

REPRESENTS    OAi/GINAL     WORK        /S/S. 


l'-l"^*Vv&>il       ?ART3    GREATLY  ALTERED     IF   NOT    REBUILT     BY 




By     W.     HOWARD      SETH -SMITH. 

We  have  in  Chavenage  House  a  very  good  example  of  an 
Elizabethan  house  of  its  class. 

Chavenage  is  quite  free  from  the  eccentricities  of  plan 
so  commonly  found  in  this  period.  It  shows  the  usual 
developments  of  the  fifteenth  century  with  the  great  hall  in 
the  centre,  the  kitchen  and  its  offices  forming  a  wing  at  one 
end,  generally  to  the  north,  in  order  to  leave  the  more  sunny 
aspects  for  the  parlour  or  dining-room  and  the  family  and 
guests'  apartments  at  the  opposite  or  south  end  of  the  hall. 
The  main  peculiarity  of  the  Elizabethan  planning  is  the 
effort  at  symmetry  which  is  the  essence  of  classic  work. 
This  symmetry  was  probably  almost  perfect  at  Chavenage 
in  the  first  instance,  as  will  be  seen  by  a  glance  at  the  plan 
on  which  has  been  shewn  the  existing  walls  of  the  original 
house  (dated  on  the  label  termination  of  the  porch  1567)  in 
solid  black,  the  probable  plan  of  the  original  house  by  a 
dotted  line,  and  the  additions  made  probably  by  Richard 
Stephens  in  1684  by  diagonal  scoring.  The  unhappy 
patchings  of   1803    I   have  merely  outlined. 

Oftentimes  this  effort  at  symmetry  resulted  in  the  sacrifice 
of  convenience  to  dignity,  but  by  no  means  always.  The  H 
form  of  the  plan  is  an  admirable  one.  The  guests'  lodgings, 
or  sometimes  estate  offices,  occupied  the  north-east  wing, 
and  the  scullery,  dairy,  &c,  the  north-west.  The  family 
apartments  were  generally  in  the  south-east  range. 

The  hi^h-pitched  gable  is  another  distinctive  feature  of 
the  Elizabethan  period,  and  replaces  the  fourteenth  and 
fifteenth  century  battlemented  parapet  as  at  Haddon  Hall. 
Simpler  chimneys  and  chimney  caps  also  take  the  place  of 
the  Tudor  elaboration  in  brickwork. 

In  Elizabethan  days  the  functions  of  the   architect  were 

122  Transactions  for  the  Year   1899. 

generally  confined  to  supplying  the  plan  and  a  sketch  of  the 
elevations,  and  it  was  left  to  the  masons,  carpenters,  joiners, 
and  plumbers  to  supply  the  details  of  their  respective 
departments;  but  with  more  general  culture  came  the  demand 
for  more  knowledge  of  style  and  its  more  refined  and  accurate 
expression,  hence  the  evolution  of  the  modern  architect  out 
of  his  prototype  the  craftsman. 

In  Chavenage  House  it  is  very  interesting  to  note  the 
local  preservation  of  the  Gothic  work  in  the  details.  The 
section  of  the  window  mullions  and  jambs  is  hollow,  instead 
of  round  as  was  so  commonly  the  case.  The  labels  are  all 
Tudor  in  section,  but  this  is  only  what  we  should  expect  in  a 
rural  district  and  in  a  house  of  modest  scale. 


There  can  be  little  or  no  doubt  that  the  date  1576  on 
the  label  of  the  porch  lintel  is  that  of  the  erection  of 
the  early  Elizabethan  house  by  Edward  Stephens.  The 
porch  doorway  has  been  mutilated,  not  so  many  years  ago, 
for  insertion  of  the  modern  door,  and  the  porch  windows 
were  also  then  inserted  for  lighting  the  vestibule  thus 

On  a  quoin-stone  on  the  south  wall  of  the  porch  and  also 
on  the  west  of  the  house  are  seen  the  initials  of  Richard 
Stephens,  which  probably  mark  the  date  of  the  extensive 
alterations  in  1684. 

The  Decorated  two-light  Gothic  windows  and  plaque  over 
the  doorway,  as  well  as  various  other  similar  features  about 
the  house  of  the  same  date,  appear  to  have  been  brought  by 
Richard  Stephens  from  Horsley  Priory,  which,  having  passed 
by  exchange  into  the  possession  of  Bruton  Priory  in  1371 
after  the  dissolution  of  that  house,  was  granted  to  Sir  Walter 
Denniss  in  1553.  The  many  fourteenth  century  features 
would  excuse  one's  attributing  the  house  at  the  first  glance 
to  an  earlier  date,  were  it  not  for  the  abundant  evidence  of 
its  Elizabethan  origin,  which  a  closer  view  reveals  and 
which  is  confirmed  by  history.     I  am  strongly  of  opinion  that 

Chavenage  House.  123 

Richard   Stephens   was   responsible  for  the   insertion  of  all 
these  relics  of  Horsley  Priory. 

Set  in  the  Tudor-like  splayed  stone  arch  is  the  original 
external  door  of  the  house.  It  is  in  oak,  the  bross-boarding 
being  riveted  together,  and  the  nail-heads  forming  an 
ornamental  feature  externally.  We  notice  in  addition  to  the 
lion  knocker  a  very  beautiful  fourteenth  century  door  ring 
and  plate  of  pierced  iron,  probably  from  the  Priory.  The 
hinges  too  are  excellent  in  proportion  and  design,—  in  fact 
the  ornamental  ironwork  on  the  old  doors  throughout  is 
one  of  the  most  delightful  features  of  the  house. 

The  demi-eagle  displayed,  which  forms  a  graceful  gable- 
finial  over  the  porch  and  one  of  the  west  gables,  is  the  crest 
of  the  Stephens  family.  The  Renaissance  plaque  below  it  is 
dated  1702,  and  is  probably  from  some  mural  tablet  from  a 
church.  Mr.  Bazeley  says:  "On  the  left  of  the  shield  is  a 
chevron  or,  perhaps  part  of  the  arms  of  Catherine  Stephens 
nee  Beale." 

The  flat  lintel  to  the  porch  door,  with  its  lozenge  ornaments 
in  the  panels,  is  the  only  piece  of  original  Renaissance  design 
to  be  found  externally.  Two  small  lions'  heads  and  a  crown 
have  been  inserted  under  the  labels  of  the  window  and 
painted   black. 

Turning  now  to  the  south  of  the  porch,  notice  the  evidence 
in  the  masonry  that  the  three-tier  window  of  hall,  the  lower 
lights  of  which  were  originally  of  equal  length,  have  been 
lowered  about  two  feet  as  was  so  frequently  the  case.  This 
was  probably  done  by  Richard  Stephens.  The  reason  most 
likely  was  that  the  hall,  later  on,  became  less  the  dining  than 
a  reception  room,  and  a  view  out  and  more  light  within  were 

It  is  interesting  to  speculate  on  what  has  happened  on 
the  north  wall  of  the  original  south-east  wing.  I  believe 
there  was  a  doorway  opposite  that  on  the  north-east  wing, 
as  at  Ashton  Hall  and  elsewhere.  Extensive  alterations  to 
the  staircase  have  undoubtedly  been  made;  probably  this 
south-east  wing  was  rebuilt  by  Richard  Stephens. 

124  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

The  east  gable  of  this  south-east  wing  would  seem  to 
support  this  theory,  for  the  positions  of  its  windows  aie 
irregular  and  their  proportion  and  character  out  of  keeping 
with  the  Elizabethan  house.  The  south  room,  which  so 
completely  violates  the  symmetry  of  the  plan,  is  probably 
part  of  the  same  alteration,  and  originally  consisted  of  a 
ground  and  first  floor  like  the  rest  of  the  house,  but  has  more 
recently  been  opened  up  to  the  roof  and  the  present  ceiling 
formed.  The  high  windows  on  the  south  are  mysterious, 
as  they  are  too  low  to  have  served  an  upper  storey.  I  think 
they  were  inserted  when  the  room  was  heightened,  probably 
at  the  end  of  the  last  century,  to  prevent  the  upper  part 
being  gloomy,  but  the  want  of  a  look-out  on  to  the  lawns  led 
to  the  insertion  afterwards  of  the  square  bay-window  in  the 
debased  Gothic  revival  type  of  the  end  of  the  eighteenth 

Note  the  curious  enriched  caps  of  the  chimneys,  circular 
on  plan  over  a  square  shaft. 

In  the  west  wall  of  this  addition  is  another  fourteenth 
century  Ecclesiastical  window,  brought  from  Horsley  Priory. 
The  head  and  sill  are  original,  but  much  of  it  has  been 

The  south-west  wing  is,  I  think,  also  part  of  the  alterations 
made  by  Richard  Stephens  in  1684  :  the  rose-moulded  chimney 
cap  again  appears,  and  the  even-jointed  coping  of  the  gables 
favours  this  view.  It  is,  moreover,  corroborated  by  the  internal 
details.  The  poor  bay-window  is  of  course  an  insertion  of 
the  same  date  as  that  to  the  south  addition. 

The  central  chimney-stack  was  originally  like  the  others, 
but  has  been  spoilt  by  being  rebuilt  square. 

On  the  north  elevation  all  is  original  excepting  the  large 
external  chimney-stack,  probably  added  when  the  accom- 
modation of  the  original  kitchen  was  found  insufficient,  and 
the  larger  apartment  in  the  north-east  wing  was  devoted  to 
this  purpose. 

The  upper  two-light  window  next  this  chimney-stack  was 
doubtless  once  a   three-light,  corresponding  to  that  to   the 

Chavenage  House.  125 

west  of  the  gable.  Its  hood-moulding  has  been  cut  to  build 
up  the  chimney-stack,  and  the  quaintly  cusped  heads  to  its 
lights  are  of  a  later  date  than  the  original  house. 

The  destruction  of  the  early  symmetrical  plan  has 
happened  also  on  this  side  of  the  house  by  the  building 
out  of  a  room,  which  appears  to  be  an  addition  of  Richard 
Stephens'  time. 

There  are  no  windows  in  the  north-east  gable,  nor  any 
signs  of  any  having  previously  existed.  We  might,  pretty 
safely  infer  that  the  original  south-east  gable  matched  it  in 
this  respect. 

We  notice  particularly  that  there  are  no  rain-water  pipes, 
which  with  their  ornamental  cast  lead  heads  generally  form 
such  beautiful  features  in  Elizabethan  houses.  They  were 
probably  removed  when  the  present  box  gutters  were  formed 
to  carry  the  rain  water  (so  precious  on  the  top  of  the 
Cotswold  Hills,  where  the  wells  have  to  be  snnk  hundreds  of 
feet)  to  the  storage  tank  ;  unfortunately  these  gutters  now 
cross  the  gables  in  the  most  damaging  manner. 

The  interior  has  been  even  more  altered  than  the  exterior  : 
but  if  it  has  lost  something  in  beauty,  it  is  all  the  more 
interesting  to  endeavour  to  trace  the  changes  which  have 
taken  place.  To  the  right  as  one  enters  were  originally  the 
butteries,  and  to  the  left  as  usual  comes  the  hall ;  the  former 
have  been  much  altered,  but  the  latter  comparatively  little. 
In  the  fine  hall  the  panelling  is  of  the  Elizabethan  period, 
but  it  has  been  cut  away  to  form  a  door  into  Richard 
Stephens's  south-west  wing,  and  also  to  insert  the  later 
Jacobean  screens.  The  parts  so  removed  one  will  hud 
somewhat  carelessly  fitted  round  the  entrance  passage. 
Mr.  Bazeley  thinks  the  screens  and  minstrel  gallery  belong 
to  Col.  Stephens's  time,  but  they  appear  to  me  to  have  been 
in  ide  up  later  of  odd  pieces  of  old  work,  and  never  to  have 
been  designed  as  a  whole  for  their  position.  There  is  no 
record  when  this  was  done,  but  I  incline  to  think  within  the 
present  century.  1  am  informed  that  the  tapestry  and  much 
of  the  glass  now  in  the  hall  windows  were  found  by  the  last 

126  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

owner,  Major  Chaplin,  stowed  away  in  boxes  in  the  attics  ; 
some  of  the  glass  probably  came  from  the  priory,  as  it  is 
earlier  than  the  house. 

The  chimney-piece  in  the  hall  and  that  in  the  drawing- 
room  are  extremely  fine  examples  of  their  style,  and  would 
alone  make  the  house  well  worthy  of  a  visit.  They  are  later 
than  Elizabeth's  reign,  and  were  probably  added  by  Col. 
Stephens.  That  in  the  hall  bears  the  Fowler  arms,  quarterly 
azure  and  or  on  the  first  quarter  a  hawk's  lure  a  and  line  of  the 
second.  The  one  now  in  the  drawing-room  doubtless  once 
occupied  the  original  room  of  the  south-east  wing  ;  it  is  of 
the  same  height  as  that  storey. 

The  arms  of  the  Stephenses  appear  in  various  places  ; 
they  are  per  chevron  azure  and  argent  in  chief,  two  falcons  rising, 
and  their  crest  a  demi-eagle  displayed. 

The  coved  ceiling  of  the  minstrel  gallery  is  beautifully 
panelled,  as  was  the  hall  itself,  in  all  probability,  in  its 
earliest  days. 

We  now  enter  the  original  dining-room,  the  panelling 
of  which  is  dated  1627.  This  was  probably  done  at  the 
same  time  as  the  chimney-pieces  were  erected.  The 
room  has  suffered  less  change  than  any  other  on  the 
ground  floor  :  note  especially  its  chimney-piece,  which 
must  have  been  brought  from  elsewhere,  as  it  is  distinctly 
Tudor  in  style,  and  very  fine  indeed  ;  its  panelled  over- 
mantel is  still  older,  and  may  have  been  brought  from  the 
Priory.  The  inner  jambs  and  lintel,  which  give  it  a  heavy 
appearance,  are  obviously  late  additions  to  accommodate 
the  modern  register  grate.  Possibly  no  staircase  existed  in 
the  original  south-east  wing,  that  at  the  end  of  the  screen 
serving  for  family  and  guests  to  gain  access  to  the  upper 

Upstairs,  we  note  the  woodwork  and  other  details  on  the 
south-east  and  south-west  wings,  corresponding  in  date 
(late  seventeenth  century)  with  Richard  Stephens's  alterations; 
also  the  plaster-vaulted  priest's  cell  over  the  porch,  with  its 
carved  cornice  and  armoured  door  between  it  and  the  bed- 

Chavenage  House.  127 

room  adjoining.  There  is  another  fine  chimney-piece  in 
Sir  Philip  Sydney's  room. 

The  chapel  I  believe  to  have  been  built  by  Richard  ;  if  so, 
this  will  go  far  to  explain  the  curious  assemblage  of  odds  and 
ends  probably  brought  from  the  Priory,  and  built  in  or 
perched  in  all  sorts  of  odd  positions  in  the  tower  and 

Persons  residing  in  the  neighbourhood  recollect  the  west 
door  under  the  tower  being  used  by  the  public,  the  south 
porch  giving  access  to  the  family  seats  which  were 
immediatelv    within    it. 


By  the  Rev.  W.  H.  SILVESTER  DAVIES,  M.A., 
Vicar  of  Horsley. 

The  interesting  manor  house  of  Chavenage  was  built  in  the 
reign  of  Elizabeth,  in  the  year  1576,  by  Edward  Stephens,  a 
member,  Debrett  says,  of  a  "  very  ancient  and  honourable 
Gloucestershire  family"  who  then  owned  the  manor.  We 
find  his  initials  and  those  of  Joan,  his  wife,  as  well  as  the 
above  date,  on  the  labels  of  the  hood-moulding  on  either  side 
of  the  principal  door. 

Edward  Stephens,  who  was  also  lord  of  the  manors  of 
Eastington  and  Alkerton,  would  seem  to  have  been  very  fond 
of  building,  for  he  is  said  to  have  built  the  manor  house  at 
Eastington  in  1578,  i.e.  only  two  years  afterwards.  A  plate 
of  the  house  at  Eastington  appears  in  Fosbroke's  Gloucester- 
shire. It  was  burnt  down  in  the  last  century,  and  levelled  to 
the  ground  in  1778,  and  the  materials  dispersed  and  sold. 
In  this  fire  most  of  the  family  papers  were  destroyed.  I 
must  mention  that  there  is  a  tradition  among  the  descendants 
of  the  Stephens  family  that  Chavenage  was  built  by  Queen 
Elizabeth's  favourite,  the  Earl  of  Essex,  to  receive  his  royal 
mistress  in  on  one  of  her  progresses.  I  venture  to  think, 
however,  that  this  can  hardly  have  been  the  case,  as, 
independently  of  the  testimony  of  the  initials  above  stated, 
there  is  no  evidence  of  Essex  ever  having  owned  this 
property.  Possibly  he  may  have  persuaded  Edward  Stephens 
to  build  the  house  with  a  view  to  entertaining  the  Queen, 
but  so  far  as  I  can  gather  Elizabeth  never  came  here.  Had 
she  done  so,  we  may  be  sure  that  in  a  house  where  so  many 
rooms  are  associated  with  notable  people  the  room  occupied 
by  her  would  be  identified.  The  Lord  Essex  whose  name 
appears    on    one   of   the   doors     upstairs    was    probably    the 

Notes  on  Chavenage  and  the  Stephens  Family.     129 

parliamentary  general  of  that  name,  and  not  the  "  noble 
traytour,"  Elizabeth's  favourite. 

While  on  this  subject  it  may  be  well  to  state  that  the 
names  of  the  distinguished  persons  on  the  doors  of  some  of 
the  rooms,  e.g.  Sir  Philip  Sidney,  Lord  Leicester,  Oliver 
Cromwell,  General  Ireton,  Queen  Anne,  and  others,  have 
been  placed  there  in  recent  times.  Oliver  Cromwell  never 
was  at  Chavenage.  A  picture  of  him  used  to  hang  in  the 
room  which  now  bears  his  name,  but  the  room  itself  was 
formerly  called  the  "  tapestry  room."  Queen  Anne,  too,  so 
far  as  is  known,  never  honoured  Chavenage  with  her  presence, 
but  the  beautifully  carved  bedstead  and  coverlet  in  the  room 
called  after  her  were  given  by  the  queen  to  her  physician, 
Sir  Edward  Hannes,  whose  wife  was  descended  from  the 
Stephens  family. 

Chavenage  was  part  of  the  manor  of  Horsley,  which 
belonged  to  the  priory  of  Bruton  in  Somersetshire.  There 
was  a  cell  of  this  monastery  at  Horsley,  on  the  south  side  of 
the  parish  church,  but  of  which  there  are  now  no  remains 
above  ground.  It  seems  to  have  been  a  very  small  foundation, 
and  long  before  the  dissolution  of  monasteries  was  without 
prior  or  brethren.  The  manor,  however,  remained  in  the 
possession  of  the  priory  of  Bruton  until  the  great  religious 
upheaval  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII.,  when  it  was  granted  in 
1542  to  Sir  Thomas  Seymour,  and  on  his  attainder  to  Sir 
Walter  Denys,  of  Dyrham,  in  this  county,  in  1553,  whose  son, 
Richard,  sold  it  to  the  Stephenses. 

This  family  claimed  descent  from  one  Fitz  Stephen, 
the  captain  of  the  vessel  which  brought  William  the  Norman 
to  our  shores.  His  son  was  captain  of  the  "  White  Ship  "  in 
which  the  children  of  Henry  I.  were  drowned. 

In  the  reign  of  Henry  II.,  Ralph  Fitz  Stephen  and  his 
brother  William  were  joint  high  sheriffs  of  Gloucestershire 
for  four  years,  beginning  in  1 171 ,  and  William  Fitz  Stephen 
was  high  sheriff  in  1175,  "and  so  continued  thirteen  years 
together."  1 

1   Rudder's  Gloucestershire. 

Vol.  XXII. 

130  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

Another  Fitz  Stephen,  Robert,  perhaps  a  brother  of  the 
foregoing,  accompanied  Strongbow  in  his  invasion  of  Ireland 
in  1172. 

The  pedigree,  however,  is  imperfect  until  we  come  to 
Henry  Stephens,  in  the  16th  century,  variously  described  as 
of  Frocester1  and  of  Eastington.2 

He  married  Alice,  the  daughter  and  co-heiress  of  Edward 
Lugg,  of  Lugwardine  in  Herefordshire,  and  had  issue  Edward 
Stephens,  who  bought  the  manors  of  Eastington,  Alkerton, 
and  Horsley,  and,  as  already  stated,  built  houses  at  the 
first  and  last-named  places,  in  1578  and  1576  respectively. 

He  married  Joan,  the  daughter  and  heiress  of  Richard  (or 
Edward) :i  Fowler  of  Stonehouse.  Her  arms  (quarterly  azure 
and  or,  on  the  first  quarter  a  hawk's  lure  and  line  of  the  second) 
may  be  seen  on  the  mantelpiece  of  the  hall. 

Edward  Stephens,  who  died  22nd  October,  1587,  had, 
besides  several  daughters,  three  sons  :  Richard,  lord  of  the 
manors  of  Eastington,  Alkerton,  Fretherne,  and  Horsley  ; 
James,  a  clothier  of  Eastington,  and  Thomas,  of  the  Middle 
Temple.  Thomas,  who  was  attorney  general  to  Prince  Henry 
and  Prince  Charles,  purchased  the  manor  of  Lypiatt  in  1610 
of  John  Throckmorton,  and,  by  his  wife  Elizabeth,  daughter 
and  co-heiress  of  John  Stone  of  London,  became  the  ancestor 
of  the  Stephenses  of  Sodbury,  Lypiatt,  and  Cherington. 
Lypiatt,  now  the  property  of  Sir  John  Dorington,  Bart.,  M.P., 
remained  in  the  Stephens  family  for  five  generations,  and  the 
tombs  of  many  of  them  are  in  Stroud  parish  church  and 

But  to  return  to  Richard,  the  eldest  son  of  Edward 
Stephens.  By  his  wife  Margaret,  daughter  of  Edward 
St.  Loe,  of  Kington,  Wiltshire,  he  had,  besides  other  issue, 
Nathaniel,  the  member  of  the  Stephens  family  around  whom 
so  much  of  the  historical  or  (shall  I  say  ?)  legendary  interest 
of  Chavenage  is  gathered. 

This  Nathaniel  Stephens  was  born  in  1589,  and  was  ten 
years  old  at  the  death  of  his  father.  He  was  M.P.  for 
1   Fosbroke.         -  Rudder.         :1  Rudder. 

Notes  on  Chavenage  and  the  Stephens  Family.     131 

Gloucestershire  in  1628-9,  an(f  from  1640-48,  and  on  the 
outbreak  of  the  civil  war  zealously  espoused  the  cause  of 
the  Parliament,  and  used  all  his  local  influence  on  that  side, 
raising  a  regiment  of  horse,  of  which  he  was  colonel. 

It  has  been  said  that  the  families  of  Cromwell  and  Ireton, 
his  son-in-law,  were  related  by  marriage  to  the  Stephens 
family,  but  I  have  not  been  able  to  discover  that  this  was  so, 
at  least  until  some  time  after  the  Restoration,  when  a  Hester 
Stephens,  of  the  Lypiatt  branch  of  the  family,  married  a  first 
cousin  once-removed  of  the  Lord  Protector. 

The  late  Rev.  R.  W.  Huntley,  of  Boxvvell,  published  in 
1845  a  poem  called  Chavenage,  in  which  he  describes  Colonel 
Stephens  as  giving  a  reluctant  consent  to  the  execution  of 
the  King.  As  many  of  the  members  of  our  Society  may  not 
have  seen  the  poem,  I  will  give  a  brief  outline  of  the  story  as 
narrated  by  Mr.  Huntley  in  the  preface  to  his  work. 

It  happened  that  Colonel  Stephens  was  keeping  Christmas, 
1648,  at  Chavenage,  and  in  the  midst  of  the  festivity  Ireton 
arrived  at  the  house  to  press  his  instant  attendance  in 
Parliament  to  support  by  his  vote  and  influence  the  intended 
measures  against  the  King.  His  sister  is  said  to  have  urged 
him  to  withhold  his  consent,  and  to  have  foretold  the  extinc- 
tion of  his  line,  should  he  become  implicated  in  the  murder 
of  Charles. 

Ireton,  seconded  by  Robert  Stephens,  the  colonel's  brother, 
spent  the  night  in  entreating  him  to  comply;  and  at  length, 
though  Nathaniel's  feelings  were  in  accordance  with  his 
sister's  arguments,  he  allowed  himself  to  be  overruled,  and, 
giving  a  reluctant  assent,  departed  with  Ireton. 

In  the  following  May  he  was  seized  with  a  lingering  sick- 
ness, of  which  he  died  in  the  very  year  of  the  restoration  of 
Charles  II.,  1660,  after  expressing  his  regret  for  having 
participated  in  the  King's  death. 

Thus  far  circumstances  have  the  semblance  of  fact  ;  but 
upon  these  a  legendary  tale  has  been  founded. 

When  all  the  relatives  had  assembled  for  the  funeral,  and 
their  several  well-known  equipages  were  crowding  the  court- 

132  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

yard,  the  household  were  surprised  to  observe  that  another 
coach,  most  splendidly  ornamented  and  drawn  by  black 
horses,  was  approaching  the  door  with  great  solemnity. 
When  it  arrived,  the  shade  of  the  Colonel  clad  in  his  shroud 
glided  into  the  carriage,  and  the  door  instantly  closing  upon 
him  the  coach  rapidly  withdrew  from  the  house,  not,  how- 
ever, with  such  speed  but  that  there  was  time  to  perceive 
that  the  driver  was  a  beheaded  man  arrayed  in  royal  vest- 
ments, with  the  Garter  upon  his  leg,  and  the  Star  of  that 
illustrious  Order  upon  his  breast.  No  sooner  had  the  coach 
arrived  at  the  gateway  of  the  manor  court  than  the  whole 
appearance  vanished  in  flames  of  fire. 

As  to  the  latter  part  of  the  story  I  shall  say  nothing.  Of 
course  Chavenage  must  have  its  ghost,  like  every  house  laying 
claim  to  a  respectable  antiquity.  And  certainly  it  is  far 
better  that  the  ghost  should  drive  away  in  a  carriage  and 
pair  than  roam  about  the  rooms  and  passages  of  the  house. 

But  the  historical,  or  what  purports  to  be  the  historical, 
part  of  the  story  rests  on  too  slender  a  foundation  to  be 
accepted  without  question.  For  I  am  bound  to  say  that 
there  seems  no  evidence  to  show  that  Nathaniel  Stephens 
had  any  share  in  the  King's  death ;  indeed,  the  evidence 
points  rather  the  other  way. 

In  the  first  place,  we  find  him,  in  a  speech  delivered  by 
him  in  his  place  in  Parliament  only  a  few  months  before, 
speaking  of  the  decapitation  of  the  king  as  "  a  strange  cuer.'' 
He  says:  "  Some  speake  of  a  strange  cuer:  they  would  cutt 
of  the  heade  to  save  the  body  ;  but  as  that  is  impossible  in  the 
naturall  body,  so  it  is  unlikely  in  the  politicke  body." 

Again,  in  a  book  published  in  1660 — the  year  of  the 
Restoration — called  England's  Black  Tribtmall  giving  an 
account  of  the  King's  trial,  Stephens'  name  does  not 
appear  on  the  list  of  the  members  of  the  court  that  tried  him, 
nor  amongst  those  who  were  present  when  sentence  was 

Further,  we  find  that  his  eldest  surviving  son  married  in 
1654  a  daughter  of  Sir  Hugh  Cholmondeley,  of  Whitby  Hall, 

Notes  on  Chavenage  and  the  Stephens  Family.    133 

Knight    and    Baronet,    M.P.    for    Scarborough,   who   was   a 
staunch   royalist. 

Sir  Hugh  had,  at  first,  espoused  the  cause  of  the 
Parliament,  but,  once  convinced  that  the  principles  of  the 
Reformation  were  in  no  danger,  he  returned  to  his  allegiance 
to  the  King,  was  made  governor  of  Scarborough,  and  held  the 
castle  for  more  than  a  year  against  the  parliamentary  forces, 
his  wife  attending  to  the  wounded.  In  1645,  through  want 
of  ammunition,  he  surrendered  on  most  honourable  terms  and 
went  into  exile  till  1649,  when  his  brother,  Lord  Cholmon- 
deley,  of  Vale  Royal,  in  Cheshire,  interceded  with  the  "  rulers 
of  the  kingless  kingdom  "  and  he  was  restored  to  his  forfeited 
estates.  In  June,  1654,  Sir  Hugh  and  his  lady  went  to 
London— no  inconsiderable  journey  in  those  days— to  attend 
the  wedding  of  their  daughter  Anne  with  Richard,  the  eldest 
son  of  Nathaniel  Stephens. 

It  is  almost  inconceivable  that  one  who  had  earned  for 
himself  the  name  of  "the  heroic  cavalier"  should  have 
sanctioned  by  his  presence  such  a  union,  at  a  time,  too, 
when  political  feeling  ran  so  high,  had  Nathaniel  Stephens 
been  a  regicide ! 

I  am  inclined,  then,  to  think  that  there  is  grave  reason  to 
doubt  the  historical  accuracy  of  Mr.  Huntley's  poem,  and  that 
if,  as  has  been  said,  Ireton  ever  was  despatched  "  to  whet 
the  colonel's  almost  blunted  purpose,"  he  returned  to  London 
after  a  fruitless  journey. 

Nathaniel  Stephens  married  Catherine,  daughter  of  Robert 
Beale,  of  Priors  Marston,  Warwickshire,  "  clerke  of  the 
councele  to  Queen  Elizabeth  "—her  arms,  sable,  on  a  chevron, 
between  three  griffins  heads  erased  argent,  three  estoiles  gnles,  are  on 
the  mantelpiece  in  the  hall  which  was  probably  erected  by 
her  husband. 

They  had  a  numerous  family — Henry,  who  predeceased 
his  father  and  was  unmarried  ;  Richard,  who  succeeded  to 
the  family  estates;  Robert,  a  sergeant-at-law,  who  died 
unmarried;  and  several  daughters,  one  of  whom,  Abigail, 
married,  as  his  second  wife,  Sir  Edward  Harley,  of  Brampton 

134  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

Bryan,  Herefordshire,  and  was  the  mother  of  Queen  Anne's 
minister,  Robert  Harley,  first  Earl  of  Oxford,  whose  room  is 
still  to  be  seen  at  Chavenage. 

Nathaniel  Stephens'  eldest  surviving  son,  Richard,  as 
already  stated,  married  Anne,  eldest  daughter  of  Sir  Hugh 
Cholmondeley,  of  Whitby,  in  July,  1654,  and  died  in  1678, 
aged  58,  leaving  a  large  family. 

He  was  succeeded  by  his  eldest  son  Nathaniel,  High 
Sheriff  of  Gloucestershire  in  1698,  who  married  Elizabeth, 
daughter  of  Sir  Francis  Pemberton,  Lord  Chief  Justice  of 
England,  and  died  in   1732. 

Nathaniel  Stephens  left  a  numerous  family  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  three  of  his  sons  in  succession,  none  of  whom  left 
any  issue:  Richard,  who  died  in  1775;  Robert,  Rector  of 
Eastington  ;  and  Henry,  who  married  Ann,  daughter  of  the 
Rev.  Richard  Huntley,  Rector  of  Boxwell,  Gloucestershire. 

Henry,  the  last  of  the  Stephens  family  in  the  direct  male 
line,  died  at  Chavenage,  25th  January,  1795,  and  was  buried 
in  Eastington  Church,  where  there  is  a  mural  monument 
erected  by  his  widow. 

He  left  his  possessions,  after  his  widow's  death,  to  the 
descendants  of  his  aunt,  Elizabeth  Packer,  a  daughter  of 
Richard  Stephens  and  Anne  Cholmondeley. 

Elizabeth  Packer  had  married  her  cousin,  John  Packer  of 
Shellingford  Manor,  Berks,  whose  mother  was  a  Stephens, 
and  their  only  daughter,  Anne,  married  Sir  Edward  Hannes, 
of  Westminster. 

The  sole  issue  of  this  marriage,  Temperance,  a  ward  in 
Chancery,  eloped  with  John  Willis,  of  Redlinglield  Hall,  Eye, 
Suffolk.  This  escapade  gave  rise  to  a  remarkable  legal 
decision,  for  the  Chancellor  held  that  he  could  not  punish 
the  gentleman  because,  as  he  rode  behind  his  fiancee  and  on 
her  horse,  she  eloped  with  him,  and  not  he  with  her! 

Their  only  surviving  son  Henry,  who  first  entered  the 
Royal  Navy,  but  was  afterwards  ordained,  and  became 
Rector  of  Little  Sodbury  and  Vicar  of  Wapley,  Gloucester- 
shire, married  Jane,  daughter  of  Richard  Lubbock,  of  North 

Notes  on  Chavenage  and  the  Stephens  Family.     135 

Walsham,  Norfolk.  They  had  a  numerous  family,  and  their 
son,  Henry  Hannes  Willis,  inherited  Chavenage  on  the 
death  of  Henry  Stephens'  widow  in  1801.  In  accordance 
with  the  provisions  of  his  cousin's  will  he  had  to  drop  his 
own  name  and  arms,  and  adopt  those  of  Stephens  only.  He 
became  a  monk  and  died  at  La  Trappe,  Normandy,  in  1822, 
making  the  children  of  his  sister,  Mrs.  Richmond  Shute,  his 
hoirs.  The  manor  went  first  to  his  nephew,  Henry  Richmond 
Shute,  who  died  unmarried  in  the  following  year,  and  then  to 
his  niece,  Alice  Elizabeth  Shute,  who  married  the  Rev. 
Maurice  Fitz  Gerald  Townshend,  J. P.  and  D.L.,  of  Castle 
Townshend,  co.  Cork,  and  Vicar  of  Thornbury,  in  Glouces- 
tershire. Mr.  Townshend  took  the  name  and  arms  of 
Stephens  by  Royal  License,  30th  December,  1826.  They 
had  issue  a  son,  Henry  John,  and  two  daughters.  Chavenage, 
however,  passed  into  the  hands  of  Mr.  Holford,  of  Weston 
Birt,  and  was  sold  by  him  in  1891  to  Captain  Lowsley 
Williams,  its  present  owner,  by  whose  courtesy  our  Society 
was  lately  enabled  to  visit  it. 

Until  1869,  the  house  was  full  of  the  old  furniture, 
tapestries,  pictures,  and  china,  with  other  valuable  relics  and 
curiosities,  but  a  deplorable  sale  in  that  year  scattered  most 
of  these  memorials  of  bygone  times. 

One  may  be  allowed  to  be  thankful  that,  if  the  manor 
was  to  pass  from  the  possession  of  the  family  which  were  its 
owners  for  some  three  hundred  years,  it  should  have  for  its 
present  owner  one  who  thoroughly  appreciates  the  historical 
memories  which  cluster  round  the  old  house.  I  cannot 
finish  this  short  and  imperfect  account  of  Chavenage  and  the 
Stephens  family  without  expressing  my  grateful  thanks  to 
Mrs.  Pierrepont  Mundy  for  her  kindness  in  furnishing  me 
with  many  particulars  about  her  family  and  the  home  of  her 














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AUGUST    gTH    to    iith,    1899. 

By    F.    WERE. 


N.  Transept :  "  Or  three  fusiis  (may  be  lozenges)  in  fess 
gules,"  Bakeley  Freeman  (generally  "  Az.  &  or.")  Impaling 
"Azure  a  chevron  between  three  suns  or,"  Hinson. 

Query  panels  of  a  tomb  let  into  wall :  Quarterly,  1  and  4, 
*'  (Azure)  a  lion  rampant  within  an  orle  of  roses  (or)." 
Bowen,  Oxfordshire.  2  and  3,  "  ?  (Gules)  three  Bowen's  knots. 
2  and  1  ?  (Argent)  "  :  query  Ap  Owen.  (Bowen  has  a  chevron 
between  ;  Evan  ap  Owen  of  Pentre  Evan,  early  15th  century, 
took  the  name  of  Bowen.) 

"  ?  (Gules)  a  chevron  ermine  between  three  pheons  ?  (or.)," 
A  mold. 

Quarterly,  1  and  4,  "  quarterly  (or.  &  az.)  four  roebucks 
statant  (counterchanged),"  Lloyd.  (Atkyns  says  Floid  and 
gives  wrong  coat.)  2  &  3,  "  (Argent)  a  quiver  (gules)  banded 
and  filled  with  arrows  or.,  feathered  of  the  1st  between 
three  pheons  (sable),"  Lloyd  (query  Lloyde  ap  Gronow) : 
dimidiated  with  Bowen  above  :  impaling  tierce — 

1. — "Per  pale  (azure  &  gules)  three  lions  rampant 
(argent),"  Herbert  (borne  by  several  families,  Vaughan 
amongst  them).  2.— Quarterly.  1st,  "(Sable)  three  boys' 
heads  couped  at  the  shoulders  (argent,  may  be  proper)  each 
wreathed  about  his  neck  with  a  snake  ?  (proper),"   Vaughan. 

Heraldry  of  the  Different  Churches,  etc.       139 

2nd,  "  (Sable)  a  chevron  between  three  spearheads  (argent) 
embrued  (gules),"  ?  Wathins.  3rd,  "  ?  (Azure)  three  cocks 
2  &  1  (argent)  armed,  jelloped  and  crested,  (or.),''  UckdryJ. 
4th,  "?  (Argent)  a  lion  rampant  (sable),"  Vaughan,  may  be 
Morgan.  3. — As  Arnold  above.  Crest,  partially  defaced: 
Stag's  head  erased  (Glos.  Vis.  "or.,"  Fairbairn  "sable") 
charged  with  a  crescent  (Glos.  Vis.  ermines,  Fairbairn 
ermine),  Lloyd.  On  helmet  above,  query  Dragon's  head 
erased,  Watkins.  (Glos.  Vis.,  105,  George  Looyde  of  Holley 
Koode  Ampney  =  Ann,  d.  of  Richard  YVatkin  al's  Vaghan.) 

S.  Transept:  1. — "Gules  three  query  pitchforks,  one  in 
pale,  two  in  saltire,  points  upward  argent  enfiled  with  a 
coronet  in  fess  ?or.,  on  a  wreath  (torse)."  M.  says  Swithini 
Adee,  1729  (this  crest-like  charge  is  not  Adey,  which  is  "  Arg. 
on  a  bend  az.  three  leopards'  faces  or.,"  the  nearest  crest 
I  can  find  is  Webb),  impaling  "  Argent  on  a  bend  sable  three 
leg  harnesses  (legs  couped  at  thigh  and  erased  at  ankle) 
of  the  1st,"  Blagrave.  2. — Blagrave  impaling  ?  Adee  (the 
crest-like  charge  looks  more  modern,  but  I  cannot  find  the 

Mural  panels  :  "  (Argent)  on  a  bend  (gules)  between 
two  birds  ?(Cornish  Choughs)  may  be  Plovers  (proper)  six 
gouttes  (d'eau)  a  chief  chequy  (sa.  &  arg.  or  or.),"  Pleydell. 


Pleydell,  quartering  (Gules)  a  lion  rampant  (or.)  between 
four  crosses  patty  (vair),  Reason.  (William  Pleydell  ob. 
i556  =  Agnes  d:  &  coheiress  of  John  Reason  of  Corfe  Castle.) 
Pleydell,  impaling  "  ?  (Per  chevron  arg.  &  sa.)  three  elephants' 
heads  erased  2  &  1  (counterchanged),"  Saunders.  (Robert 
Pleydell  of  Holy  Rood  Ampney  =  Susan,  d.  of  Edward 
Saunders  of   Brixworth,  Northamptonshire.) 


S.  Transept :  M.  1. — "(Azure)  three  covered  cups  2  &  1 
(or.),    Jcnncr    (without    swords).        2. — Quarterly,     1     &    4, 

140  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

"  ?  (Argent)  a  bend  countercompony  (may  be  chequy)  or.  & 
gules,"  Vaux.  2  and  3,  "  ?  (Sable  or  Azure)  a  Pelican  in  piety 
?  (arg.  or  or.),"  PLyndc.  Crest :  Eagle's  head  erased  sable 
collared  and  studded  or.,  Hodie  et  non  eras.  3. — Quarterly, 
1st,  "Sable  three  bends  engrailed  argent  a  canton  or.," 
Horton.  2nd,  "(Argent)  a  bend  (sable)  a  label  of  three 
(gules),"  St.  Lo.  3rd,  "(Gules)  a  fess  chequy  (or.  &  azure)," 
Whittington.  4th,  "  ?  Sable  (semy  of  crosses  croslet)  a  lion  ram- 
pant (argent),"  Hauteville  (for  quarterings,  see  Glazebrooke's 
Worcester  Heraldry,  page  300). 

"Argent  on  bend  gules  between  three  ogresses  2  &  1,  as 
many  swans  close  proper,"  Clarke.     Crest,  Swan. 

Glass  exhibited  in  Croft's  Hall,  Fairford  :  Quarterly, 
1  and  4,  "  Argent  on  a  bend  sable  three  bulls'  heads  couped 
of  the  1st,"  Heton,  Bishop  of  Ely.  2  and  3,  "Argent  a  Moor's 
head  wreathed  between  three  fleurs  de  lys  sable  ;  a  cinque- 
foil  pierced  for  difference  of  the  last,"  Move. 


S.  Aisle :  "  Argent  an  anchor  between  two  dolphins 
haurient  respecting  each  other,  all  proper,"  Alexander 
Ctlsion,   1775. 

"  Argent  three  crosses  croslet  2  &  1  sable  on  a  chief  gules 
a  lion  passant  guardant  ?  or.,"  Redy.  (Sarah  =  1st,  Thomas 
Townsend  of  Sudely ;    2nd,  Alexander  Redy,   1731.) 

Chancel.  S.E. :  "  Or  in  dexter  chief  an  escallop  sable 
between  two  bendlets  gules,"  Tracy.  Impaling  "Argent  a 
chevron  between  three  escallops  sable,"  Lyttlcton.  Above 
Viscount's  coronet.  Robert  T.  =  Bridget  L.  E.:  "Gules 
on  a  fess  argent  three  lions  passant  guardant  ?  purpure," 
Oldisworth.  Crest:  Lion  sejant  guardant  (gules)  resting 
dexter  paw  (Fairbairn)  on  carved  shield  (Glos.  Vis.)  on 
scroll  or. 

Oldisv'orth,  impaling  "  Argent  on  a  fess  between  two> 
chevrons  sable  three  long  crosses  croslet?  or.,*'  Austin. 
(I  cannot  find  this  alliance.)     On  lozenge,  Oldisworth,   1680.. 

Heraldy  of  the  Different  Churches,  etc.        141 

Tomb  Brasses :  "  (Argent)  a  dragon  segreant  (vert)  com- 
batant a  lion  rampant  (azure)  crowned  (gules),"  Tame : 
impaling  "  (Argent)  a  chevron  between  three  lapwings 
close  (sable),"  Twyniho.  (Lines  are  not  correct,  only 

N.  Aisle.  E. :  "(Argent)  two  lions  passant  with  double 
queues  in  pale  (gules)  armed  and  langued  (azure),"  Lygon  : 
impaling  quarterly:  1st,  ".  .  .  a  bend  engr.  between 
three  leopards'  faces  jessant  de  lys  1  &  2  .  .  .  ,"  Dennis. 
(This  coat  is  nearly  everywhere  blazoned  false,  and  it  seems 
to  me  to  have  arisen  owing  to  misreading  "  Arg.  and  az."  ; 
Glos.  Vis.,  page  49,  says:  "Gu.  a  bend  engr.  az.  between 
two  leopards'  faces  jessant  de  lis  or."  Atkyns.  "  Gu.  a  bend 
engr.  az.  between  three  leopards'  faces  2  &  1  or.  jessant 
de  lys  of  the  2nd,"  but  I  have  plates  of  Gloucestershire 
coats,  1792,  where  it  is  "  Gu.  a  bend  engr.  arg.  between 
three  leopards'  faces  jessant  de  lys  2  &  1  or."  ;  this  I  believe 
to  be  right,  but  it  differs  from  the  Fairford  one  in  that  the 
faces  are  2  and  1.)  2nd,  "(Argent)  a  raven  within  bordure 
(sable)  roundelly  (bezanty),"  Corbett.  3rd,  "  (Argent)  on  a 
chief  (gules)  three  roundles  (bezants),"  Russell.  4th, 
"  Lozengy  (or.  &  azure)  a  chevron  (gules),"  Gorges.  (William 
Dennis  =  Margaret  Corbett.  Sir  Gilbert  Dennis  =  Margaret 
Russell.  Sir  Theobald  Russell  =  Eleanor  Gorges.  Glos. 
Vis.,  51  William  Lygon -=  Eleanor  Dennis.)  Crest:  Lion 
as  in  arms  (this  is  quite  different  from  the  usual  Lygon  crest). 

Brass  :  Dexter  defaced  impaling  "  (Sable)  on  a  cross 
engrailed  (or.)  five  roundles  (ogresses),"  Grevill,  1534.  (Glos. 
Vis.,  260,  query  Thomas  Tame  =  Jane,  2nd  daughter  of 
.     .     .     Grevill.) 

Brass  against  wall :  1. — Tame  with  crescent  for  difference 
impaling  Grevill  as  above.  (Sir  Edmond  Tame,  knt.  =  ist, 
Agnes,  d.  of  Sir  Edvvd.  Grevell);  2nd,  Elizabeth  Tyringham.) 
2. — Tame  impaling  "  (Azure)  a  saltire  engrailed  (argent)," 

S.E.  Churchyard   Tombs:    Quarterly,  1  and  4,  "  (Argent) 

142  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

a  griffin  segreant  (sable),"  Morgan.  2  and  3,  "  (Gules)  a  fess 
vair  between  three  unicorns'  heads  couped  (or.),"  Bigland, 
Savory.     Crest  :    Reindeer's  head  couped  (or.). 


S.E.  M.  Central  Sheld  :  Quarterly,  1  and  4,  "  Argent  a 
chevron  between  three  cocks'  heads  erased  gules,"  Coxeter. 
2  and  3,  "  ?  Sable  two  bars  &  in  chief  three  crosses  patty  or, 

a  label  of  3   ?  argent  for  difference,"  Bath  rst.      Crest :  Out 

of  mural  coronet  a  cock's  head  gules  crested  and  jelloped  or., 
1699.     (George  Coxeter  =  Mary  Bathurst.) 

Coxeter,  impaling  "  Gules  three  swords  barwise,  points  to 
the  dexter  proper,  pomels  and  hilts  or.  within  orle  of  mullets 
of  the  last,  on  a  canton  per  fess  argent  &  ?  vert  a  lion  of 
England,"  Chute  (the  lion  is  on  the  argent,  ought  to  be  on 
the  vert).     (I  cannot  find  this  alliance.) 

Bathurst,  impaling  "  Or  a  fess  between  two  lions  passant 
gules,"  Cooke.     (Laurence  Bathurst  =  Susanna  Cook.) 

Chancel:  "?  Argent  a  (quarter  -  pierced)  cross  moline 
sable  between  three  crescents  (gules),"  Milward,  impaling 
"  Argent  a  cross  fleur  de  lisy  at  the  sides  between  four 
mullets  (pierced)  sable,"  Atkyns.  Crest  :  Between  two  wings 
azure  a  bear's  paw  erased  sable  armed  or.,  holding  a  sceptre 
in  bend  sinister  of  the  last  entwined  by  a  sprig  of  oak  proper. 
Nee  temere  nee  timide. 

Window  :  "  Gules  a  falcon  volant  or  within  an  orle 
?  (wavy)  arg,"  Knox,  Earl  of  Ranfurly. 

Knox,  impaling  "Vert  a  chevron  argent  between  three 
garbs  or,"  Amyand.  Moveo  et  propitior.  (I  cannot  find  this 

M. :  "Argent  ?  bend  sa.  between  two  Proses  gules," 
Simons,  1769.  (Query,  "  Arg.  a  bend  engr.  az.  between  two 
fireballs  sa,"  Svnions.) 

Heraldry  of  the  Different  Churches,  etc.       143 

N.  Aisle,  M. :  "Azure  a  chevron  ?  arg.,  really  ermine, 
between  three  crosses  patty  argent,"  Ainge,  impaling  "Or 
six  amulets  3,  2,  1,  ?  sable,"  Lodev  (generally  "  Sa.  &  Or."). 
1778,  a  knight's  helmet.     (I  cannot  find  this  alliance.) 


"  Per  fess  argent  &  gules  a  fess  engrailed  per  fess  azure 
&  or  between  in  chief  a  cross  humetty  ?  ermine  enclosed  by 
two  helmets  sable  &  in  base  one  of  the  latter  or.,"  query. 

Impaling,  "  ?  Or  three  crescents  2  &  1  sable  on  a  canton 
of  the  last  a  ducal  coronet  of  the  1st,"  Hodges.  Crest  :  On 
wreath,  five  fieurs  de  lys  conjoined  barwise  in  front  of  demi 
?  hind  salient  regardant  holding  between  forelegs  an  arrow, 

W.  Window :  Plantagenet  Royal  coat  with  label  of 
3,   crowned,  surrounded  by  garter  motto,   "  Honi,"  &c. 


S.  Aisle:  "Gules  three  rams'  heads  couped  2  and  1  or," 
Hamevsley.  Impaling  "Argent  a  cross  ermines  between  four 
millrinds  sable,"  Turner,  1694. 

"Barry  wavy  of  six  .  .  .  &  ...  on  a  chief  a  ducal 
coronet  between  two  spearheads  erect"  (possibly  a  dimidiated 
coat,  and  the  coronet  intended  for  the  crest,  as)  M.  says 
Saphina  Broderwick,  which  is  "Argent  on  a  chief  vert  two 
spearheads  erect  of  the  1st  embrued  gules"  impaling 
"  (Gules)  two  chevrons  (or),"  Fettyplace.  (Francis  Broderick 
=  Sophia  Fettyplace.)  Also  Broderwick,  and  crest,  a  spear- 
head (argent)  embrued  (gu.)  out  of  ducal  coronet.      1700-12. 

Brass,  Chancel:  "(Or)  a  lion  rampant  (azure)  on  a  chief 
(of  the  last)  an  ostrich  feather  (of  the  1st)  between  two  others 
(argent),"  Prunes,  Walter,  1619.  Crest:  ?  Lion's  gamb  hold- 
ing three  ostrich  feathers  ?  as  in  arms.  Also  Prunes,  im- 
paling Quarterly  1  and  4  Phydell,  2  and  3  Reason,  sec  page 
139,  but  the  crosses  in  Reason  are  azure. 

J44  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

"  (Argent)  a  cross  moline  (sable)  with  crescent  for  differ- 
ence," Copley,  Impaling  "  Per  chevron  (azure)  &  ermine 
(generally  argent)  in  chief  two  falcons  displayed  (or)," 
Stephens,    1592. 


Lying  on  S.  choir  window  sill :  "  Or  a  chevron  engrailed 
gules  on  a  chief  sable,  three  mullets  of  the  field"  (generally 
Argent).  Crest :  On  helmet  on  wreath :  Elephant's  head  couped 
sable  (may  be  proper),  Thomas  Kebla  {Keeble),  1670. 

Chancel:  Quarterly,  1  and  4,  "(Sable)  on  a  bend  (argent) 
cotised  (ermine)  a  rose  between  two  annulets  (gules),  Conway. 
2  and  3,  Azure  a  cross  of  the  field  double  voided  or,"  Creuikere 
(see  Warwickshire  Visitation,  p.  26).  Crest :  On  helmet  on 
wreath  Moor's  head  sidefaced  couped  (proper)  wreathed 
(argent  and  azure). 

S.  Transept,  E.  window  :  ?  Azure  three  fishes  naiant 
dexterways  in  pale  argent  a  bend  ?  sable,  query  (without 
bend  Roche). 


House,  Porch  :  Quarterly,  1  and  4,  "  (Gules)  a  chevron 
between  three  combs  (argent),"  Ponsonby.  2  and  3  "  . 
lion  rampant  guardant  a  chief  engrailed."  Query.  (Query,  a 
mistake  for  "  Sa.  a  lion  pass,  guard,  arg.  a  chief  engr.  or.," 
Margetson,  one  of  the  usual  quarterings  of  Earl  of  Bess- 
borough).  Inescutcheon:  Quarterly,  1  and  4,  "  (Argent)  three 
bulls  passant  (sable)  unguled  and  armed  (or)  2  &  1,"  Ashley. 
2  and  3,  "  (Gules)  a  bend  engrailed  between  six  lions  rampant 
(or),"  Cooper.  Crest  :  Out  of  a  ducal  coronet  (or)  three 
arrows,  points  downwards,  one  in  pale  two  in  saltire  banded 
with  a  snake  nowed,  all  (proper).     Pro  rege,  lege,  grege. 

"  (Gules)  a  cross  between  four  falcons  (or),"  Webb.  In- 
escutcheon :  "  (Gules)  on  inescutcheon  (argent)  a  lion 
rampant  (of  the  1st)  within  a  bordure  (or),"  Blomir.  (Glos. 
Vis.  21  gives  this  false,  Atkyns  right.  Mary  Blomer  =  2ndly 
Sir  John  Webb). 

Heraldry  of  the  Different  Churches,  etc.       145 

Church,  Chancel :  Blower,  as  above.  Blower,  as  above, 
impaling.  "  (Sable)  three  lions  passant  in  bend  between  two 
double  cotises  (argent),"  Browne.    (I  cannot  find  this  alliance.) 

On  lozenge  :  Webb,  as  above,  with  inescutcheon,  Blower 
with  bordure  ermine,  impaling  Blower  with  bordure  ermine. 
(This  seems  to  be  a  way  of  explaining  the  Blomer  impaling 
to  be  an  heiress ;  the  coat  ought  to  be  Webb  with  ines- 
cutcheon Blomer,  the  bordure  a  variety.) 

Window:  Webb  with  Baronet's  escutcheon,  ?  Blower. 
"Ora  bend  sa.,"  Mauley. 


Nave,  central  passage  :  "  (?  Azure)  a  fess  ermine  between 
three  lions  rampant  ?  (or)  a  crescent  for  difference,"  Powle. 
Crest :  On  helmet  on  wreath  Unicorn  passant  (az.)  horned 
and  maned  (or),  (Rt.  Hon.  Henry  Powle,  Master  of  the  Rolls, 
1692).  (Papworth  says  the  lions  passant.)  "  Ermine  a  bend 
ermine,"  really  "  Ermine  two  bendlets  gules,"  Ireton.  (Some 
say  "  Erm.  a  bend  voided  gu.,"  this  may  have  caused  the 
mistake.)  With  inescutcheon,  Powle  above  ;  impaling, 
Powle.  (This  seems  to  be  the  way  of  showing,  as  in  Webb 
above,  that  the  impaling  was  an  heiress.)  Crest  :  A  squirrel 
sejant  holding  nut  in  forepaws,  all  proper.  (Henry  Ireton 
=  Catherine,  d.  and  h.  of  Henry  Powle.      Atkyns,  322.) 

N.  wall:  "Azure  on  a  fess  engrailed  or  between  three 
swan's  heads  erased  argent  ducally  gorged  ?  gules  as  many 
cinquefoils  of  the  last,"  Baker,  Rev.  Mr.  George,  1767. 

COLN     ST.     ALWYN'S. 

House,  Hall  :  Quarterly,  1  and  4,  "  Vair  (argent  &  gules) 
on  a  canton  (azure)  a  pile  (or),"  Beach.  2  and  3,  "  (Gules)  a 
fess  wavy  between  three  fleurs  de  lis  (or),  a  crescent  for 
difference,"  Hicks,  and  Baronet's  escutcheon.  Crests,  1  : 
Demi  lion  rampant  (argent)  ducally  gorged  (or)  holding  in 
paws  the   canton   as  in   the   arms,   Beach.     2  :    Buck's   head 

1 1 
Vol.  XXII. 

146  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

couped  (or)  gorged  with  a  wreath  of  ?  oak  (proper),  Hicks. 
Tout  en  bon  heure. 

Church,  Chancel,  brass  :    "  Sable  a  chevron  or  between 
three  escallops  ?(ar^J,    Mitchell;    impaling    Hicks -Beach. 

Crest:  On  wreath  a  Garb  (vert.) 

S.E.  Tower,   over  door  :  "    .     .     .     cross     .     .     .     sur- 
mounted by  a  crown,"  query  de  Burgh. 

Tower,  N.  side  :    "  A   fess   between   three   birds,"    query 


"  ?  (Argent)  a  bend  wavy  between  six  cocks  3  &  3  (gules)," 
Coxtvell.  Impaling  "(Sable)  a  chevron  ermine  between  three 
unicorns'  heads  couped  (argent),"  Head.  (Charles  Coxwell  — 
Eleanor  Head,  of  Winterborn,  Berks.)  Crest :  On  esquire's 
helmet  on  wreath  a  dragon's  head  (argent)  between  two 
wings  of  the  same  expanded  (gules).     1699. 

On  flat  stones  in  nave  a  great  many  Coxwells. 

"Argent    crusily    croslets    three    talbots'    heads    erased 
sable,"  Hall.     Cura  quietem,   1824. 

Chancel :    "  Quarterly   or   &  gules   a   bend    vairy    (really 
vair),"  Sackvillc. 

Quarterly,  1  and  4,  "  Gules  on  each  of  three  plates  a 
squirrel  sejant  of  the  field,"  Crcsivcll.  2,  "  Argent  (really 
ermine)  on  a  chief  indented  gules  three  estoiles  or,"  Estcourt. 
3,  "  Per  fess  embattled  (arg.  and  sa.  really)  sable  and  argent 
six  ?  crosses  patty  3  &  3  counterchanged,"  Warneford. 
Inescutcheon  :  "Argent  a  saltire  (really  engrailed)  between 
lour  mullets  sable,"  Wotton.  (Richard  Cresswell  of  Sidbury 
=  Elizabeth,  d.  and  h.  of  Sir  Thomas  Estcourt,  knt.,  of 
Pinkney.  Thomas  Estcourt  Cresswell  =  Anne,  d.  and  h.  of 
Edmund  Warneford,  by  Elizabeth,  d.  and  h.  of  Henry 
Sackville.  Thomas  Estcourt  Cresswell  the  2nd  =  Mary, 
d.  and  h.  Samuel  Wotton,  Devon.) 

Heraldry  of  the  Different  Churches,  etc.       147 

Wameford,  above,  "  arg.  &  sa."     Inescutcheon,  Sackville, 
"  bend  vair." 

Baker,  as  in  Quenington,  page  145. 

Coxwell,  as  before. 


(For  the  following  I  can  find  no  reference  books,  so  I  am 
indebted  to  G.  E.  C.  Clarenceux,  and  Collins'  Baronage  for 
making  them  out,  but  I  believe  them  to  be  correct.) 

Porch:    Quarterly   of    12.      1,   "Quarterly   (or  &  gu.)   a 

bend  vair,"  Sackville.     2,  "  Fretty."     Argent  fretty   (      1     )• 

De  Den.  (Sir  Jordan  Sackville  =  Hela,  d.  of  Ralph  de  Den 
and  coh.  to  her  brother  Robert  of  Buckhurst.)  3,  "  Fleur  de 
lys."  "Gules  a  iieur  de  lys  argent,"  D'Aguillon.  (Sir  Jordan 
Sackville,  ob.  1273  —  Margaret,  d.  and  coh.  Sir  Robert  de 
Aguillon).  4,  "  A  cross  engrailed."  "  Argent  a  cross  engrailed 
gules,"  Dalingnigc  (Sir  Thomas  Sackville  =  Margaret,  sister 
and  coh.  of  Sir  John  Dalingruge)  and  De  la  Lyndc 
(Margaret's  great-grandfather  =  Joan,  d.  and  h.  of  Walter 
de  la  Lynde,  who  =  Joan  de  Nevill,  d.  of  Hugh  and  h.  of 
Philip  Neville.)  5,  "  Lozengy "  (or.  and  gu.)  a  canton 
dilletty  (really  ermine),  Neville.  6,  "  Three  eagles  displayed," 
query  crowned.  Arg.  three  eagles  displayed  gules  (generally 
crowned  or.),  de  Courcy.  (Hugh  de  Neville  =  Alice,  d.  and 
h.  de  Courcy.)  Impaling:  1,  Hungerford.  2,  Heytesbury.  3, 
Hussey.  4,  Peicrcl.  5,  ?  Cornwall.  6,  Couricnay.  Crests:  1, 
A  ram's  head  erased  (sable)  armed  (or.),  Sackville.  2,  Out 
of  a  ducal  coronet   (or.)  a  garb  between  two  sickles  (ppr.), 

Hungerford.  Above  y    ,,  and  the  date,  1633.     See  Glos.  Vis.. 

1623,    89.       (T)homas    (S)ackville    al's    Toots  =   B(arbara 
Hungerford,  and  the  date  1633. 

148  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 


"  ?  Argent  a  chevron  between  three  cocks  gules  on  a  chief 
sable  as  many  spear  heads  of  the  1st  (really  embrued  of  the 
2nd),"  Williams.  (Vis.  Glos.  1682,  202,  gives  this  as  "  Sa.  a 
chev.  between  three  spearheads  arg.  embrued  at  the  points 
on  a  chief  of  the  2nd  as  many  cocks  gu.")  Impaling :  "  Per 
pale  and  per  chevron  three  martlets  argent  and  sable,  all 
counterchanged,"  Renshaw.  (No  tinctures  given  by  Burke  or 
Papworth  )      Williams,  also  on  flagon. 

Canopy  of  piscina:  "2  bends,"  query  Tracy.  "  (Az.) 
sword  in  pale  point  downwards  on  two  keys  in  saltire  (or.)." 
See  of  Gloucester  up  to  1689  Transactions,  xvii.  2,  286  and 
plate.  "  On  lozenge  on  saltire  a  cross."  Query  "  Azure  in 
a  quarter  pierced  saltire  or  a  cross  (generally  patty)  of  the 
1st,"   Winchcomb. 

S.  Aisle,  E. :  "  Azure  a  fess  wavy  between  three  lions 
passant  or.,  a  crescent  for  difference,"  Hawes. 

"  Gules  on  a  bend  between  two  castles  or.  three  fusils 
sable,"  Baylis.  (I  cannot  find  this  anywhere;  the  Gloucester- 
shire Baylis,  according  to  a  plate,  1792,  bore :  "  Erm.  a  chev. 
az.  between  in  chief  two  trees  vert  &  in  base  a  lamb  ?  or. 
resting  dex.  foot  on  a  ?  billet  gu."  This  also  I  cannot  find 

(1)  Defaced.  ?  "  Argent  a  cross  between  four  roses 
gules  seeded  or.,"  Trotman.  Impaling:  l>  Or.  three  mullets 
between  double  tressure  flory  gules,"  query  intended  for 
Murray.  (2)  Trotman,  as  above.  Crest :  Garb  between  two 
ostrich  feathers. 


Bosses:  (1)  Quarterly,  1  and  4,  "(Or.)  five  fusils  in  fess 
(az.),"  Pennington.    2  and  3,  "  Barry  of  six  (arg.  &  gu.)  a  bend 

/az.\  ,,  Moncastert      The  Rev.  W.  Bazeley,  our  Secretary, 

thinks  this  quartered  coat  to  be  Percy,  when  it  would  be 
1   and   4,    "  (Az.)    five    fusils   conjoined    in    fess    (or),   Percy. 

Heraldry  of  the  Different  Churches,  etc.       149 

2  and  3,  "  Barry  of  six  or  and  vert  a  bend  (gu.),"  Poynings. 
(2),  "(Gu.)  fretty  (arg.),"  Hodehton.  (Sir  W.  Hodelston  = 
Bridget  Pennington.)  (3),  Hodehton  impaling  :  "  (Arg.)  a 
lion  rampant  queue  fourchee  (sa.),"  Barynton.  (Sir  Anthony 
Hodelston  =  Mary  Barrentyne.)  (4),  Quarterly,  1  and  4, 
Hodehton.  2  and  3,  "  Barry  of  six  (arg.  &  az.),"  Grey. 
Impaling:  "  (Gu.)  a  lion  rampant  (or.),"  Grey.  (Ferdinand 
Hodelston  =  Jane,  d.  of  Sir  Ralph  Grey,  who  =  Isabel,  d. 
and  coh.  of  Sir  Thomas  Grey  of  Northumberland.) 

Quarterly,  1  and  4,  "(Sa.)   a  lion  passant  guardant  (or.) 
between  three  esquires'  helmets  (arg.),"  Compton.     2  and  3, 

(Shirley,  265;   Hutchins,  i.  454),  "(Arg.)  a  chevron  (^^ 

within  bordure  (  J  roundelly  (bezanty),"  Compton.  (Aug- 
mentation grant,  Hen.  VIII.)  "(Az.)  a  chain  and  two  hand- 
cuffs chevronwise  between  three  mitres  with  labels  2  and  1 
(arg.),"  Evesham  Abbey. 

15    EDWARD    I. 

By    the    Rev.    E.    A.    FULLER,    M.A. 

The   following  pages  contain  a  translation   of  that   part  of 

the  Assize  Roll  for  Gloucestershire   at  the   Paschal  Circuit 

of  the  year  15  Edward  I.,  i.e.  a.d.  1287,  which  concerns  the 

Pleas  of  the  Crown  for  the  City  of  Bristol,  as  dealt  with  by 

the  justices,  Saham  and  Metingham.     A  separate  roll  in  the 

case  of  Saham  (No.  283),  another  part  of  the  roll  (No.  282) 

in  the  case  of  Metingham,  contains  the  report  of  the  trial  of 

civil  actions,  pleas  between  man  and  man  ;  but  what  is  here 

printed  is  mainly  the  review  by  the   King's   justices  of   all 

cases,  which  had  occurred  since  the  last  similar  circuit  of  the 

justices,  which  appertained  to  what  were  called  Pleas  of  the 

Crown.     These  would  be  cases  of  death  whether  by  murder 

or  by  misadventure,  cases  of  transgression  against  the  assize 

of  cloth  and  wine,  withdrawals  of   suit   and  service  to  the 

hundred    or    royal    manors,    encroachment    on    the    King's 

highway,  and   attempts  to  levy  new  duties  or  customs  by 

local  officials,  &c.     The  records  of  the  local  courts  of  justice 

and   of  the   coroners'   courts  had   to   be  produced,  and  the 

officials  of  these  courts  had  to  justify  their  procedure  therein. 

Then  the  English  system  of  social  life,  fundamentally  shown 

as  a  rule  in  the  enrolment  of  every  adult  in  some  tything,1  by 

which   the  folk  of  a  neighbourhood  were  made  answerable 

for  the  good  conduct  of  their  neighbours,  was  extended  to 

their  responsibility  for  all  deaths  by  violence  in  their  district, 

1  There  were  no  tythings  in  Bristol.     (See  No.  3.) 

Pleas  of  the  Crown  at  Bristol.  151 

unless  they  could  prove  innocence,  and  that  they  themselves 
had  done  their  best  to  discover  the  murderer  and  arrest  him. 
So  also  with  regard  to  their  duty  to  arrest  robbers,  if  the 
theft  took  place  in  the  daytime;  again,  had  they  fulfilled 
their  duty  in  aiding  the  coroner  at  his  inquest  ?  Ever)'  failure 
or  excess  of  duty  was  visited  by  a  fine  ;  and  in  the  margin 
of  the  roll,  by  way  of  index,  was  in  such  cases  entered  mia, 
i.e.  in  misericordia,  i.e.  in  mercy,  the  technical  phrase  for  a 
fine  for  breach  of  duty,  the  amount  of  which  was  at  the  will 
of  the  Crown  through  the  justices,  but  which  the  Crown  in 
its  mercy  did  not  exact  to  the  extent  of  ruining  the  defaulter. 
The  amount  of  the  fine  was  settled  in  the  presence  of  those 
who  would  know  the  circumstances  of  folk,  and  the  list  was 
entered  at  the  end  of  the  roll.  Where  special  fines  were 
entered  in  the  roll  of  fines  for  special  offences,  I  have  entered 
the  amount  of  such  fine  against  the  case  involved.  The 
various  offences  of  the  borough  of  Bristol  through  its  officials 
were  not  separately  assessed,  but  were  all  comprehended  in 
one  item  of  assessment :  "  From  the  whole  borough  of 
Bristol,  as  a  fine  for  many  transgressions,  and  for  the  trans- 
gression of  the  twelve  jurors,  except  Henry  Horncastel, 
40  marcs,"  ite.  £ib  13s.  4d. 

Of  course,  these  fines  were  a  source  of  some  profit  to  the 
Crown  ;  and  this  minute  examination  of  the  work  of  local 
officials,  and  of  mercantile  transactions  with  the  consequent 
fines,  was  felt  to  be  oppressive,  so  that  protests  were  made 
against  it,  and  it  became  the  accepted  rule  that  there 
should  be  an  interval  of  at  least  seven  years  between  these 
Crown  circuits  of  the  Royal  justices.  There  was  a  greater 
chance  of  small  transgressions  being  passed  over,  and 
offenders  might  have  had  the  luck  to  die.  {See  No.  44.) 
For  some  reason  this  circuit  was  the  first  in  the  reign  of 
Edward  1.,  so  that  at  least  fifteen  years  had  elapsed  since  the 
previous  one  ;  and  as  a  case  of  death  {see  No.  2)  is  considered 
which  occurred  as  far  back  as  53  Henry  III.  (i26w\  there  had 
apparently  been  no  such  review  for  eighteen  years.  From 
the  Pipe  Roll  of  16  Edward  I.,  it  appears  that  the  amount 

152  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

of  the  amerciaments  levied  by  Saham  and  Metingham  in 
this  circuit  was  for  Gloucestershire  ^1281  3s.  8d.,  and  for 
Bristol  £115  3s.  3d.,  these  amounts  including  the  value  of 
the  chattels  of  felons. 

Another  frequent  judgment  is  entered  in  the  margin 
concerning  felons  who  had  fled,  "  exig'  et  utlag1"  i.e. 
" exigatuv  et  utlagetur"  i.e.  "let  him  be  exacted,  that  is 
summoned  five  successive  times  in  the  County  Court,  and 
on  non-appearance  be  outlawed."  An  outlaw  had  lost  all 
civil  rights,  carried  a  wolf's  head,  as  was  said,  and  might  be 
slain  by  anyone  with  impunity.  A  woman  not  being  in  any 
tything  could  not  be  outlawed  ;  but  she  might  be  waived 
{see  No.  75),  and  left  derelict,  "a  waif  whom  no  man  could 
warrant  and  no  prince  protect."  Of  course,  if  a  man  was 
guilty,  but  managed  to  escape,  his  chattels  were  confiscated. 
Nor  was  an  innocent  man  in  a  better  plight,  if  through  fear 
he  had  at  first  fled  from  justice.  For  though  he  might 
afterwards,  on  better  thought,  return,  stand  his  trial,  prove 
his  innocence  and  be  acquitted  on  the  charge  of  felony,  yet 
his  chattels  were  equally  confiscated  because  he  had  fled 
from  justice  at  first.     {See  Nos.  18  and  53.) 

Another  frequent  marginal  entry  of  judgment  is  "abjur'," 
i.e.  " abjuravit  regnum;"  that  is,  "has  abjured  the  kingdom." 
It  was  open  to  any  criminal  to  take  sanctuary  in  some  church, 
if  he  could  reach  it,  and  there  in  the  presence  of  the  coroner 
to  own  his  felonious  act,  and  abjure  the  kingdom.  There  is 
an  instance  in  No.  29  of  a  fine  upon  the  coroner  for  receiving 
the  abjuration  in  a  private  house  which  had  on  right  of 
sanctuary,  and  another  instance  in  No.  26  of  a  fine  upon 
the  bailiffs  of  Bristol  for  usurping  the  office  of  coroner  in 
receiving  an  abjuration.  Originally,  the  felon  could  choose 
his  own  port  of  departure  ;  but  gradually  the  coroner  assigned 
a  port,  Dover  as  a  rule,  and  there  are  instances  in  this  roll, 
Nos.  59  and  74,  of  the  coroner  being  fined  for  allotting  a 
wrong  port  to  the  criminal.  The  felon,  bearing  a  wooden 
cross,  with  only  a  coat  on,  bareheaded  and  barefooted,  had 
to  go  by  the  most  direct  way  to  the  port  of  departure,  or  he 

Pleas  of  the  Crown  at  Bristol.  153 

ran  the  risk  of  being  beheaded  as  an  outlaw.  There  is  an 
instance  of  this  in  the  roll  of  this  circuit,  under  the  head  of 
Berkeley  Hundred,  membr.  23  d. 

"  The  jurors  present  that  John  the  Frankeleyn  killed 
William  de  Lench  in  the  Township  of  Erlingham,1  and 
afterwards,  at  the  suit  of  one  Letitia  Lench,  was  outlawed 
in  the  County  Court ;  and  afterwards  returned  to  the  country 
and  placed  himself  in  the  Church  of  Cirencester  and  owned 
his  crime  before  the  coroner  ;  and  after  he  had  abjured  he 
went  out  of  his  way  and  again  returned  to  his  country,  and 
was  pursued  by  the  township  of  Erlingham,  and  in  his  flight 
was  beheaded.  His  chattels  were  worth  40/-,  for  which  the 
Sheriff  has  to  answer."' 

Occasionally,  the  ominous  S  appears, — that  is,  "  sus- 
pendetur,"  or  "  let  him  be  hung."  But  with  the  opportunity 
of  escape  by  flight,  or  by  abjuring  the  kingdom,  there  were 
relatively  few  executed  in  proportion  to  the  cases  for  which 
death  was  the  penalty.  With  regard  to  the  review  of  the 
action  of  the  local  courts,  there  are  two  instances  of  fines, 
No.  66,  a  case  where  the  court  proceeded  to  hang  without 
making  a  proper  inquisition,  and  No.  68,  where  the  court 
had  a  criminal  hung  without  waiting  for  the  arrival  of  a 
witness  called  for  the  defence. 

In  the  review  of  the  coroner's  rolls  the  judgment  and 
marginal  entry  is  really,  in  all  cases  where  the  death  was  not 
imputed  to  violence,  "  Infort',"  i.e.  "  Infortunium,"  or 
"  Misfortune."  It  is  noteworthy  that  there  is  only  one 
case  during  these  eighteen  years  of  suggested  suicide,  with 
the  verdict  of  felo-de-se  ;2  and  that  was  shown  afterwards  to 
be  a  mistake,  as  suspicion  attached  to  some  person  of  having 
killed  the  deceased  ;  No.  52.  The  point  of  difference 
between  those  days  and  our  own  time  is  the  practice  then 
and  afterwards  of  forfeiture  of  the  thing — whether  living,  as 
horse,  &c,  or  without  life,  as  boat,  cart,  &c. — which  was  the 

1   Arlingham. 

2  In  the  Crown  Roll  of  the  Assize  for  5  Hen.  III.,  i.e.  1221,  there  is 
only  one  case  of  suicide  in  the  whole  County  of  Gloucester. 

154  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

unconscious  instrument  in  causing  death.  This  forfeiture 
was  exacted  in  an  irregularly  assessed  value  of  the  thing 
forfeited ;  but  this  assessed  value  does  not  appear  to  have 
been  at  any  time  necessarily  the  real  full  value  of  the  chattel. 
Thus  in  this  roll,  membr.  4,  under  the  head  of  the  Township 
of  Winchcomb,  is  the  case  of  a  man  killed  by  the  falling 
upon  him  of  the  bell  of  the  great  bell-tower  of  the  church, 
and  the  value  of  the  bell  for  deodand  was  assessed  at 
12  pence.  This  forfeit  thereupon,  being  paid  as  a  fine  to 
the  Crown,  was  by  the  Crown,  through  the  justices,  given  to 
some  pious  use.  It  was  said  to  be  given  to  God,  and  so  was 
called  a  Deodand.  There  is  an  instance  in  this  roll,  No.  41, 
of  a  fine  inflicted  on  a  person  who  had  appropriated  a 
deodand  without  warrant.  This  system  of  deodands,  as 
fines  to  the  Crown,  continued  till  the  era  of  serious  railway 
accidents,  when  it  began  to  be  felt  that  a  fine  of  some  part 
value  of  a  railway  engine  and  train  was  not  an  adequate  mulct 
on  a  company  through  whose  default,  by  their  own  insufficient 
precautions,  or  their  servants'  neglect,  a  bad  accident  had 
happened.  Moreover,  the  sufferers  or  the  relatives  of  those 
killed  were  without  redress.  In  a.d.  1841  there  was  a 
disastrous  accident  near  Twyford  on  the  G.W.R.  to  a  mixed 
train,  by  which  eight  persons  lost  their  lives,  and  seventeen 
were  severely  injured.  The  coroner's  jury  returned  a 
verdict  of  "Accidental  death,"  and  assessed  a  deodand  of 
£1000,  on  the  engine,  tender  and  trucks,  which  was  due  to 
the  lord  of  the  manor  under  a  grant  from  the  Crown  by 
James  I.  At  last,  in  a.d.  1846,  an  Act  of  Parliament  was 
passed  which  did  away  with  the  old  system  of  deodand,  gave 
the  Crown  a  criminal  action  against  a  proved  defaulter  in 
duty,  and  provided  for  the  sufferers  and  the  dependent 
relatives  of  those  killed  a  civil  action  for  damages  against 
the  company. 

The  untrustworthiness  of  trial  by  combat  is  shown 
by  No.  77,  where  on  review  the  local  court  was  fined  for 
causing  a  witness  to  prove  his  truthfulness  by  combat ;  the 
only  person  who  by  law  had  thus  to  prove  his  truth  being  an 

Pleas  of  the  Crown  at  Bristol.  155 

approver — that  is,  an  informer.  In  this  case  there  was  a  clear 
miscarriage  of  justice,  a  truthful  witness  being  hung  because 
he  did  not  conquer  both  of  the  accused  in  the  combat. 

No.  46  is  a  case  of  money  clipping.  The  felon  was 
sentenced  by  the  local  court  to  be  drawn  asunder,  and  on 
review  the  officials  were  fined  because  they  proceeded  to 
have  him  hung. 

No.  75  is  a  case  of  murder  of  a  husband  by  a  wife,  with 
the  judgment  of  death  by  burning. 

There  is  an  interesting  entry  at  the  beginning  of  the 
Gloucestershire  Roll  as  to  the  presentation  of  Englishry. 
Membr.  2  : — "  The  whole  county  records  that  no  Englishry  is 
presented  in  that  county,  nor  was  ever  wont  to  be  presented, 
but  that  it  is  altogether  unknown  what  Englishry  is,  because 
they  had  never  heard  it  spoken  of.  And  because  it  has  been 
found  from  the  rolls  of  the  preceding  circuit,  that  is  to  say,  the 
circuit  of  Richard  de  Midelton  and  his  companions,  justices 
itinerating  in  that  county,  that  Englishry  is  presented  in  that 
county  by  two  on  the  part  of  the  father,  and  by  one  on  the 
part  of  the  mother,  concerning  felonies  alone,  and  both 
concerning  males  and  females,  except  the  children  being 
under  seven  years  of  age ;  and  it  has  been  found  by  the 
same  rolls  that  Englishry  was  not  wont  to  be  presented  in 
the  hundreds  and  townships  in  the  western  part  beyond  the 
water  of  Severn,  neither  again  in  the  hundred  of  Berkeley, 
nor  in  the  borough  of  Berkeley,  but  in  the  eastern  part  in  all 
hundreds,  therefore  the  whole  county  is  in  mercy." 

Midelton's  Roil  is  not  now  in  existence,  but  his  death  in 
a.d.  1272  would  make  a  period  of  fifteen  years  since  his 
circuit.  It  has  been  shown  above,  however,  that  it  must 
have  been  at  least  eighteen  years  since  he  went  on  a  circuit 
in  the  county.  With  regard  to  the  claim  itself,  Murdrum  was 
the  fine  inflicted,  after  the  period  of  the  Norman  Conquest, 
upon  the  hundred  or  other  separate  liberty  in  which  a 
murder  had  been  committed,  concerning  which  it  could  not 
be  proved  that  the  murdered  person  was  an  Englishman. 
The  fine  was  not  abolished  till  14  Edw.  III.,  1340. 

156  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

It  does  not  appear  from  the  roll  itself  what  the  object 
of  this  claim  of  the  non-presentation  of  Englishry  thus  made 
was.  If  the  non-existence  of  the  presentation  of  Englishry 
had  been  equivalent  necessarily  to  freedom  from  the  murder 
fine,  it  would  be  easy  to  understand  that  the  county  wanted 
to  establish  a  right  by  custom  to  such  freedom.  But  practice 
varied  much  in  the  English  counties.  In  his  preface  to  the 
Early  Somersetshire  Assize  Roll,  which  Mr.  C.  E.  Chadwick 
Healy,  Q.C.,  edited,  he  gave  some  specimens  of  these  varia- 
tions as  recorded  by  the  counties.  Thus,  Yorkshire:  "No 
Englishry  presented  in  this  county,  therefore  no  murder  fine." 
Warwickshire  :  "  Be  it  known  that  in  this  county  Englishry 
is  not  presented,  therefore  there  is  no  murder  fine."  Lincoln- 
shire :  "  No  Englishry  is  presented  in  this  county  ;  yea, 
the  whole  county  says  that  if  anyone  is  found  slain  it  is 

In  respect  to  Gloucestershire,  in  the  Picas  of  the  Crown 
for  Gloucestershire  in  5  Hen.  III.,  1221,  edited  by  Mr.  F.  W. 
Maitland,  it  is  said,  with  regard  to  a  case  of  death  by  violence, 
f.  98  :  "  The  county  records  that  beyond  the  course  of  the 
water  of  Severn,  as  long  as  the  county  of  Gloucester  endures, 
there  is  no  murder  reckoned  ;  therefore  there  is  nothing  (no 
fine)  in  this  case."  And  Mr.  Chadwick  Healy  quotes  from 
the  same  assize  roll  for  Gloucestershire,  under  the  head  of 
Westbury  Hundred  :  "  In  that  hundred  there  is  no  murder 
fine,  because  it  is  beyond  Severn;"  and  in  the  case  of  a 
death  by  violence,  "  No  murder  fine,  because  it  is  beyond 
Severn."  It  might  have  seemed  therefore,  apart  from  the 
detailed  evidence  of  this  roll,  that  the  idea  of  the  county  was 
to  claim  the  extension  over  the  whole  county  of  this  relief 
from  the  murder  fine  which  existed  beyond  the  Severn  ;  and 
that  they  hoped  the  eighteen  years  which  had  elapsed  since 
the  last  circuit  might  avail  to  make  this  claim  pass  current 
without  further  enquiry.  But  the  evidence  of  the  cases 
recorded  in  this  roll  shows  that  the  entry  Nulla  Englischeria 
did  not  carry  with  it  the  exemption  of  the  hundred  from  the 
murder  fine.     On  membr.  20,  in  the  Hundred  of  Westbury, 

Pleas  of  the  Crown  at  Bristol.  157 

occurs  a  case  of  violent  death  at  Brydewode,1  with  the  entry, 
"No  Englishry ;  judgment,  murder  upon  the  hundred;" 
and  on  the  same  membrane  is  a  case  of  violent  death  at 
Minsterworth,  in  the  same  phrase,  "No  Englishry;  judg- 
ment, murder  upon  the  hundred ;  "  and  on  membr.  22,  a 
similar  entry  about  a  violent  death  at  Dymok,  in  Bottelaw 
Hundred.  The  Hundred  of  Berkeley  is  declared,  as  above, 
to  be  under  the  same  rule  of  the  non-existence  of  the 
presentation  of  Englishry  ;  but  entries  in  the  roll,  membr. 
23  d.  and  25  d.,  show  there  equally  "  No  Englishry,"  followed 
by  "judgment,  murder,"  either  upon  the  hundred,  or  upon 
the  town  as  not  participating  with  the  hundred.  In  fact, 
there  is  no  difference  in  the  entries  of  judgment  for  violent 
death  in  these  districts  said  to  be  under  the  special  rule 
of  no  presentation  of  Englishry,  and  the  entries  in  ordinary 
hundreds,  such  as  Cirencester  and  Bradley.  In  all  it  is 
"No  Englishry;  judgment,  murder  upon  the  hundred."  It 
does  not  appear,  therefore,  what  the  idea  was  in  making 
this  claim. 

Of  course  a  separate  liberty  might,  by  Royal  grant,  have 
the  franchise  of  being  quit  of  the  murder  fine,  quietus  de 
murdvo.  Thus  in  No.  70,  "  No  Englishry,"  in  the  case  of 
a  death  by  violence  on  St.  Michael's  Hill,  is  followed  by 
"judgment,  murder  upon  the  Borough  of  Bristol."  Where- 
upon there  was  produced  to  the  justices  a  Royal  charter 
granting  the  borough  quittance  of  the  murder  fine. 

In  transcribing  the  roll,  I  have  numbered  the  cases  for 
facility  of  reference. 

Assize    Roll    No.   284,   15  Edward  I. — Gloucestershire. 


Membr.  35.  Pleas  of  the  Crown  of  the  borough  of 
Bristol,  which  appears  by  twelve  men.  (Their  names,  given 
on  membr.  34  d.,  are — Gilbert  Cissor  de  Banes,  Robert  de 
Monemue,  John  Bruselaunce,  Adam  de  Siston,  John  Seynt 

1  Birdwood,  in  Churcham  parish. 

158  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

de  ,  Stephen  Turtle,  Robert  la  Ware,  William  Dale, 

Everard  Fraunceys,  Ralph  Romeneye,  Henry  Horncastel, 
John  de  Cardiff.) 

These  were  mayors  in  the  borough  of  Bristol  since  the 
last  circuit ;  namely,  Reginald  de  Panes,  John  Wyssey, 
Symon  the  Clerk,  and  John  de  Lydherd,  who  are  dead  ;  and 
after  them,  Thomas  de  Hameldene  and  Everard  le  Franceys, 
who  survive,1  and  Richard  de  Mangodesfeld,  who  now  is 
mayor  and  who  answers. 

These  have  been  coroners  since  the  last  circuit ;  that  is 
to  say,  Ergleys,  John  Tresour,  William  le  Rus,  who  are 
dead  ;  and  Ralph  le  Tanur,  Richard  de  Bercham,  Roger  le 
Taverner,  and  Gilbert  le  Spicer,  who  survive  and  who  answer. 

These  have  been  constables  since  the  last  circuit :  John 
de  Muscegros  and  Bartholomew  le  Jofne,  who  are  dead  ;  and 
Hugh  de  Turbeville,  and  Peter  de  la  Mare,  who  now  is 
(constable)  and  who  answers. 

These  have  been  bailiffs  since  the  last  circuit ;  that  is  to 
say,  Sanekyn  Reveward,  Ralph  Beauflur,  William  Beauflur, 
and  Walter  de  Berham,  who  are  dead;  and  Symon  Adrian, 
Walter  Fraunceys,  Henry  le  Waleys,  Richard  le  Draper, 
and  Geoffrey  Agodeshalve,  who  now  are  bailiffs  and  who 

1.  The  jurors  present  that  Richard  de  Clerk  fell  from  a 
bridge  and  was  drowned.  The  first  finder  and  the  four  who 
were  nearest  are  all  dead.  Misfortune.  Price  of  the  bridge 
is.  6d.,  for  which  the  sheriff  has  to  answer;  and  because  the 
twelve  jurors  made  no  mention  in  their  verdict  of  the  pledges 
of  the  first  finder,  therefore  they  are  in  mercy. 

2.  Richard  Hyne  fell  off  his  horse  into  the  Frome,  and 
was  drowned,  in  53  Henry  III.-  The  first  finder,  &c.  Mis- 
fortune.    Price  of  the  horse  6s.,  for  which  the  sheriff,  &c. 

1  According  to  Ricart's  Calendar,  the  names  and  dates  were  these  : — 

1271.  Radulphus  Paldene.  1278.  Johannes  Lydeyarde. 

1272.  Johannes  Wissy.  I275    Thomas  de  Hamelesden. 
1277.  Symon  de  Bardeney.  1276.  Gerardus  le  Fraunces. 

2   12G9. 

Pleas  of  the  Crown  at  Bristol.  159 

3.  Alan  Bereman  and  Roger  Byndedevel  killed  William 
de  Mangodesfelde  in  54  Henry  III.,  and  forthwith  after  the 
deed  placed  themselves  in  the  Church  of  St.  Peter,  and 
owned  to  the  deed,  and  abjured  the  kingdom,  in  the  presence 
of  the  coroner.  They  had  no  chattels,  nor  were  they  in  a 
tithing,  because  there  are  no  tithings  in  that  borough.  And 
because  the  borough  of  Bristol  did  not  arrest  them,  therefore 
it  is  in  mercy. 

4.  John,  the  son  of  Robert  Brid,  was  crushed  by  a  certain 
wall.     The  first  finder,  &c.     Misfortune.     Price  of  wall  is. 

5.  John  le  Tanur,  in  the  Church  of  St.  John  de  la  Rede- 
clyve,1  owned  himself  a  robber,  and  abjured,  &c.  His 
chattels  were  worth  6d.,  for  which  the  borough  of  Bristol 
has  to  answer.  And  because  the  B.  of  B.  did  not  arrest 
him,  therefore  it  is  in  mercy. 

6.  Alice,  the  wife  of  Peter  the  Crossbowman,  cut  the 
throat  of  her  son  William  and  threw  him  into  her  cesspool, 
and  abjured,  &c,  in  the  Church  of  St.  Peter.  She  had  no 

7.  William  de  Yvenck  fell  from  a  boat  into  the  Frome, 
and  was  drowned.  The  first  finder,  &c.  Misfortune.  Price 
of  the  boat  2s.  6d.  And  because  the  twelve  jurors  concealed 
the  said  deodand  in  their  verdict,  therefore  they  are  in 

8.  Walter  le  Cornmangere  placed  himself  in  the  Church 
of  St.  Mary  de  la  Redeclyve,  54  Hen.  III.,  and  owned  him- 
self a  robber,  and  abjured,  &c.  No  chattels.  And  because 
the  borough  of  Bristol  did  not  arrest  him,  therefore  it  is  in 
mercy.  And  the  wards  of  Holy  Trinity,-  of  All  Saints,  of 
Redeclyve,  of  St.  Owen's,  and  St.  Mary  did  not  come  fully 
to  the  inquest  before  the  coroner,  therefore  they  are  in 

1  The  Hospital  of  St.  John  the  Baptist  in  Redcliff  Pit,  where  the 
1  1  irnds'  Burial  Ground  now  is 

J  The  present  Christ  Church. 

:!  Wo  see  from  this  entry  that  though  the  Lords  of  Berkeley  still  had 
their  prison  in  Redcliff  Street  [see  No  24),  already  by  1270  Redcliff  was 
reckoned  by  the  Crown  to  lie  in  the  borough  of  Bristol. 

160  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

9.  Richard  de  Credewell  owned  to  robbery,  and  abjured, 
&c,  in  the  Church  of  St.  James.  His  chattels  were  worth  5s  , 
for  which  the  B.  of  B.  answerable.  And  because  the  B.  of 
B.  did  not,  &c,  therefore  it  is  in  mercy. 

10.  Adam  Olyver  killed  Gilbert  Pistare  in  the  town  of 
Bristol,  and  forthwith  placed  himself  in  the  Church  of 
St.  James,  and  owned  the  fact  and  abjured,  &c.  His  chattels 
3s.  4d.,  for  which  the  B.  of  B.,  &c.  And  because  the  ward 
of  Holy  Trinity  did  not  arrest  him,  and  the  matter  happened 
in  the  daytime,  therefore  the  ward  is  in  mercy. 

11.  Margery,  the  daughter  of  Alice  Laceby,  was  crushed 
by  something  that  fell  from  the  roof  (de  quodam  stillicidio)  in 
Bristol.  The  first  finder,  &c,  are  dead.  No  one  is 
suspected.  Misfortune.  The  value  of  what  fell  8d.,  for 
which  B.  of  B.,  &c. 

12.  Nicholas  de  Weston  killed  Aaron  the  Jew  and 
straightway  fled.  Let  him  be  exacted  [i.e.  summoned  in  the 
County  Court)  and  outlawed.  No  chattels.  And  because 
the  B.  of  B.  did  not  arrest  him,  and  the  thing  happened  in 
the  daytime,  therefore  the  B.  of  B.  is  in  mercy. 

13.  Simon  Pipereman  killed  Nicholas  le  Hunte  and 
straightway  fled.  Let  him  be  summoned  and  outlawed.  No 
chattels.  And  because  the  ward  of  Holy  Trinity  did  not 
answer  fully  at  the  inquest  before  the  coroner,  therefore  it  is 
in  mercy. 

14.  Margery,  the  daughter  of  Adam  le  Comare,  fell  into 
a  caldron  full  of  boiling  water,  and  was  scalded  to  death. 
The  first  finder,  &c,  dead.  No  one  is  suspected  about  it. 
Misfortune.  Price  of  the  caldron  6s.  gd.,  for  which  B.  of 
B.,  &c. 

15.  John  de  Calne  fell  off  his  horse  into  the  Frome  and 
was  drowned.  Misfortune.  Price  of  the  horse  6s.  8d.,  for 
which  B.  of  B.,  &c. 

16.  John  the  Fatte  thrust  William  Wellop  into  a  caldron 
of  boiling  water,  so  that  he  was  scalded  and  died  at  once, 
lohn  the  Fatte  fled  and  is  suspected.  Let  him  be  summoned 
and  outlawed.      Price  of   the  caldron   2s.,   for  which   B.  of 

Pleas  of  the  Crown  at  Bristol.  161 

B.,  &c.     And  because  the  ward  of  Holy  Trinity  did  not,  &c, 
therefore  it  is  in  mercy. 
Membr.  35  dors. — 

17.  Philip  le  Kemeys  killed  John  Gourde,  and  was  at 
once  caught  and  hung  for  that  deed.  Chattels  10s.,  for  which 
B.  of  B.,  &c.  And  because  the  ward  of  All  Saints  put  a  false 
value  upon  these  chattels  before  the  coroner,  therefore  it  is  in 

18.  Juliana    de    Anford    appealed    Robert     de     Newent, 
chaplain,  concerning  the  death  of  her  son  John.    And  Robert 
now  comes  and  says  that  he  is  a  clerk  and  ought  not  to  make 
answer  to  the  charge  here.     And  upon  this  comes  the  Dean 
of  Christianity  of  Bristol,  and  by  letters  patent  of  the  Bishop 
of  Worcester  claims  him  as  a  clerk.     But  that  it  may  be 
known  what  kind  of  a  man  is  thus  delivered  up  let  the  truth 
of  the  matter  be  enquired  into  by  the  twelve  jurors  of  the 
B.  of  B.,  and  the  jurors  say  upon  their  oath  that  the  said 
Robert  is  not  guilty  of  the  said  death.     Therefore  he  himself 
is  quit  of  that.     And  let  the  said  Juliana  be  committed  to 
gaol  for  false  appeal.     And  the  jurors  testify  that  when  the 
said  John   was   dead  the   said  Juliana  raised  a  hue  against 
Robert,  and  the  said  Robert  in  fear  fled  to  the  Church  of 
the  Holy  Trinity  and   kept   himself  there   for  two  months, 
and  afterwards  gave  himself  up   to  the   peace.      Therefore 
let  his  chattels  be  confiscated  for  his  flight.     They  are  worth 
13s.  4<J.,  for  which  B.  of  B.,  &c. 

19.  Thomas  Brun  and  William  Paternoster  killed  Robert 
le  Cu  (Keu)  and  fled.  Let  them  be  summoned  and  outlawed. 
W.  P.'s  chattels  4s.  4d.,  for  which  B.  of  B.,  &c.  T.  B.  had 
no  chattels.  But  because  the  ward  of  All  Saints  did  not 
arrest  them  and  this,  &c,  it  is  in  mercy. 

20.  John  le  Lokere  and  Walter  le  Cotiler  killed  John 
Macy  by  night  in  B.  of  B.,  and  fled.  Let  them  be  summoned 
and  outlawed.  W.C.'s  chattels  5s.,  for  which  B.  of  B.,  &c. 
J.  the  L.  had  no  chattels. 

21.  John  Bonsergiant,  arrested  on  suspicion  of  robbery, 
was    taken     and    imprisoned     by    the    bailiff    of    John    de 

Vol.  XXII. 

162  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

Muscegros,  at  that  time  farmer  of  the  borough,  in  the 
borough  prison.  J.  B.  broke  prison  and  fled.  Let  him  be 
summoned  and  outlawed.  The  executors  of  John  de 
Muscegros  have  to  answer  for  this  escape,  and  are  fined 
£5  os.  od.  One  John  de  Tolsede  was  attached  for  having 
aided  and  abetted  this  escape,  and  was  attached  by  Richard 
Heued,  John  Beel,  Elias  of  Pokelchurche,  John  the  Clerk  of 
the  Market,  John  Dode,  and  Simon  the  Smith,  and  John 
Waryn.  John  de  Tolsede  does  not  appear,  nor  is  he  sus- 
pected ;  therefore  they  are  in  mercy. 

22.  Simon  Guager  and  Stephen  Cuclake  were  imprisoned 
in  the  borough  prison,  and  escaped,  and  then  in  St.  James' 
Church  owned  this  prison-breaking,  and  that  they  were 
robbers,  and  abjured,  &c.  B.  of  B.  in  mercy  for  this  escape. 
Fined  ^"10  os.  od. 

23.  Sampson,  the  son  of  Agnes  de  Haleweye,  fell  from  a 
boat  into  the  Frome  and  was  drowned.  The  first  finder,  &c, 
not  suspected.  Misfortune.  Deodand  3s.  6d.,  for  which 
B.  of  B.,  &c. 

24.  Roger  Bat  and  Nicholas  Bagge  killed  William  Lof 
of  Taunton  and  fled.  They  are  believed  to  be  guilty.  Let 
them  be  summoned  and  outlawed.  No  chattels.  And 
because  the  ward  of  St.  Owen  did  not  arrest  them,  therefore 
it  is  in  mercy. 

24.  William  Dikere  was  imprisoned  on  suspicion  of 
robbery  by  the  bailiffs  of  Thomas  de  Berkeley,  in  his  prison 
in  Redeclyve  Street,  and  escaped.  He  is  believed  guilt}-. 
Let  him  be  summoned  and  outlawed.  No  chattels.  And 
because  of  this  escape,  Th.  de  Berkeley  is  in  mercy.     Fined 

£5  os-  od- 

25.  John  Godchild,   Seward  of  Clifton,  and  Nicholas  de 

Ras  were  in  a  boat  on  the  Frome.  Seward  and  Nicholas 
threw  John  into  the  water  and  he  was  drowned.  They  fled, 
and  are  believed  to  be  guilty.  Let  them  be  summoned  and 
outlawed.  No  chattels.  And  because  the  ward  of  St.  Owen 
did  not  arrest  them,  and  this  happened  by  day,  therefore  it  is 
in  mercy. 

Pleas  of  the  Crown  at  Bristol.  163 

26.  William  Whiteheved,  Peter  de  Tomasse,  and  Margaret 
Maniword  were  imprisoned  in  Bristol  prison,  and  broke 
prison  and  killed  Walter  de  la  Haye  the  gaoler.  Peter  and 
Margaret  fled  to  St.  Peter's  Church,  and  owned  and  abjured, 
&c.  No  chattels.  William  was  at  once  taken  and  hung. 
No  chattels.  B.  of  B.  in  mercy  for  the  escape,  and  fined 
£10  os.  od.  The  jurors  testify  that  John  Dollyng  and 
Agnes  his  wile  were  also  in  prison  on  suspicion  of  robbery  ; 
they  also  escaped,  and  were  consenting  to  Walter's  death. 
Being  brought  before  Bartholomew  le  Jofne,  then  constable, 
since  dead,  John  de  Lydechert,  then  mayor,  since  dead,  and 
the  bailiffs,  by  that  Court  John  was  hung,  and  Agnes  in  full 
court  abjured,  ccc.  And  because  the  said  bailiffs  assumed 
the  office  of  coroner  and  made  the  said  Agnes,  a  burglar, 
thus  abjure,  therefore  judgment  passes  upon  the  whole 
borough  and  the  bailiffs.  John's  chattels  20s.,  for  which 
B.  of  B.,  &c. 

27.  Robert  de  Combe  Martyn  fell  from  a  boat  into  the 
Frome  and  was  drowned.  The  first  finder,  &c.  Misfortune. 
Deodand  4s.,  for  which  B.  of  B.,  &c. 

28.  William  Beauchamp  fled  to  the  Church  of  the  Brethren 
of  Mount  Carmel,1  and  owned  himself  a  robber,  and  abjured, 
&c.  No  chattels.  And  because  this  happened  by  day,  &c  , 
therefore  B.  of  B.  in  mercy. 

Membr.  36 — 

29.  The  jurors  present  that  Robert,  a  servant  of  Robert 
Fromund,  was  pursued  by  a  man  of  Mynedep  in  the  count)' 
of  Somerset,  and  for  fear  placed  himself  in  the  house  of 
William  Litegrom  of  Bristol,  which  is  of  the  tenure  of  the 
Prior  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem  in  England.  And  he  kept 
himself  in  that  house  until  Richard  de  Berkham,  the  coroner, 
came  there  and  caused  to  be  summoned  before  him  the  fivi 
wards  of  that  borough.  And  the  said  Robert  owned  that  he 
had  killed  a  man  on  Mynedep,  and  that  he  was  a  robber,  and 
he  abjured,  &c.  No  chattels.  And  because  the  said  coroner 
caused  the  said  felon  to  abjure  in  the  said  place  where  wa 

1   The  House  of   the  White  Friars,  where  Colston  Hall  now  is. 

164  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

no  sanctuary,  and  this  was  plainly  against  the  crown  of  the 
King,  therefore  judgement  passes  upon  the  coroner  (fined 
£1  os.  od.)  and  the  whole  borough. 

30.  William  Page  fell  from  a  boat  into  the  Avon  and  was 
drowned.  The  first  finder,  &c,  Misfortune.  Deodand 
6s.  8d.,  for  which  B.  of  B.,  &c. 

31.  Robert  Berman  killed  Robert,  the  son  of  Mariota  the 
water-carrier,  and  fled.  He  is  believed  to  be  guilty.  Let 
him  be  summoned  and  outlawed.  And  because  Roger  the 
Taverner,  the  coroner,  did  not  attach  the  next  neighbours, 
therefore  he  is  in  mercy.     Fined  £2  os.  od. 

32.  Lyo  de  Stamford,  a  Jew,  Ryke  his  wife,  and  Covesleye 
his  son,  Abraham  Levy,  and  Mossy,  son  of  Leo  le  Mire,  killed 
Juliana,  daughter  of  William  Roscelyn,  in  the  town  of 
Bristol.  Lyo  and  Ryke  fled,  and  are  believed  to  be  guilty. 
Let  them  be  summoned  and  outlawed.  Chattels  33s.  6d., 
for  which  Hereward  le  Boteler  and  Roger  le  Rus  have  to 
answer.  Abraham  and  the  others  were  taken  and  hung  for 
that  deed.  Chattels  40s.,  for  which  as  above.  It  was 
afterwards  found  by  the  coroner's  jury  that  Agnes,  wife  of 
Reginald  Wake,  had  appealed  these  men  in  the  Bristol 
Court  for  the  death  of  the  said  Juliana  her  sister,  but  had  not 
prosecuted  her  suit  beyond  one  court  only.  Therefore  let 
her  be  arrested,  and  let  her  pledges  for  prosecution,  to  wit 
John,  the  son  of  Nicholas  Iggelbert  le  Ireys,  Master  Ralph 
le  My  re,  and  Richard  le  Ku,  are  in  mercy. 

33.  The  said  Agnes  had  also  appealed  in  the  same  court 
Robert  de  Stafford,  cutler,  for  aiding  and  abetting  the  same 
murder.  Robert  did  not  appear,  and  is  believed  to  be 
guilty  ;  therefore  let  him  be  summoned  and  outlawed.  No 
chattels.  And  because  the  said  Agnes  did  not  &c.,(as  before), 
therefore  her  pledges,  Thomas  de  Lyuns  and  William 
Dunning,  are  in  mercy.  Afterwards  Reginald  le  Rous,  who 
with  the  heir  of  Adam  le  Botiller  had  to  answer  for  these 
Jews'  chattels,  came  and  said  that  they  were  unjustly  charged 
with  them,  as  by  the  King's  command  they  had,  together 
with    the  sheriff,  who  was  dead,   arrested   all  the   Jews  in 

Pleas  of  the  Crown  at  Bristol.  165 

Bristol,  and  seized  their  goods,  and  delivered  them  to  John 
le  Fauconner  and  William  Braybrok  appointed  to  receive 
such  goods  of  the  Jews,  among  them  being  the  chattels  of 
these  murderers.  The  jurors  say  that  this  is  so  ;  therefore 
they  are  quit. 

34.  Robert  de  Ferleye,  a  robber,  had  abjured  in  the 
Church  of  St.  Werburge.  Chattels  6d.,  for  which  B.  of 
B.,  &c. 

35.  Robert  de  Sebentone,  a  robber,  had  abjured  in  the 
Church  of  St.  Augustine  the  Less.  Chattels  6d.,  for  which 
B.  of  B„  &c. 

36.  Ralph  Osmund  fell  from  a  boat  into  the  Frome  and 
was  drowned.  The  first  finder,  &c.  Misfortune.  Deodand 
is.  4d.,  for  which  B.  of  B.,  &c. 

37.  John  the  son  of  Reginald  the  Woolbeater,  a  robber, 
had  abjured  in  the  Church  of  St.  Mary  Redeclyve.  No 

38.  Peter  Cof  de  Senyse,  a  companion  of  the  great 
military  order  (niagne  milicie)  of  the  Temple  in  England, 
killed  Robert  de  la  Pole.  Peter  fled.  Let  him  be  summoned 
and  outlawed.  Chattels  1  marc  ;  the  master  of  the  Temple 
to  answer  for  them. 

39.  Richard  Bolre  of  Wynchelse  killed  David  of  Ker- 
mardyn.  Richard  fled.  Let  him  be  summoned  and 
outlawed.  No  chattels.  And  because  the  B.  of  B.  did  not 
arrest  him,  and  this  happened  by  day,  therefore  B.  of  B.  in 

40.  Matthew  de  Barton,  a  robber,  had  abjured  in  the 
Church  of  All  Saints.     No  chattels. 

41.  Hugh  le  Ennyse,  wishing  to  oil  his  mill,  was  crushed 
between  the  wheel  and  axle,  so  that  he  died  at  once.  The 
first  finder  appears.  The  four  neighbours  are  dead.  No 
one  is  suspected.  Misfortune.  The  value  of  the  wheel  and 
axle  and  the  running  mill  6s.  8d.,  for  which  B.  of  B.,  cVc. 
And   because  the  master  of   St.   Marc  of  Bristol  l  took  the 

1   St.  Mark's  Hospital  in  College  Green. 

166  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

said    deodand    without  warrant,   therefore  he    is   in    mercy. 
Fined  £1. 

42.  John  Stok  fell  from  a  boat  into  the  Avon,  and  was 
drowned.  The  first  finder,  &c.  Misfortune.  Deodand, 
2S.  yd.  And  because  Walter  de  Warewyche  had  taken  the 
said  deodand  without  warrant,  therefore  he  is  in  mercy. 

43.  William  de  Lacy,  who  was  imprisoned  in  Bristol 
Castle  in  the  time  of  Peter  de  la  Mare,  the  constable,  had 
escaped,  and  while  fleeing  to  the  Church  of  St.  Philip  and 
St.  Jacob  had  been  caught  and  beheaded.  Therefore  judg- 
ment passes  on  the  said  Peter  for  the  escape.  But  Peter 
produced  a  Royal  pardon.     Therefore  he  is  quit. 

Membr.  36  d. — 

44.  Robert,  the  Mower  of  the  Prior  of  St.  James,  Bristol, 
killed  Robert  de  Leye  in  the  town  of  Bristol,  and  straightway 
fled,  and  is  believed  to  be  guilty.  Let  him  be  summoned  and 
outlawed.  Chattels  is.  6d.,  for  which  B.  of  B.,  &c.  Robert 
belonged  to  the  household  of  the  Prior,  who  has  him  not 
now  to  stand  the  justice  of  the  court.  Therefore  the  Prior 
is  in  mercy.  Afterwards  evidence  was  given  that  the  said 
Prior  is  dead.  Therefore  nothing  here  about  him  being  in 

45.  The  B.  of  B.  is  answerable  for  the  chattels  of  Robert 
le  Boltere,  Roger  le  Ireys,  and  Sely  le  Berman,  robbers,  who 
have  been  hung.     Chattels  4s. 

46.  William  de  Boys  of  Netlynton l  was  arrested  for 
clipping  money  to  the  value  of  5d.,  and  was  put  in  prison 
for  that  deed  in  the  time  of  Peter  de  la  Mare,  constable  of 
Bristol  Castle,  and  afterwards  before  the  said  Peter  and  the 
bailiffs  of  Bristol  denied  the  said  felony,  and  for  good  or  evil 
put  himself  upon  the  jurors  of  the  said  town.  And  the 
jurors  said  upon  their  oath  that  he  was  guilty.  Wherefore 
it  was  considered  by  the  said  court  that  the  said  William 
should  be  drawn  asunder  {dctvaherctuv).  No  chattels.  And 
because  the  said  constable  and   bailiffs   proceeded   to  have 

1  Nettleton  in  North  Wilts. 

Pleas  of  the  Crown  at  Bristol.  167 

him  hung,  therefore  judgment  passes  upon  the  said  Peter 
and  the  whole  borough.  Afterwards  Peter  comes  and  pro- 
duces a  writ  of  our  lord  the  King,  dated  June  5th,  1285, 
bidding  the  justices  on  circuit  not  to  trouble  Peter  about 
this  matter,  as  the  King  had  pardoned  him  this  his 

47.  Robert  Selyman  killed  John  le  Hare  of  Scotland,  and 
fled.  He  is  believed  guilty.  Let  him  be  summoned  and 
outlawed.  Chattels  £\  os.  od.,  for  which  B.  of  B.,  &c.  And 
because  the  B.  of  B.,  &c,  therefore  it  is  in  mercy. 

48.  Richard  YYombestrong  accused  Robert  Brid  the  elder, 
Randolf  his  son,  and  Thomas  the  Cornishman,  of  assault. 
They  put  themselves  upon  the  jurors  of  Bristol,  who  upon 
their  oath  declare  that  these  men  are  not  guilty  of  any 
assault.  Therefore  they  are  quit.  Richard  is  sent  to  prison 
for  false  appeal,  but  afterwards  he  is  pardoned. 

49.  The  same  borough  has  to  answer  for  the  chattels, 
10s.,  of  John  le  Ford,  a  robber,  who  was  hung;  and  the 
chattels,  3s.  6d.,  of  John  le  Waters,  a  robber,  who  was 

50.  Maurice  de  Ingelby  placed  himself  in  the  Church  of 
St.  John  de  Bradeforde1  in  Bristol,  and  owned  himself  a 
robber,  and  abjured,  &c.  Chattels  6d.  So  did  Humfry  le 
Joglur  in  the  Church  of  St.  Peter.  Chattels  6d.  For  both 
these  B.  of  B.,  &c.  So  did  David  of  Ireland  in  the  Church 
of  St.  Mary.     No  chattels. 

51.  Walter  Blakers  killed  Henry  Leverych  and  fled.  He 
is  believed  guilty.  Let  him  be  summoned  and  outlawed. 
The  jurors  declare  that  Edith  Stoker,  a  harlot,  held  Henry 
while  Walter  killed  him.  She  had  abjured  in  the  Church  of 
St.  James.     No  chattels. 

52.  Eva  la  Fornere  wilfully  threw  herself  into  the  water 
of  Avene  and  was  drowned.  The  first  finder  and  the  four 
neighbours  came.  No  one  suspected.  Judgment,  Felo-de-se. 
Chattels  6d.,  for  which  B.  of  B.,  &c.  Afterwards  it  was 
testified  by  the  jurors  that  one  John  le  Grant   had  lied  on 

1  There  is  nothing  known  about  this  Church,  said  to  be  in  Bristol. 

i68  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

account  of  that  death,  and  is  believed  guilty.     Let  him  be 
summoned  and  outlawed.     No  chattels. 

53.  Saphyret,  the  wife  of  Mossy  of  Kent,  appealed  in  the 
Court  of  Bristol  Mabilia  la  Noyare  for  the  death  of  her 
daughter  Basse,  and  Saphyret  now  does  not  appear  nor 
prosecute  her  appeal.  Therefore  let  her  be  arrested,  and 
her  pledges  to  prosecute — viz.,  Hake  le  Evesque  and  Samuel, 
son  of  Samuel  le  Myre — are  in  mercy.  And  it  is  testified  by 
the  jurors  that  the  said  Mabilia  had  withdrawn  herself 
because  of  the  death  of  the  said  Basse,  but  she  is  not  believed 
to  be  guilty  of  the  murder.  Therefore  let  her  return  if  she 
will;  but  let  her  goods  and  chattels  be  confiscated,  because 
of  her  flight.     7s.  4d.,  for  which  B.  of  B.,  &c. 

54.  Walter  the  baker  of  Gloucester,  imprisoned  on 
suspicion  of  robbery,  escaped  from  prison,  and  owned  and 
abjured  in  the  Church  of  St.  James.  Judgment  passes  upon 
the  B.  of  B.  for  this  escape.     Fined  £$  os.  od. 

55.  Simon  Hok  of  Bristol  killed  Hugh  Belchere  and  fled. 
He  is  believed  guilty.  Let  him  be  summoned  and  outlawed. 
Chattels  is.,  for  which  B.  of  B.,  &c. 

56.  Robert  le  Ware  fell  into  a  caldron  of  boiling  water 
and  died.  The  first  finder,  &c.  Misfortune.  Deodand  8s.  2d.' 
for  which  B.  and  B.,  &c. 

57.  Adam  de  Howille  of  Crokerne's  Pulle  killed  Philip 
Archer  of  Kerry,  in  Ireland,  and  fled.  Let  him  be  summoned 
and  outlawed.     No  chattels. 

58.  John  de  Southwyk,  a  robber,  abjured,  &c,  in  the 
Church  of  St.  John  de  Redeclyve.  And  because  the  B.  of  B. 
did  not,  &c,  therefore  it  is  in  mercy. 

Membr.  37 — 

59.  William  Flambord  in  the  Church  of  St.  Thomas 
owned  himself  a  thief  and  abjured,  &c.  Chattels  6d.,  for 
which  B.  of  B.,  &c.  And  because  the  coroner,  Richard  de 
Bergham,  gave  him  the  port  of  Lyme,  therefore  judgment 
passes  upon   Richard. 

60.  Richard  Frankeleyn  of  Belmynton  owned  himself  a 
robber,  and  abjured,  &c,  in  the  Church  of  the  Brethren  of 

Pleas  of  the  Crown*  at  Bristol.  169 

the  Sack  (fvatres  sacci)  l  in  the  town  of  Bristol.  No  chattels. 
So  did  Richard  Gendlac  in  the  Church  of  St.  James. 
Chattels  6d.,  for  which  B.  of  B.,  &c.  So  did  Philip  le  Noble 
in  the  Church  of  St.  Martin.2  No  chattels.  So  did  William 
the  Carpenter  in  the  Church  of  St.  Augustine  the  Less.  No 

61.  Geoffrey  le  Hore  in  the  daytime  killed  Richard  Cake, 
and  fled.  Let  him  be  summoned  and  outlawed.  No  chattels. 
And  because  the  B.  of  B.  did  not,  &c. 

62.  Milo  de  Webley  and  Matilda  de  Donhurst  were 
arrested  at  the  suit  of  John  South,  the  valet  of  Dame 
Margery  Mayn,  in  possession  of  a  bench  that  had  been  stolen, 
and  other  goods  to  the  value  10  marcs;  and  at  the  suit  of 
the  said  John  they  owned  the  robbery.  Wherefore  it  was 
considered  by  the  said  Court  (of  Bristol)  that  the  said  Milo 
should  be  hung,  and  that  the  said  Matilda  should  abjure  the 
kingdom  as  being  a  woman.  Their  chattels  Ss.  8d.,  for 
which  B.  of  B.,  &c.  And  because  this  was  done  contrary  to 
the  laws  and  customs  of  the  kingdom,  therefore  judgment 
passes  upon  the  bailiffs  and  the  whole  borough. 

63.  Walter  the  Carpenter  for  robbery  abjured,  &c,  in  the 
Church  of  St.  Augustine  the  Greater.  No  chattels.  And 
because  the  B.  of  B.  did  not,  &c,  therefore  it  is  in  mercy. 

1  Tanner,  Notitia,  preface,  page  xiv.,  tells  us  that  Friars  of  the  Sac 
appeared  in  England  in  ad.  1257.  Their  right  style  was  Friars  of  the 
Penance  of  Jesus  Christ.  They  were  more  commonly  called  Friars  of  the 
Sac  from  their  habits  being  either  shaped  like  a  sack  or  made  of  that 
coarse  material  called  sackcloth.  They  seem  to  have  had  their  first  house 
near  Aldersgate,  London.  But  their  order  was  very  shortdived  here,  being 
put  down  by  the  Council  of  Lyons  a  d.  1307.  At  page  v.  he  tells  us  that 
in  the  reign  of  Hen.  III.  there  were  founded  six  houses  of  Friars  de  Sacco. 
And  elsewhere  he  says  that  altogether  they  had  eight  houses.  Where  the 
house  was  in  Bristol  there  is  no  knowledge.  Dugdale  gives  a  short 
account  of  them  vi.,  1G05-1608  ;  he  mentions  houses  as  existing  in  England 
at  London,  Cambridge,  Leicester,  Lincoln,  Lynn,  Newcastle,  Norwich, 
Oxford,  and  Worcester,  but  nothing  is  said  about  any  house  in  Bristol. 

a  The  chapel  in  the  outer  ward  of  the  Castle  was,  like  Battle  Abbey, 
dedicated  to  St.  Martin.  Odo,  Bishop  of  Bayeux,  who  founded  the  castle, 
had  shriven  the  Normans  the  night  before  the  battle  of  Senlac,  and  had 
fought  in  the  battle. 

170  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

64.  The  B.  of  B.  has  to  answer  for  chattels,  worth  6s.  8d.f 
of  William  Pende  of  Godseth,  a  robber. 

65.  Ralph  the  Cook  of  London  in  the  Church  of 
St.  Mary  owned  to  robbery,  and  abjured,  &c.  So  did 
William  Hale  of  Dodyngton,  and  Isabella  his  wife,  in  the 
Church  of  the  Friars  Preachers  ;  and  Richard  of  Malmesbury 
in  the  Church  of  St.  Philip  and  Jacob.  Their  chattels 
3s.  1  id.,  for  which  B.  of  B.,  &c. 

66.  Richard  the  Hayward  of  Norton  Malreward  was 
arrested  with  a  stolen  piece  of  blue  cloth,  at  the  suit  of 
Ralph  Bammeswet,  and  was  brought  before  the  court  of 
Thomas  de  Berkeley  at  Radeclyve  ;  and  being  charged  by 
the  said  bailiff  with  robbery  of  the  said  cloth,  both  denied 
the  fact,  and  called  to  warranty  Margaret,  the  wife  of  Ralph 
atte  Slype,  who  was  present  in  the  court,  and  entirely  denied 
having  sold  and  delivered  the  said  cloth.  Wherefore  the 
suitors  of  the  said  court,  for  defect  of  his  warranty,  pro- 
ceeded to  have  him  hung  without  any  inquisition.  And 
because  the  suitors  of  the  said  court  delivered  their  judgment 
against  the  law  and  custom  of  the  kingdom,  therefore 
judgment  passes  upon  the  suitors  of  the  said  court.  After- 
wards the  said  suitors  paid  a  fine  of  £2  os.  od.  for  false 
judgment  by  the  pledges  of  Robert  de  la  Stone  and  Nicholas 
of  Aperle. 

67.  Adam  Best  fell  from  a  boat  into  the  Avon  and  was 
drowned.  The  first  finder,  &c.  No  one  suspected.  Mis- 
fortune.    Deodand  2s.  3d.     B.  of  B. 

68.  Margaret,  the  wife  of  Rykon  of  Yate,  was  arrested 
in  the  town  of  Bristol  with  a  stolen  ox  at  the  suit  of  Thomas 
Gurney,  and  was  brought  into  the  full  court,  and  there  called 
one  Walter  de  Smetheleye  her  husband  to  warranty  about 
the  said  ox.  And  the  said  bailiffs  would  not  wait  for 
her  warranty,  but  had  her  hung.  Therefore  judgment 
passes  upon  the  said  bailiffs  and  the  whole  court.  No 

69.  William  the  Parchment-maker  was  crushed  between 
the    wheel    and    shaft    of  a   water-mill   at   Tremleye.      First 

Pleas  of  the  Crown  at  Bristol.  171 

finder,  &c.      No  suspicion.      Misfortune.      Deodand  4s.,  for 
which  B.  of  B.,  &c. 

70.  A  stranger  was  found  slain  upon  St.  Michael's  Hill. 
No  one  knows  who  killed  him.  The  first  finder  comes 
and  is  not  suspected,  therefore  he  is  quit.  No  Englishry. 
Judgment,  murder  upon  the  borough  of  Bristol.  Thereupon 
came  the  burgesses  of  Bristol  and  produced  a  charter  of 
the  present  King,1  which  testifies  that  they  are  quit  of 
murder.     Therefore  nothing  here  of  that. 

71.  The  B.  of  B.  has  to  answer  for  the  chattels,  worth  6d., 
of  John  Roddyng,  who  was  hung. 

72.  Richard  Fox  of  Sydemure  killed  William  of  Ameneye 
and  fled.  He  is  believed  guilty.  Let  him  be  summoned 
and  outlawed.  No  chattels.  And  because  the  B.  of  B. 
did  not,  &c. 

73.  Robert  Gurnard,  barber,  in  the  Church  of  St.  Thomas 
owned  to  robbery,  and  abjured,  &c.  Chattels  is.  6d.,  for 
which  B.  of  B.,  &c. 

74.  William  Barbe  killed  Luke  Wall  in  the  town  of 
Bristol ;  and  the  said  William  forthwith  placed  himself  in 
the  Church  of  St.  Mary  de  la  Redeclyve,  acknowledged  the 
crime  and  abjured  the  kingdom  before  the  coroner.  No 
chattels.  And  because  Gilbert  le  Especar,  the  coroner, 
allowed  him  the  port  of  Portesmue,  therefore  judgment 
passes  upon  him  ;  and  because  Redeclyve  Street  did  not 
arrest  the  said  William,  and  the  crime  was  committed  by 
daylight,  therefore  it  is  in  mercy. 

Membr.  37  d. — 

75.  Robert  of  Bristilton  was  found  slain  in  his  house  in 
Bristol,  in  the  fourteenth  year  of  the  present  King  ;  and  it 
is  testified  by  the  jurors  that  Alice  de  Blakeford,  wife  of  the 
said  Robert,  and  Joan  de  Bannebyre  killed  the  said  Robert, 
and  immediately  after  the  deed  fled  away.  The  said  Alice 
was  afterwards  caught  and  brought  hack.  She  now  comes, 
and  being  asked  how  she  would    acquit  herself  of  the  said 

1  Previous  charters  of  Hen.  Ill  and  John  had  contained  the  same 

172  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

death,  says  that  for  good  or  evil  she  puts  herself  on  the 
twelve  jurors  of  the  Borough  of  Bristol.  And  the  jurors 
say  upon  their  oath  that  she  is  guilty  of  the  said  death. 
Therefore  it  was  considered  that  she  should  be  burnt.  Her 
chattels  are  worth  13s.  8d.,  of  which  the  same  borough  will 
answer  for  4s.  8d.  and  Master  Nicholas  de  Salford  for  9s. 
And  the.  said  Joan  de  Bannebyre  immediately  fled  and  is 
believed  guilty.  Let  her  be  summoned  and  wayved.  No 
chattels.  And  it  was  testified  by  the  jurors  that  Adam 
Colle,  Margery  Baker,  and  Felicia  de  Lacy  were,  on  another 
occasion,  impleaded  for  the  said  death.  Now  they  come, 
and  being  asked  how  they  would  acquit  themselves  of  that 
death,  they  say  that  elsewhere  before  Richard  de  Ripariis 
and  his  fellow -justices  for  gaol  delivery  they  had  been 
acquitted  and  let  go.  And  since,  on  searching  the  rolls  of 
R.  de  R.,  &c,  this  was  found  to  be  so,  they  were  quit  of  the 
charge.  And  because  the  said  Master  Nicholas  of  Salford 
took  the  said  chattels  without  warrant,  therefore  he  is  in 

76.  Elena,  who  was  the  wife  of  Adam  Togod,  appealed  in 
the  Bristol  Court  Richard  de  Bercham  for  the  death  of  the 
said  Adam  her  husband.  She  now  comes  and  withdraws 
her  appeal.  Therefore  let  her  be  committed  to  gaol,  and 
her  pledges  for  prosecution — viz.,  David  the  Carpenter  and 
William  de  la  Marine — are  in  mercy.  But  for  the  keeping 
of  the  peace  of  our  lord  the  King,  let  the  truth  of  the 
matter  be  enquired  of  through  the  jurors  of  the  B.  of  B., 
who  say  upon  their  oath  that  Richard  is  not  guilty. 
Therefore  he  is  quit. 

77.  Peter  le  Grey  and  John  le  Melemuth  were  arrested 
by  the  bailiffs  of  the  B.  of  B.  on  suspicion  of  the  theft  of 
three  measures  of  salt,  worth  2s.,  which  they  had  stolen. 
Being  brought  into  court  before  the  said  bailiffs,  and  being 
asked  how  they  would  acquit  themselves  of  the  said  robber)', 
they  said  that  they  had  come  into  possession  of  the  said  salt 
well  and  faithfully,  and  they  called  to  warranty  about  it  one 
Richard  Tykys,  who  was  present  in  court,  and  declared  that 

Pleas  of  the  Crown  at  Bristol.  173 

he  had  nothing  to  do  with  the  said  salt,  and  denied  handing 
over  and  delivering  the  said  salt,  and  said  that  he  never 
knew  anything  about  the  said  salt ;  and  this  he  offered  to 
defend  against  them  by  his  body  as  the  court  might  consider. 
And  the  said  Peter  and  John  offered  to  prove  their  truth 
against  him  by  their  bodies.  Wherefore  it  was  considered 
by  the  same  men,  and  by  the  counsel  of  the  same  court 
pledges  of  battle  were  given  between  them  ;  and  battle  was 
waged  so  that  the  said  Richard  conquered  the  said  Peter, 
wherefore  the  said  Peter  was  hung.  No  chattels.  And  the 
said  Richard  and  the  said  John  fought  in  their  turn  the  next 
day,  and  Richard  proved  recreant  and  was  hung.  His 
chattels  were  worth  6d.,  for  which  B.  of  BM  &c.  And  the 
said  John  was  taken  back  to  prison  until  he  should  find 
pledges  for  his  faithfulness.  This  he  refused  to  do,  but 
owned  the  said  robbery,  and  was  therefore  hung.  No 
chattels.  And  because  the  said  court  considered  that  the 
said  Richard,  who  had  been  called  to  warranty  by  the  said 
John  and  Peter,  ought  to  defend  himself  by  his  body,  which 
is  contrary  to  the  law  and  counsel  of  the  kingdom,  therefore 
judgment  passes  upon  the  said  court  and  bailiffs. 

78.  Robert  the  Carpenter  was  crushed  by  a  log  of  wood, 
so  that  he  died  at  once.  The  first  finder,  &c.  Misfortune. 
And  one  Silvester  the  Carpenter  was  attached  because  being 
present  he  did  not  come,  and  he  is  not  suspected.  And  he 
was  attached  by  John,  the  cook  of  the  Abbot  of  St. 
Augustine,  and  Jordan1  of  the  malthouse  ;  therefore  they  are 
in  mercy. 

79.  Margaret  the  Fatte  fell  into  a  caldron  of  wort,  and 
was  so  scalded  that  she  died.  The  first  finder,  &c.  No 
one  suspected.  Misfortune.  Deodand  5s.  4d.,  for  which 
B.    of    B.,    &c. 

80.  John,  the  son  of  Richard  Eversone,  in  the  Church  of 

St.   Leonard  owned  a  robbery,  and  abjured,  &c.     Chattels 

4s.,  for  which  B.  of  B.,  &c. 

1  The  name  of  Jordan  in  connection  with  the  Abbey  is  noteworthy  on 
account  of  the  existence  of  St.  Jordan's  Chapel  in  College  Green,  the 
tradition  being  that  he  was  a  companion  of  St.  Augustine. 

174  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

81.  John  of  Bruges  appealed  Henry  de  Fynet,  a  seller  of 
woad,  for  that  he,  on  St.  Gregory's  day,  in  the  fifteenth  year  of 
the  present  King,1  had  after  curfew  come  to  the  house  of  the 
said  John  wickedly  and  feloniously,  and  had  burgled  it,  and 
had  abducted  Clarice  the  wife  of  the  said  John,  and  took  away 
his  goods  to  the  value  of  40s.  And  that  the  said  John2  did 
this  wickedly  and  feloniously  he  offers,  &c.  And  the  said 
John3  comes  and  defends  all  the  felony,  and  demands  judg- 
ment on  his  appeal,  because  the  said  John  does  not  in  his 
appeal  say  anything  about  the  circumstances  of  the  place, 
nor  of  what  kind  were  the  chattels  taken  away.  And  this 
being  allowed  him,  it  was  considered  that  as  to  that  appeal 
he  may  go  free,  and  that  the  said  John  should  be  committed 
to  gaol.  However,  for  the  keeping  of  the  King's  peace,  let 
the  truth  of  the  matter  be  enquired  of  through  the  jurors 
of  the  B.  of  B.  And  the  said  jurors  say  upon  their  oath  that 
the  said  Henry  is  not  guilty  ;  therefore  he  is  quit  concerning 
it.  And  the  said  Henry  de  Fynet  claims,  since  he  is  acquitted 
by  his  country,  that  his  damages  should  be  taxed  according 
to  the  form  of  the  last  issued  statute  of  their  present  lord 
the  King  at  Westminster,  and  that  the  said  John  should  be 
kept  in  custody  till  he  makes  satisfaction,  &c. 

82.  Concerning  serjeanties,  they  say  that  Richard  the 
Taylur  holds  a  serjeanty  called  La  Maryne  in  the  town  of 
Bristol,  by  the  will  of  the  present  King,  and  that  the  serjeanty 
is  worth  £\  os.  od.  a  year. 

83.  Concerning  encroachments,  they  also  say  that  Edward 
le  Fraunceis4  has  narrowed  the  King's  highway  near  the  Tower 
Arras5  by  a  certain  dyke,  newly  raised,  46  feet  long  and  6  feet 
wide ;  and  Geoffrey  de  Lung  has  narrowed  a  certain  common 
pathway  which  is  called  Pile  Lane"  by  two  dykes ;  and 
brother  Stephen,7  the  Master  of  the  Hospital  of  St.  John/  has 

1  March  12,  1287. 

2  A  mistake  fcr  Henry.  :i  Ibid. 

4  Fined  6/8.         6  At  the  end  of  the  city  wall  on  Temple  Back. 

8  Pile  Street.               1  Fined  £1.  8  In  Redcliff  Pit. 

Pleas  of  the  Crown  at  Bristol.  175 

made  a  certain  encroachment  by  newly  erecting  a  certain  gate 
where  there  ought  to  be  a  common  passage;  and  John  de 
Portesheved  '  has  made  an  encroachment  by  a  wall  raised  on 
Avene  Marsh  six  perches  in  length  and  six  perches  in  breadth  ; 
and  William,  the  Vicar  of  St.  Augustine  the  Less,-  has  made 
an  encroachment  on  the  King's  highway  by  a  certain  wall 
raised  20  feet  in  length  and  14  feet  in  breadth  ;  and  Simon 
the  Clarke,  who  is  dead,  has  made  an  encroachment  on  the 
water  of  Avene  by  a  plantation  of  trees  200  feet  in  length 
and  10  feet  in  breadth;  and  Richard  Bell3  has  made  an 
encroachment  on  the  king's  highway  by  a  certain  house 
raised  up  10  feet  in  length  and  5  feet  in  breadth,  to  the  injury 
of  the  whole  borough.  Therefore  the  Sheriff  is  ordered  to 
cause  to  be  thrown  down  and  amended,  at  the  cost  of  the 
raisers,  anything  which  by  the  jurors  at  their  view  should  be 
found  to  be  injurious,  and  Edward  and  the  others  are  in 
mercy.  Afterwards  comes  the  said  William  the  Vicar,  and 
seeks  that  his  wall  may  stand,  as  it  is  not  injurious,  and  the 
jurors  testify  so.  Therefore  it  is  granted  by  the  justices  that 
the  said  wall  may  stand,  and  it  is  rented  at  sixpence  to  the 
ferm  of  the  B.  of  B.,  &c. 

Membr.  38— 

84.  Concerning  cloth  sold  against  the  assize,  they  say 
that  Thomas  de  Weston,  Ralph  Wyneman,  William  de 
Glastyngbyre,  Richard  le  Draper,3  Henry  de  Berewyke, 
Henry  de  Sytheston,3  Gilbert  le  Plumer,  John  Bryselaunce, 
Ralph  le  Prude,  William  de  Hampton,  John  le  Ctyvare, 
John  le  Ley,  Hugh  de  Uphill,  John  de  Seynde,  William 
Tyard,  William  de  Powell,  John  de  Kerdif,8  John  le  Clerk, 
Jordan  le  Lung,  John  Tropyn,  Thomas  le  Wolbetere,  Adam 
de  Brinton,  Robert  le  Bret,  Roger  le  Taverner,  Walter  Pypc, 
and  William  de  Farleye  have  sold  cloth  against  the  assize. 
Therefore  they  are  in  mercy.  They  are  fined  various  sums 
from  5s.  to  2  marcs. 

1  Fined  6  -  Fined  13/4.  :j  Fined  6/8. 

The  names  of  these  men  have  tli>'  pen  run  through  them  in  the  roll 
of  fines,  and  no  fine  is  assessed  on  them. 


Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

85.  Concerning  wines  sold   against  the  assize,  &c,  they 
say  that 

John   Koke   has  sold 

40  casks  of  wine 

:.     Fined  2  marcs. 

Peter  Otry 


>>      4os- 

Robert  le  Taverner 

10             ,, 

,,      A-  marc. 

John  le  Clerke 

20             ,, 

,,       1  marc. 

Henry  de  Berewyke 


,,       $  marc. 

Richard  le  Draper 

20             ,, 

,,      £  marc. 

Richard  le  Roper 


,,      20s. 

Everard  le  Fraunceis 


,,      %  marc. 

William  de  Eston 


,,       10s. 

Hugh  le  Hunte 


„      5s- 

Richard  Osmund 


,,       1  marc. 

Henry  de  Sytheston 


John  le  Cheddre 


„      5S- 

John  Martyn 


„      5s- 

John  Tovey 

10             ,, 

,,          IOS. 

John  Brun 

22              ,, 

,,       1  marc. 

Matthew  le  Pakkere 


,,       2  marcs. 

•Geoffrey  Godeshalve 


,,       1  marc. 

William  de  Bruges 


,,       1  marc. 

Richard  de  Calne 


„      5S. 

Peter  le  Fraunceis 


,,      40s. 

William  Dale 


Robert  de  Kilmaynam 


,,      £  marc. 

Ralph  Dunnyng 

11             ,, 

,,      £  marc. 

Nicholas  Gange 


,,      £  marc. 

Ralph  Wyneman 


,,       1  marc. 

Simon  Adrian 


,,      40s. 

Walter  Beauflur 


,,          IOS. 

Roger  de  Leycestre 

12             ,, 

Stephen  Turtle 


,,      4od. 

Richard  le  Fraunceis 

21             ,, 

,,       1  marc. 

William  le  Welric 


John  le  Forester 

1 1             ,, 

Therefore  they  are  in  mercy.1 

1   The  names  of  those  against  whom  no  fines  are  written  have  the  pen 
run  through  their  names  on  the  roll  of  fines. 

Pleas  of  the  Crown  at  Bristol.  177 

86.  Concerning  new  customs  levied,  they  say  that  John 
Champayne,  gatekeeper  of  Bristol  Castle,  takes  by  extortion 
undue  tolls;  viz.,  from  every  foreign  cart  going  out  of 
Lafforde's  Gate  id.,  and  from  every  home  cart  ^dM  where 
there  used  not  to  be  taken  any  money.  And  the  said  John 
cannot  deny  this.  Therefore  he  is  in  mercy ;  and  it  is 
forbidden  him,  under  the  forfeiture  of  40s.,  hereafter  to 
make  any  such  extortions.     (No  fine  assessed.) 

87.  Concerning  withdrawals  of  service,  they  say  that 
Geoffrey,  Bishop  of  Worcester,  owes  suit  to  the  King's 
Hundred  of  Bristol  ;  that  he  has  not  appeared,  and  is  now 
six  years  in  arrear,  they  know  not  by  what  warranty.  The 
Bishop  says  by  his  attorney  that  his  bailiff  of  Henbury  does 
suit  for  him.  The  jury  say  that  the  Bishop  is  bound  to 
appear  personally.  They  tax  the  six  years  in  arrear  at  6s. 
The  Sheriff  is  ordered  to  distrain  the  Bishop  to  appear  in 
future,  and  the  bailiffs  of  B.  of  B.  are  to  answer  for  the  6s. 
of  arrears;  and  the  Bishop  is  in  mercy  for  unjust  with- 
holding of  service.1 

S8.  John  de  Aston  has  withheld  service  in  the  hundred 
icr  seven  years  ;  so  has  John  Giffard  for  six  years,  and  also 
Fulco  Fitzwarin  for  six  years.  The  Abbot  of  Kyngeswode 
has  withheld  service  due  in  the  market  of  Bristol  for  twenty- 
two  years,  and  the  Prior  of  Farley  has  withheld  service  in 
the  hundred  for  fifteen  years.  They  are  all  in  mercy,  and 
fined  at  the  rate  of  is.  a  year.  The  Sheriff  is  ordered  to 
distrain  to  compel  service  in  future,  and  the  B.  of  B.  to 
answer  for  the  arrears. 

89.  Also  they  say  that  John  of  Leygrave  holds  a  tenement 
of  the  King  for  4Jd.,  but  has  not  for  some  years  made  the 
proper  payment,  only  2^d.,  they  know  not  by  what  warrant. 
The  Sheriff  is  ordered  to  make  him  appear.  John  appears, 
and  produces  his  warrant.     So  he  is  quit. 

1  In  the  roll  of  lines,  the  Bishop's  name  is  entered,  but  no  line  is 
assessed,  a  marginal  note  of  "Baro"  explaining  the  reason.  He  was 
a  Peer  of  the  realm.  There  is  the  same  note  against  the  names  of 
J.  Giffard  and  F.  Fitzwarin 

Vol.  XXII. 

178  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

Gaol  Delivery  of  the  Town  of  Bristol. 

go.  Peter  le  Sley  arrested  for  the  death  of  Geoffrey,  the 
son  of  William  le  Hore,  and  Joan  Beumund  arrested  for 
stealing  40s.  from  the  purse  of  Nicholas  le  Kuttede,  come 
and  defend,  &c,  and  for  good  or  evil  place  themselves  on 
the  jurors  of  the  B.  of  B.,  who  say  upon  their  oaths  that 
they  are  guilty.  Therefore  let  them  be  hung.  The  chattels 
of  the  said  Peter  are  worth  is.  4d.,  for  which  the  township 
of  Stapleton  is  answerable.     Joan  had  no  chattels. 

91.  Walter  Mydewinter,  Henry  the  son  of  John  de  Bath, 
John  le  Coverturwrythe,  Roger  Mansel,  Cristina  the  wife  of 
Richard  le  Cornwaleis,  Mabel  the  servant  of  Henry  de 
Sitheston,  Emma  de  Wytehulle,  Juliana  de  la  Foreste, 
Alice  Cosyn,  Nicholas  Truant,  Elena  his  wife,  Philip  de 
Wynton,  Emma  his  wife,  Leuina  de  Baa,  John  Cobbler, 
John  de  London,  Matilda  le  Holte,  Sarra  de  Portesheved, 
John  the  son  of  Martin  le  Pescur,  and  Richard  Maryot,  were 
arrested  on  suspicion  of  robbery  and  other  misdeeds.  They 
come  and  defend  all,  &c,  and  for  good  or  evil  place  them- 
selves on  the  jurors  of  the  B.  of  B.,  who  say  on  their  oath 
that  they  are  not  guilty.     Therefore  they  are  quit  of  this. 

92.  These  remain  coroners  in  the  B.  of  B.,  namely, 
Simon  Adrian,  John  le  Clerke,  and  John  de  Dene;  and  the 
others,  who  formerly  were  coroners,  were  removed. 


93.  Reginald  de  Horsefeld,  chaplain,  and  William  le 
Clerke,  dwelling  in  the  Priory  of  St.  James,  were  arrested  for 
the  murder  of  the  master  of  the  Hospital  of  St.  Bartholomew. 
They  pleaded  their  clergy,  and  the  Dean  of  Christianity  in 
Bristol  claimed  them  on  behalf  of  the  Bishop  of  Worcester 
as  Clerks.  The  truth  of  the  matter  being  enquired  into,  the 
jury  of  the  B.  of  B.  declared  that  they  were  guilty.  They 
were  handed  over  to  the  Bishop  of  Worcester.  Their 
chattels  were  worth  3s.   iod. 


IN     THE     POSSESSION      OF     THE      PRESIDENT     OF     THE     SOCIETY. 

By    Mb     V.    R.    PERKINS,    of    Wotton-under-Edge. 

The  documents  which  follow  were  translated  by  Mr.  J.  H. 
Jeayes,  of  the  Manuscript  Department  of  the  British  Museum, 
from  originals  now  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  F.  F.  Fox  of 
Yate  House.  The  history  of  these  original  documents  is 
given  in  a  letter  written  to  Mr.  V.  R.  Perkins  of  Wotton- 
under-Edge,  by  Sir  Henry  Barkly,  at  a  time  when  the 
manuscripts  were  for  sale  at  Sotheby's  in  1895  :  "They  were 
once  the  property  of  Mr.  Cholmondeley  of  Condover  as  the 
representative  of  John  Smyth,  and  a  list  of  them  is  to  be 
found  in  the  fifth  volume  of  the  Historical  Manuscripts 
Commission.  At  Mr.  Cholmondeley's  death  they  were  sent 
up  for  sale  ;  but  a  few  of  the  most  ancient  and  interesting 
had  been  abstracted,  and  Quaritch  had  only  the  forty-eight 
now  in  the  book.  Quaritch  asked  ^40  for  them.  When  sold 
at  Sotheby's  in  1895  they  fetched  ^"45."  They  passed  into 
the  possession  of  Mr.  F.  J.  Mockler  of  Wotton-under-Edge. 
Three  years  later  they  were  again  offered  for  sale,  when 
Mr.  Perkins  made  a  bid  for  them,  and  subsequently  purchased 
them  for  our  worthy  president,  Mr.  Fox. 

They  are  of  very  great  interest,  as  illustrating  the  history 
of  one  of  the  less  known  of  the  large  religious  houses  of  the 
Shire,  for  Dugdale  gives  but  few  original  documents  in  hi 
account  of  ]  wood  Abbey.     We  find   in   the  grants  the 

whole  method  of  the  relations  of  a  wealthy  abbey  with  its 
neighbours    set    before    us.       No   gift    was   too   great    for    a 

180  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

monastery  to  receive,  and  nothing  was  too  small.  Many 
gifts  of  land  and  rents  there  are  ;  but  St.  Mary  of  Kings- 
wood  did  not  disdain  to  receive  and  record  an  annual  gift  of 
a  cartload  of  hay,  or  a  few  pence,  as  willingly  and  as  carefully 
as  the  larger  gifts.  To  an  embarrassed  family,  the  monks 
would  grant  a  loan  on  the  security  of  an  estate  for  a  term  of 
years,  or  they  would  buy  it  outright.  To  those  who  desired 
a  provision  for  their  declining  years,  the  monks  would  grant 
a  corrody  or  annuity  for  life  in  return  for  a  gift  of  land.  We 
find  the  convent  making  a  road  at  Ozleworth,  and  obtaining 
power  to  make  a  better  course  for  its  conduit  in  the  park  of 

We  find  little  mention  of  strife  and  contention,  and  it  is 
clear  that  in  the  13th  century,  to  which  period  most  of  the 
documents  belong,  the  monastery  grew  and  prospered  with 
the  goodwill  of  its  neighbours ;  and  as  it  was  constantly 
helped  by  them,  no  doubt  it  was  a  source  of  help  in  return. 
The  rolls  of  accounts  are  specially  interesting,  for  they  give 
the  price  of  almost  every  article  of  stock  and  plant  on  the 
farms,  and  they  state  also  the  amount  of  stock  on  each  farm. 
Moreover,  they  throw  a  good  deal  of  light  on  the  life  of  the 

The  Cistercian  monasteries  were  closely  affiliated  to  each 
other  ;  Kingswood  Abbey  had  been  colonised  from  Tintern, 
and  Waverley  Abbey  was  the  oldest  Cistercian  House  in 
England,  so  we  find  the  Abbot  frequently  travelling  to 
Tintern,  and  sometimes  to  Waverley.  Cistercians  were 
great  sheepmasters,  so  we  not  only  find  frequent  mention  of 
sale  of  wool  of  different  kinds,  but  payment  is  made  for 
rams  bought  in  Lindsey,  showing  not  only  that  Lincolnshire 
was  even  then  famous  for  its  sheep,  but  that  due  care  was 
taken  in  the  selection  of  breeding  stock ;  moreover,  it  is 
especially  stipulated  in  one  case  that  if  it  should  be  necessary 
to  distrain  on  the  property  of  the  Abbey,  the  sheep  should 
be  exempt  from  distraint.  The  Cistercians  were  exempt 
from  paying  tithe,  but  a  question  arose  as  to  the  period  at 
which  the  exemption  began  to  run,  and  more  than  one  of  the 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     181 

documents  is  devoted  to  assertions  of  the  right  of  the  case. 
There  is  a  payment  for  a  palfrey  for  the  Abbot,  and  also  for 
the  Ambler  who  taught  the  colts,  that  so  the  Abbot's  palfrey 
should  be  easy  and  correct  in  its  paces.  We  find  that  at 
any  rate  at  Culkerton  in  1243  the  common  fields  were 
cultivated  on  the  two-course  system,  and  that  in  1262  gold  of 
the  weight  of  five  shillings  was  valued  at  the  sum  of  thirty-five 
shillings  and  sixpence,  giving  a  ratio  of  about  seven  to  one. 

Anyone  who  carefully  studies  these  documents  will  find 
that  he  has  learned  a  good  deal,  not  only  about  the  life  and 
work  on  the  estate  of  an  abbey,  but  also  about  country  life 
in  Gloucestershire  in  the  13th  and   14th  centuries. 

The  Society  is  indebted  to  its  President,  Mr.  F.  F.  Fox, 
for  permission  to  publish  the  documents,  and  to  Mr.  V.  R. 
Perkins  of  Wotton-under-Edge  for  his  care  and  labour  in 
transcribing  them  and  seeing  them  through  the  press. 

No.   I. 

To  all  to  whom  the  present  writing  shall  come  Isabele  de 
Longocampo  daughter  of  Henry  de  Mineriis  greeting  in  the 
Lord.  Know  ye  that  I  have  given  and  granted  and  by  this 
my  present  charter  have  confirmed  to  God  and  the  Church 
of  St.  Oswald  of  Gloucester  and  the  canons  there  serving 
God  all  my  land  in  Culcreton  which  falls  to  me  by  hereditary 
right  for  the  salvation  of  my  soul  and  the  souls  of  all  my 
ancestors  in  pure  and  perpetual  alms  with  all  its  appurte- 
nances and  liberties  and  customs  namely  that  virgate  of  land 
and  eight  acres  which  belong  to  the  capital  court  with  all 
its  appurtenances,  and  the  aforesaid  capital  court,  and  that 
virgate  of  land  which  William  Prepositus  (the  steward) 
held  with  its  appurtenances,  and  that  virgate  of  land  which 
Walter  son  of  Henry  held  with  its  appurtenances,  and  that 
half  virgate  which  Richard  Balle  held  with  its  appurtenances, 
and  the  messuage  which  Richard  Mei  held  with  its  appur- 
tenances. Wherefore  I  will  that  the  aforesaid  canons  may 
have  and  hold  the  aforesaid  land  with  all  its  appurtenances 
from  me  and  my  heirs  freely,  and  quietly,  and  honorably  for 

1 82  Transactions  for  the  Year   1899. 

ever  free  from  all  services  and  secular  demands  which  may 
exist  or  may  possibly  arise  except  the  royal  service  per- 
taining to  such  land.  Moreover  I  the  aforesaid  Isabele  de 
Longocampo  and  my  heirs  will  warrant  the  aforesaid  land  to 
the  aforesaid  canons  against  all  men  and  women.  And  that 
this  my  donation  and  grant  may  remain  ratified  and  firm  in 
the  time  to  come  I  have  fortified  the  present  writing  by  the 
appending  of  my  seal. 

Witnesses  Ralph  Musard,  Henry  de  Estoria,  Peter  de 
Eggeswere,  Ralph  de  Tiene,  Clement  de  Musardere, 
Geoffrey  de  Langel',  William  de  Rudmartun,  and  many 

No.  II. 

To  all  the  faithful  in  Christ  to  whom  the  present  writing 
shall  come  William  by  the  grace  of  God  Prior  of  St.  Oswald 
Gloucester  and  the  convent  of  the  same  place  greeting  in  the 
Lord.  Let  your  university  (i.e.  whole  body)  know  that  we 
by  our  common  counsel  and  will  and  with  the  assent  and 
will  of  the  venerable  father  the  Lord  Walter,  Archbishop  of 
York,  Primate  of  England  J  have  sold  for  ^"ioo  sterling  and 
have  quit-claimed  for  ever,  all  the  lands  and  possessions 
with  all  appurtenances  which  we  have  held  in  Culkerton,  to 
the  monks  of  St.  Mary  of  Kingeswood.  To  have  and  to  hold 
to  the  said  monks  for  ever  freely  quietly  wholly  and  peaceably 
by  performing  to  the  capital  Lords  the  royal  services  which 
we  were  accustomed  and  bound  to  perform  for  all  services. 
In  testimony  of  which,  both  the  Lord  Archbishops  and  we 
ourselves  have  appended  our  seals  to  this  writing. 

Witnesses  William  de  Putot,  sheriff  of  Gloucester,2  Peter 
de  Eggewurth,  Bartholomew  La  Banc,  William  de  Rud 
marton,  Nicholas  de  Culkerton,  Adam  de  Cherleton,  Roger 
Baret,  and  many  others. 

Made  on  the  14th  of  the  Kallends  of  April  (19th  March)  in 
the  year  of  the  incarnation  of  our  Lord  1230 — (1231). 

1   Walter  de  Gray,  Bishop  of  Worcester  Oct.  5,  1214,  translated  to 
York  1215,  died  May  1,  1255. 

2  Held  the  office,  1222 — 1228.     Rudder,  51, 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     183 

No.  III. 

Let  all  present  and  future  know  that  I  Adam  de 
Cherletune1  for  my  soul  and  for  the  soul  of  my  father  and 
for  the  souls  of  all  my  ancestors  and  successors  have  given 
and  granted  to  God  and  the  Church  of  the  Blessed  Mary  of 
Kingeswood  and  the  monks  there  serving  God  in  pure  and 
perpetual  and  free  alms  one  virgate  of  land  in  the  vill  of 
Cherletune,  namely,  that  half  virgate  of  land  which  Richard 
de  Ductune2  held  from  me,  and  that  messuage  and  that  half 
virgate  of  land  which  William  Cuif  held  from  me,  these  two 
half  virgates  of  land  thus  lying  scattered  over  the  fields.  In 
the  north  field  lie  two  half  acres  to  the  east  of  the  aforesaid 
messuage  which  I  gave  to  the  same  monks,  one  acre  in 
Garstona,3  half  an  acre  in  the  north  part  of  the  smith's 
garston,  half  an  acre  at  Curtenecrundle,  half  an  acre  at 
Gretethorn,  half  an  acre  beyond  Meddene  which  leads 
towards  the  field  of  Beuerstone,  half  an  acre  at  Seppestall, 
and  half  an  acre  at  Hareburne,  half  an  acre  at  Hadenhulle, 
two  half  acres  at  Cleihulle,  one  extends  towards  the  west  the 
other  towards  the  north,  half  an  acre  at  Wenscerd,  a  fourth 
part  of  an  acre  beyond  Olledene,  in  Froggaputtesfurlang  half 
an  acre,  half  an  acre  in  Westlangfurlang,  half  an  acre  at 
Brodesierd,  half  an  acre  in  Buledene,  a  fourth  part  of  an 
acre  on  Olledune,  half  an  acre  in  Hareburn,  half  an  acre  in 
the  garston  of  Everard  on  the  north  side,  half  an  acre  in 
Ochoure,  half  an  acre  in  Ochoure  on  the  north  side,  half  an 
acre  which  stretches  towards  the  land  of  Osbert  in  Ochoure, 
half  an  acre  in  Gretethorne,  half  an  acre  which  stretches 
to  Beversalevelde,  half  an  acre  beyond  Meddene,  half  an 
acre  from  Hevedlond  on  the  north  side,  half  an  acre  on 
Stenethulle,  half  an  acre  on  Curtenecrundle,  half  an  acre  in 
Hareburna,  half  an  acre  at  Westlandesforlanngescnd,  three 
parts  of  acre  in  Dichforlang,  three  parts  of  an  acre  towards 
Buledene,  in  the  south  field  half  an  acre,  in  .  .  .  (half)  an  acre 

1  Charlton  in  Tetbury.         a  Doughton  in  T  etbury 
3    Old    English    Gaerstun :    a   grass  -  enclosure,    meadow. 

184  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

in  Breri  garston,  half  an  acre  at  Rixwell,  half  an  acre  in 
Hiwoldesdene  beyond  the  way  which  goes  towards  Bristol, 
half  an  acre  at  Blakingroue,  half  an  acre  at  Langfurlang, 
half  an  acre  at  Langfurlang  which  rises  on  to  the  carriage 
way,  half  an  acre  in  Puseforlang,  four  half  acres  in  Dich- 
forlang,  the  fourth  part  of  an  acre  in  Olledene,  half  an  acre 
in  Bradstonesforlang,  the  fourth  part  of  an  acre  on  the  west 
side  of  Abbewei,  half  an  acre  in  Beidunesslade,  half  an  acre 
on  the  eastern  side  of  Brodesierd,  half  an  acre  in  Olledune, 
the  fourth  part  of  an  acre  stretching  towards  Ruccadene,  the 
meadow  which  William  Cuif  held  and  which  lies  at  the  head 
of  Prusteland,  one  acre  in  Brerigarstone  which  is  rather  to 
the  east,  one  acre  in  Riforlang  which  is  rather  to  the  west, 
half  an  acre  in  Wuung,1  half  an  acre  near  the  ...  of  Ductun 
and  then  turns  itself  towards  Prusteland,  half  an  acre  in 
Langforlang,  half  an  acre  near  the  road  at  Heilmundestre, 
half  a  capital  acre  at  Langforlang,  half  an  acre  which  goes 
on  to  the  meadow  of  John  de  Tetebire,  the  more  southern 
acre  in  Riseforlang,  two  acres  on  the  east  of  Br(od)esierd. 

This  aforesaid  messuage  and  this  aforesaid  virgate  of  land 
I  have  given  to  the  aforesaid  monks  in  pure  alms.  To  hold 
and  to  have  from  me  and  my  heirs  with  all  appurtenances  free 
and  quit  of  all  service  and  all  secular  demands  in  meadows 
and  pastures  in  roads  and  paths  and  all  liberties  and  free 
customs  as  free  and  pure  alms.  And  I  and  my  heirs  will 
warrant  to  the  said  monks  the  land  with  the  messuage  and 
all  appurtenances  against  all  men.  Witnesses  William 
Camerarius  (Chamberlain),  Geoffrey  de  Chausi,  Roger  de 
Almundestre,  William  Scai,  Adam  his  son,  Robert  de 
Ductun,  Henry  de  Culkretun,  John  de  Tetebir',  William 
Buteuilain,  Adam  Barete,  Alured  Barete,  Nicholas  de 
Kingeswode,  and  many  others. 

No.  IV. 

Let  present  and  future  know  that  I  Henry  de  Ribbeford 
for  the  love  of  God  and  the  salvation  of  my  soul  and  of  the 
1  The  Old  English  Wong  or  Wang  means  "  a  field." 

ClSTl      -  M  STSRT  OF   St.   MaRY  5.   K  X>D.      1  8< 

soul  of  Tristrai  -  .;  i ven  to  G 

and  the    C  of  Si  res  and  to  the 

Monks   then    sea     og    God  in  pure  and  perpetual   and  fin 
alms.  .-.       rgatc   of  land  in  Ch:  e,  and  two  mess    iges 

:ich  Mabilia  and  Thu:  six  acres  of 

meadow  which  turn  on  ::  Niddrev  :  re  for 

two  hundred  sheep,  and  other  two  mer 
Kibbe  Rag  sometime    held,    with    the    app 

ter  F  all  the   aforesaid.     Which        s;    :e  of  land  with 

the  i  four        ss      res  and  six  of  meadow  and 

re  of  200  si  ;ep  and  all  other  appurten:. 
Ci  ae  had  given  to  the  aforesaid  Tristram  my  t. 

rs    for   his   homage   and     -  :~rom    1 

Tristram,  ght  the  same  virgate  with  ah  the 

aforesaid   appurtenanc   -  i   to  me    and    of    which 

f  land  with   its      v      ctenanc   -    I 
Cherletu:  iord,  aftei  ..  im  my 

brc. ..-.  c  my  relief  and  homage  and  n 

hold  and  to  have  the  said        _    te  of  land  •  the  afc: 

res  and  meadows  and  pasture  and  all  other  appur- 
tenar;  the   a  i   monks   of   Kingeswode  for  ever 

peaceably,  and  tret        and  honorably,  as  pure  and 
perpetual  and  free  alms  quit  of  all  sen  and 

uands  to  me  or   my  heirs  belonging,  g  one  penny 

an:  St  Michael  to  the  said  Adam  de 

Ch  e  and   to  his  heirs   in  his   court  of  Cherletun  to 

be  paid,  and  saving  royal  s  uch  as  belongs  to  one 

gate  of  land  in  the   same  vill  as  the  said  1 
brc  r.d  I  were  bound  and  accur  I  to  perform.     And 

because  I  wish  that  this  my  alms  may  be  firm  and  perpetual 
I  have  fortified  this  charter  1  e  imposition  of  ad- 

Wit  s    Bartholomew    (Le)    Banc,    Oliver    de   Berkeley. 

William  de   Rodmerton,    Laurence   de  L  m  de 

rietun,  Nicholas  son  of  Henry  de  Culcretun,  Walter  d 
:ne,  Roger  de  (Ductune),  Philip  de  Tettebur',  Geo: 

1  It  is  interesting  to  this  name  so   near  to  Fairford    in  : 

thnteeatb  centon 

186  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

Custance,  Roger  Barette,  Walter  Bernard,  William  son  of 
Elias,   and  many  others. 

No.    V. 

Let  all  present  and  future  know  that  1  Roger  son  and 
heir  of  Adam  de  Cherletune  for  the  love  of  God  and  the 
salvation  of  my  soul  have  granted  and  by  the  present 
charter  have  confirmed  to  God  and  the  Church  of  St. 
Mary  of  Kingeswode  and  the  monks  there  serving  God 
in  pure  and  perpetual  and  free  alms  all  the  grants  in 
lands  and  meadows  and  messuages  with  all  appurtenances 
and  liberties  and  free  customs  which  the  said  Adam  de 
Cherletune  my  father,  and  Henry  de  Ribbesford,  gave  to 
the  said  monks  in  Cherletune. 

To  hold  and  to  have  to  the  same  monks  with  all 
appurtenances  for  ever  freely  peaceably,  wholly,  honourably, 
and  quit  from  all  services,  customs,  and  demands,  accidents, 
and  issues,  whatsoever  may  arise  as  the  charters  of  the 
donors  witness  because  I  and  my  heirs  are  bound  to 
acquit  the  said  monks  of  all  the  aforesaid  things,  and 
to  warrant  the  said  lands  with  all  appurtenances  to  the 
same  monks  against  all  mortals,  saving  an  annual  rent 
of  one  penny  to  be  paid  on  the  feast  of  St.  Michael  to 
me  and  my  heirs  from  that  land  which  the  same  monks 
have  of  the  grant  of  Henry  de  Ribbesford,  and  saving 
the  payment  of  the  royal  service  from  the  same  land, 
as  much  as  pertains  to  one  virgate  of  land  in  Cherletun. 
And  that  this  my  confirmation  and  grant  may  remain 
firm  and  stable  for  ever  I  have  appended  my  seal  to  this 
writing  in  the  year  of  our  Lord's  incarnation  one  thousand 
two  hundred  and  thirty  two,  on  the  purification  of 
the  Blessed  Virgin.  Witnesses  Bartholomew  La  Banc, 
Oliver  de  Berkeley,  Geoffrey  de  Chausi,  William  de 
Rodmartun,  Laurence  de  Lasceles,  Nicholas  son  of  Henry 
de  Culcretun,  Walter  de  Uptune,  Roger  de  Ductun, 
Philip  de  Tettebur',  William  son  of  Elias,  Geoffrey  de 
Custance,  Roger  Barette,  Walter  Bernard  and  many  others. 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     187 

No.   VI. 

Otto  by  divine  mercy  Cardinal  Deacon  of  St.  Nicholas 
in  Carcere  Tulliano  legate  of  the  Apostolic  See,  to  all 
who  shall  inspect  these  present  letters,  greeting  in  the 
Lord.  Know  ye  that  we  have  inspected  the  letters  of  our 
Lord  Pope  Honorius1  of  blessed  memory,  under  this  form, 
Honorius,  Bishop,  Servant  of  the  servants  of  God,  to  our 
venerable  brethren  Stephen  Archbishop  of  Canterbury, 
Cardinal  of  the  Holy  Church  of  Rome,  and  to  the  Arch- 
bishop of  York  and  their  suffragans,  and  to  our  other  beloved 
sons  the  prelates  of  Churches  throughout  the  provinces  of 
Canterbury  and  York,  appointed,  greeting  and  apostolic 

Whereas  the  Abbots  of  the  Cistercian  Order  at  the  time 
of  the  General  Council2  on  the  advice  of  I(nnocent  III.) 
Pope,  our  predecessor  of  happy  memory,  determined  that  for 
the  future,  the  brethren  of  that  order  (so  that  they  should 
not  be  further  molested  in  respect  of  their  privileges  of  the 
Church)  should  pay  tithes  of  other  people's  lands,3  and  lands 
which  might  be  from  time  to  time  acquired,  if  they  cultivated 
them  by  their  own  hands  or  at  their  own  expense,  to  the 
churches  to  which  they  were  before  accustomed  to  be  paid 
before  that  time  as  taxation  unless  they  should  think  that 
composition  should  be  made  with  those  churches.  Our 
same  predecessor  (because  he  was  hopeful  that  the  prelates 
would  be  more  eager  and  efficient  in  exhibiting  to  those  of 
their  own  evil-doers  the  compliment  of  justice  and  would 
observe  their  privileges  more  diligently  and  perfectly)  having 
gratified  and  ratified  the  said  statutes4  has  willed  and  ordered 
that  the  same  should  be  extended  to  other  regular  orders 
who  enjoy  like  privileges.  But  (and  we  relate  it  in  grief) 
the  thing  has  turned  out  contrary,  for  as  we  have  frequently 
heard  from  pressing  complaints  of  the  Abbots  of  that  order, 
some  of  the  church  prelates  and  others  their  clerks  rashly 
1  Honorius  III.,  1216 — 1227.  a  Lateran,  November,  1215. 

3  Terrae  aliaenae. 
4  Statutum  hujus  modi  gratum  hahens  et  ratum. 

i88  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

despising  the  privileges  and  striving  mischievously  to  pervert 
their  understanding,  disquiet  the  same  in  many  ways.  For 
whereas  indulgence  was  granted  to  them,  that  from  the  new 
lands  which  they  cultivate  with  their  own  hands,  or  at  their 
own  expense,  or  from  the  gardens,  and  shrubberies,  and  from 
their  fisheries,  or  from  food  for  their  beasts,  no  one  of  them 
should  presume  to  exact  or  extort  tithes,  certain  men  pretend- 
ing a  perverted  intellect  saying  that  these  things  cannot  and 
ought  not  to  be  understood  except  from  those  (possessions) 
which  were  acquired  before  the  General  Council,  weary  the 
same  with  manifold  exactions.  We  therefore  wishing  in  our 
paternal  solicitude  to  provide  for  the  repose  of  the  same, 
firmly  enjoy ning  your  university  (i.e.  whole  body)  by  apostolic 
writings,  command  that  you  altogether  preserve  unharmed 
the  Abbots  and  brethren  of  the  same  order  from  levy  of 
tithes,  equally  from  possessions  held  before  the  General 
Council,  as  from  new  lands  acquired  either  before  or  after 
the  Council,  which  they  cultivate  with  their  own  hands  or 
at  their  own  expense  as  well  as  from  gardens  shrubberies 
meadows  pastures  woods  groves  mills  salt-pits  and  fisheries 
and  from  food  for  their  beasts  restraining  objectors  by 
ecclesiastical  censure,  putting  by  appeals.  Dat — The  Lateran 
VII.  Kal  July  (25  June,  1222)  in  the  6th  year  of  our 
Pontificate.  In  witness  whereof  to  this  transcript  we  have 
caused  to  be  diligently  inspected  with  the  original  on  the 
prayer  of  the  Abbot  and  convent  of  Kyngeswood  of  the 
Cistercian  Order  we  have  appended  our  seal. 

Dat  Waltham  Non.  Julii  (7  July)  in  the  year  of  the 
Pontificate    of    our    Lord    Gregory    IX.    Pope1   the     .     .     . 

No.    VII. 

Let  present  and  future  know  that  the  following  agreement 
was  made  in  the  year  of  our  Lord's  Incarnation  One  thousand 
two  hundred  and  thirty-nine  on  the  feast  of  St.  Philip  and 
St.  James  between  the  monks  of  Kingeswode  on  the  one  part, 
and  William   Maunsel  on    the  other,  namely  that   the  said 

1  Gregory  IX.,   1227 — 1241. 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     189 

William  Maunsel  has  granted  and  leased  to  the  said  monks  of 
Kingeswode  on  the  said  year  and  day,  all  his  lands  in  Culcretun 
with  villeins  and  their  followings  in  demesne  and  villenage 
and  possession,1   and  rents  and  all   easements   and    appur- 
tenances   to    the    aforesaid    lands    belonging,    without    any 
retention  at  his  need  or  the  need  of  his  heirs.     To  hold  and 
to  have  the  said  lands  freely  and  quietly  well  and  in  peace 
for  a  term  of  twenty  years  ensuing  for  fifty  marks  of  silver 
which  the  said  monks  have  paid  to  the  said  William  Maunsel 
into  his  hands  for  his  great  and  most  urgent  business.     But 
the  said  monks  will  acquit  the  Royal  service  from  the  said 
lands  during  the  said  term  to  the  Chief   Lord  as  William 
Maunsel  was  accustomed  to  do,  and  will  pay  to  the  said 
William    Maunsel    and    his    heirs    annually    one    penny    at 
Kingeswode  at  the  feast  of  St.  Michael  for  all  services  suits 
and  complaints  and  secular  demands  when  forsooth  the  said 
William  Maunsel  or  his  heirs  shall  send  their  letters  patent 
besides  the  said  penny  to  Kingeswode.     But  when  the  twenty 
years  are  passed,  all  the  said  lands  with  appurtenances  shall 
revert  to  the  said  William  Maunsel  or  to  his  heirs  freely  and 
quit  from  all  contradiction  of  the  said  monks,  saving  the  crop 
of  the  following  autumn,  which  the  monks  shall  keep,  and 
gather,  and  have,  without  any  claim  dispute  hindrance  and 
contradiction  of  William    Maunsel  or   his  heirs.     Moreover 
the  said  William  Maunsel  and  his  heirs  shall  warrant  all  the 
said  lands  with  the  appurtenances  and  all  the  said  agreement 
to  the  said  monks  during  the  said  term  against  all  mortals. 
And  if  the  said  William   Maunsel  or  his  heirs  in  anything 
come  against  the  said  agreement  so  that  the  said  monks  for 
deficit  of  warranty  within  the   said  term  suffer  loss   in  any 
way    that    loss    shall   be   made    good   to   them    by   view   of 
honorable  men  provided  on  both  sides  whether  in  lands  or 
in  chattels  before  that  William  Maunsel  or  his  heirs  receive 
the  said  lands.     But  if  William  Maunsel  shall  die  within  the 
said  term   his  heirs  shall   firmly  and  faithfully  keep  all  the 
said  covenant  to  the  end  of  the  term  and  if  they  are  not 

1  Tenementum 

190  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

able  to  keep  it  they  shall  make  an  exchange  with  the  said 
monks  in  the  land  of  La  Lippiette  to  the  value  of  four  marks 
for  every  year  of  the  back  term  by  view  of  honorable  men 
provided  on  both  sides.  The  said  monks,  moreover,  have 
received  the  said  lands  altogether  bare  and  unploughed  nor 
in  any  way  worked  by  the  said  William  or  his  heirs,  and  so 
shall  restore  them  when  the  term  expires.  And  they  pledge 
that  this  covenant  shall  be  kept  without  trick  or  mischief,  etc. 
In  witness  of  which  thing  the  seal  of  William  Maunsel 
has  been  appended  on  the  one  part,  and  that  of  the  Abbot  and 
monks  on  the  other.  Witnesses  Oliver  de  Berkeley,  Robert 
de  Rocheford,  Robert  Dean  of  Kenepel,1  William  de  Mineriis, 
Bartholomew  La  Banc,  Roger  de  Ductun,  Walter  de  Upton, 
Philip  de  Teteburi,  Colin  de  Culcretun,  Geoffrey  distance, 
Nigel  de  Osleworth,  and  many  others. 

No.  VIII. 

Let  present  and  future  know  that  the  following  covenant 
was  made  between  Thomas  the  Abbot  and  the  Convent  of 
Kingeswode  on  the  one  part  and  Adam  son  of  Henry  de 
Chirintun'-  on  the  other,  namely  that  the  said  Abbot  and 
convent  of  Kingeswode  by  common  counsel  and  consent 
have  granted  to  the  aforesaid  Adam  son  of  Henry  de 
Chirintun  and  his  heirs  for  ever  all  the  land  with  all  the 
appurtenances  that  the  aforesaid  Henry  father  of  the  afore- 
said Adam  held  from  the  aforesaid  Abbot  and  convent  in 
the  Vill  of  Chirintun,  and  in  addition  that  croft  which  was 
Walter  de  Bertun's,  and  all  the  land  which  lies  below  the 
Mill  of  Smallcumbe.  To  hold  and  to  have  to  the  aforesaid 
Adam  and  his  heirs  for  ever  from  the  said  abbot  and  convent 
and  their  successors  freely  and  quietly  paying  for  it  each 
year  to  the  same  Abbot  and  convent  and  their  successors 
eight  shilling  a1  the  four  terms,  viz.  at  Christmas  day 
two  shillings,  at  Easier  two  shillings,  at  the  nativity  of 
St.  John  B  .hillings,  at  the  feast  of  St.   Michael 

1  Kempley.     He  was  probably  Rural  Dean  of  the  Forest  Deanery. 

3  Clierington. 

Cistercian"  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     191 

two  shillings,  for  all  services.  But  that  this  covenant 
may  remain  firm  and  stable,  the  seal  of  the  Abbot  and 
convent  has  been  placed  on  the  portion  (of  the  indenture) 
of  Adam,  and  the  seal  of  Adam  has  been  placed  on  the 
portion  of  the  Abbot  and  convent.  Witnesses  William  de 
Rodmortune,  Robert  Passelewe,  Ralph  Hereward,  Laurence 
de  Lasceles,  William  de  Westrop,  Hugh  son  of  Nigel, 
Henry  parson  of  Rodmarton,  Henry  de  Culcretun,  Roger 
Barette,  Geoffrey  son  of  Constance  and  many  others. 

No.  IX. 

Let    present    and    future    know    that    I    Henry   de    Cul- 

cretuna  for  my  soul  and  for  the  souls  of  all  my  ancestors 

and   successors    have  granted   and    by  the   present    charter 

have  confirmed  to  God  and  the  Church  of  the  Blessed  Mary 

of   Kingeswode    and   the  monks  there  serving   God  all  the 

grant  of  William  Butevillain,  namely  sixteen  acres  of  land 

in  the  Vill  of  Culcretun  of  my  fee,  to  wit  nine  acres  in  one 

field   and    seven   acres  which  the   same  William  Butevilain 

gave  to  the  aforesaid    monks   with    their    appurtenances    in 

pure  and  perpetual  and  free  alms    .     .     .    quit  of  all  service 

and  secular  demand.     And  neither  will  I  nor  any  of  my  heirs 

vex  the  said  monks  concerning  the  said  acres  and  liberties 

in  any  way.     And  if  the  aforesaid  William  Butevilain  or  his 

heirs  shall  vex  in  any  way  the  said  monks  concerning  the 

said  lands  and  liberties  I  and  my  heirs  within  our  power  will 

distrain  them  from  doing  any  molestation  or  vexation  to  the 

said  monks.     And  that  this  my  confirmation  may  be  made 

known  (manifest)  to  all  present  and  future,  I  have  fortified 

this   charter   with    the   impression    of   my   seal.     Witnesses 

William    Camberlanus,    William    de    Rodmertun,    William 

parson  of  Tetbury,  Adam  de  Cherletun,  Robert  de  Ductun, 

John  de     .     .     .     ,  Henry  son  of  Bernard,  Alured  Barette, 

Robert  Muschet,  Nicholas  de  Kingeswode,  and  many  others. 

No.    X. 
Let  present  and   future  know  that   I  Aimed   Barete  for 
love  of  God  and  the  salvation  of  my  soul    have   given  and 

192  Transactions  i-or  the  Year  1899. 

granted  to  the  Monks  of  Kingeswode  in  pure  and  perpetual 

alms  two  acres  of  land  in  the  Vill  of  Culcretun,  whereof  one 

lies  at  Stanmereswei,  and  the  other  in  the  field  Del  West  at 

Brethe  which   is  the  "  head  "   acre.     To  have  and  to  hold 

from  me  and  my  heirs  free  and  quit  from  all  services  and 

secular  demands.     And    I   and  my   heirs    will    acquit    them 

from  royal  services,  and  all  services,  and  will  warrant  them 

against    all    men    and  women.       Witnesses   Henry   de    Cul- 

cretune,   William   Scai  de  Tresham,  Adam  his  son,   Henry 

son  of   Bernard,  Nicholas  de  Kingeswode,  Geoffrey  son  of 

Constance,  Adam    de    Cherletun,  William    Butevilain,  and 

many  others. 

No.    XI. 

Let  all  present  and  future  know  that  I  Robert  de  Roche- 
ford  for  love  of  God,  and  the  salvation  of  my  soul,  and 
for  the  souls  of  all  my  ancestors  and  successors,  have  given 
and  granted  in  pure  and  perpetual  and  free  alms  to  the 
Abbot  and  Monks  of  St.  Mary  at  Kingeswode  such  liberty 
in  Osleworthe  from  me  and  my  heirs  for  ever.  As  if  by 
chance  they  should  be  drawn  into  plea  by  me  or  my  heirs, 
or  by  any  other  man  or  woman  in  my  court,  and  if  they 
should  fall  into  mercy  {i.e.  if  they  should  be  fined)  of  me  or 
my  heirs  then  the  Abbot  and  Monks  shall  be  altogether 
acquitted  of  that  amercement  towards  me  and  my  heirs  so 
often  as  it  shall  happen  for  ever.  Also  I  have  given  and 
granted  for  me  and  my  heirs  for  ever  in  pure  and  free  alms  to 
the  said  monks  the  following  liberty,  that  their  sheep  or  other 
cattle  shall  never  by  any  fault  or  forfeit  of  the  said  monks 
or  their  men  be  emparked  or  molested  by  me  or  my  heirs  or 
by  our  servants  or  men,  unless  by  chance  those  sheep  or 
cattle  should  be  found  in  my  corn  or  enclosable  meadow. 
But  if  the  monks  or  their  men  should  be  delinquent  in  any 
way,  then  the  monks  must  be  cited  and  summoned  according 
to  the  law  of  the  land  to  give  satisfaction  in  our  court,  or  to 
hold  their  own  court  and  there  to  give  satisfaction  to  the 
complainants  if  judgment  should  go  in  their  favour  and  then 
if  they  do  not  do  this  and  it  should  be  necessary  they  must 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     193 

be  compelled  through  their  cattle,  but  never  through  their 
sheep.  And  because  I  wish  that  these  liberties  may  be 
inviolably  kept  by  the  said  monks  for  ever,  I  wish  and  grant 
that  whoever  of  my  heirs  or  if  I  myself  come  in  any  manner 
against  those  liberties  which  I  have  granted  to  the  monks 
let  him  be  in  mercy  {i.e.  be  fined)  of  the  Sheriff  of  Gloucester 
to  the  sum  of  twenty  shillings  of  silver.  Witnesses  Oliver 
de  Berkeley,  Nicholas  Ruffus,  Wm.  de  Bradele,  Nichs. 
Mingnot,  Roger  Petipas,  Colin  de  Culkertun,  Wakelin 
Tysun,   Robt.  le  Stabler,  and  many  others. 

No,  XII. 

§  Arrears  of  W.  cellarer  of  Kingswood  at  the  feast  of 
St.  Peter  ad  Vincula  (August  1)  in  the  year  of  grace  1240 
^11  gs.  id. 

§  Received  from  the  above  written  term  and  subsequently 
at  the  feast  of  St.  Andrew  £8. 

Sum  total  £iq  9s.  id. 

Expenses  from  the  above  written  arrears  and  receipts  : 

Two  servants  Wallingford  i2d.    In  cheese  28s.  4d.  at  Pridie.1 

For  two  oxen  17s.  8d.  there.     Also  for  one  ox  6s.   iod.     In 

cord    igd.      In   canvas    8d.      In    dried    conger    14s.   gd.      In 

expenses  at  Pridie  is.  8d.     In  herrings  2od.  Tetbury.     For 

one  horse  8s  at  Callcot.     To  Simon  and  W.  Knicht  id.  for 

seeking  a    horse.      For    wheels    14s.    iod.    Ozleworth.       In 

expenses  4d.  to  Westbury.2      To  the  boys  of  the  Abbot  of 

Flexley  id.     At  Tetbury  is.  for  carriage  in  the  autumn.     In 

Hulle  4.\d.    In  hay'5  2s.  from  Colewich.    To  Stephen  de  Wica 

gs.   6d.    for    carriage    of    hay    (or    iron).      In    boards    20s. 

Ozleworth.        For     pittance      of     the      Lady      Mul(vain  ?) 

4s.  g^d.  eels.      To    W.    de    Call(cot)    i8d.    for   labour.      To 

brother  Odo  6d.  for  seeking  one  bretasch'.     To  Thomas  de 

1  I'ricldy  on  Mendip  .  the  fair  was  held  on  the  feast  of  St.  Lawrence, 
August  iotli 

-  Westbury-on- Severn,  0:1  the  way  to  Flaxley  Ahoey. 

•'  Or  Iron,   "  ferro." 

1   This    word    has    much    puzzh-  1    m<-       C.odefroi     Roqueford,    ^c  , 
give  it  "  a  stockade." 

V    1     XXII. 

ig4  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

Ozleworth  3d.  for  work.  To  a  certain  thresher  3d.  In 
expenses  of  the  Court  at  Culcreton  5s.  yd.  One  weigh-beam 
8d.  For  labour  two  weeks.  For  Flaskins1  iod.  B.  Labanc. 
R.  Marescale  Bristol  2d.  ("the  Marshal  of  Bristol"?).  To 
servants  at  Bristol  4d.  ("the  Sergeants  of  Bristol"?).  In 
conger  14s.  with  portage.  In  expenses  of  horses  3d.  In 
wine  4d.  In  nails  for  the  bakehouse  8d.  For  one  barge  8d. 
In  a  load  of  herrings  22d.  In  one  horse  collar  8d.  In  fish 
22jd.  Tetbury.  Also  in  fish  i4d.  Malm(esbury).  For  three 
white  skins  4s.  6d.  For  timber  for  wheels  3s.  one  sacristan. 
At  Haselden  i4d.  for  the  Abbot  of  Tinterne.  At  the  market 
of  Bristol  "  In  alemand  "  4s.  ("  almonds  "  ?).  In  cinnamon  3s. 
In  saffron  is.  6d.  In  pepper  7s.  3d.  In  linen  web  17s  2d. 
In  cloth  for  sacks  5s.  gd.  In  canvas  is.  6d.  In  wollen  cloth 
for  harness  7s.  8d.  In  other  cloth  6s.  6d.  In  a  pan  is.  4d. 
In  spices  is.  3d.  In  small  cloth  for  a  horse  coverlet  6d.  In 
the  same  for  belts  6d.  To  Brother  A.  lay  brother  at  the  lower 
grange  i2d.  To  a  lay  brother  at  Ozleworth  2d.  for  labour. 
In  expenses  of  horses  and  to  the  young  men  8d.  In  one 
white  skin  28c!.  "  Hancis  "  5d.  for  timber.  For  one  pot  5s.  7d. 
In  beams  23d.  The  Grange  at  Call(dicot)  6d.  for  necessities. 
To  the  Prior  of  •'  Lanthony  '  2s.  for  tithes.  To  the  quarrier  3s. 
three  weeks  about  a  road.  To  the  threshers  at  the  lower 
grange  4d.  For  wax  6d.  for  sick  horses.  For  fish  i6d. 
Tetbury.  Also  in  fish  8d.  Cirencester.  In  companage2  for 
the  threshers  9d.  at  Norhall.  At  Haselden  4d.  for  1 
Abbot's  guest.  In  fish  3s.  3d.  at  the  feast  of  All  Saints. 
In  eels  8d.  At  Callcot  and  Haselden  8d.  for  expenses.  For 
one  young  heifer  3s.  6d.  To  John  Nepos  4s.  for  a  maimed 
cow.  In  logs  5s.  2d.  for  timber.  To  Brother  G.  6d  for  drink 
and  pittance.  In  one  say  26d.  (Sagus  =  a  say  or  woollen 
cloth  )  In  hake  6d.  Tetbury.  In  roofing  houses  13d. 
Tetbury.  In  sieves  3d.  Haselden.  In  two  small  shoes  32d. 
In  Mapscipe  (?)  King  6d.  To  the  quarrymen  about  a 
road  26d.  In  shoes  i6d.  In  roofing  houses  at  Ozleworth  8d. 
1  Flaskin — "a  small  portable  cask." 
-  Companagium  ="  anything  eaten  with  bread." 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     195 

In  cloth  for  a  cape  for  Humphrey  4s.  iod.  To  the  quarryman 
i8d.  about  a  road.  At  Haselden  iod.  five  days'  expenses. 
At  Callcot  iod.  in  labour.  Tetbury  8d.  in  labour.  At  the 
lower  grange  13d.  in  labour.  In  red  herrings  i2d.  In  a 
white  skin  2s.  To  Brother  R.  at  Haselden  id.  for  beer.  For 
three  bolts  i6d.    At  Ozleworth  6d.  for  the  ox-house  (boveria). 

Sum    £"13   18s.    gd. 

Also  in  autumn  gloves  and  autumn  drink  in  the 
beginning  of   the   writings  39s.    6d. 

Sum  total  of  expenses  £15  18s.  3d.  up  to  the  feast  of 
Saint  Andrew  of  the  year  '40.     Arrears  £3  10s.  iod. 

Also  received  from  the  feast  of  St.  Andrew  1240,  £7 
up  to  the  feast  of  the  Purification  ;  also  up  to  the  feast  of 
St.  Peter  ad  Vincula  (August  1)  1241,  £17. 

Sum  £24  besides  arrears.    Sum  with  arrears  £17  10s.  iod. 

Also  in  gloves  6s.  8^d.  In  autumn  drink  18s.  gd.  to 
the  feast  of  St.  Mary1  Also  after  the  feast  of  St.  Mary 
10s.  2d.     In  geese  3s.  io^d.  Sum  39s.  6d. 

Expenses  from  the  feast  of  St.  Andrew  in  the  year  1240. 
In  drink  throughout  the  Grange  in  Advent : — Heselden  3s.  yd. 
Tetbury  i8d.  Caldicote  2s.  Ozleworth  nd.  Upper  Grange 
22^d.     Lower  Grange  i8d.     Charteshull  i5^d. 

Sum  of  drink  of  the  Lay  brethren  12s.  8d. 

Also  in  drink  of  the  servants  at  Christmas: — Haselden 
3s  2d.  Tetbury  i4d.  Calcot  i5^d.  The  Beaters2  3$d. 
Sum  5s.   1  id. 

Sum  total  of  drinks  of  the  Lay  brethren  and  servants 

23s.  7d. 

Also  expenses  in  other  things  from  the  feast  of  St. 
Andrew  1240: — To  Brother  A.  of  the  lower  grange  8d.  To 
Brother   W.   of   Tetbury   fid.     In  repairs  of  the  granary  at 

1  The  Assumption,  August  15,  or  Nativity,  September  8. 

2  "  Batoribus."  I  cannot  settle  this  word  ;  Du  Cange  has  "  lutitur  "  — 
batator,  &c — "Qui  frumentum  flagcllo  excutit" — that  is,  a  thresher  ;  but 
elsewhere  triturator  is  used  for  this.     Habitoria  is  also  a  fulling  mill 

ig6  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

Calcott  6d.     To  one  carter  who  departed  iod.     Wippehail 
i2d.    over    his    wages.       In    wheat1    26d.    from    Ozleworth. 
For   a    certain    assart    8d.    in    Thurinlund.       At   Cherletune 
2S.    for    scutage    to    the    Earl.-      To    Brother    Richard    at 
Haselden    3|d.    for    bolts.      To    Brother     Reiner    3^d.    for 
sieves.     In   Hake  8£d.  Tetbury.      Also  in  fish  2s.    5d.      In 
cloth    lor    Robert    Gaudy    43d.      In    cloth    for    shoes    8d. 
In    boots    i6d.    T.   Seneschal   of  Malm(esbury).       At    Ozle- 
worth i5d.  for  labour.     In  eels  iod.  Tetbury.     In  oblations 
at  Christmas  3Jd.     In  fish  7s.  salmon  and  oysters  contra  min. 
At    Ozleworth    3s.    for    a    crowbar  (?)    and    other    utensils. 
In  herrings   48s.   yd.      In  locks  and   strtll3  4d.   Gloucester. 
In  spurs  and  halters  i4d.     For  two  seats   i6d.  Egge.4     To 
Will    Sumeri    i2d.    for    a    roll.      To    the    porter    8d.    for    a 
prisoner.     In  expenses  at    Gloucester    2od.     To    Roger  the 
beater    13d.    on    departure.      To   W.    Carter    of   the    upper 
grange    4d.    sim.      In    expenses    at    Gloucester    last    time 
3s.    5d.       For    chains    3d.      Roger    de    Ductune    2s.      For 
salmon  8d.  Bristol.     In    expenses    there    13d.     In    expenses 
to    Gloucester    2od.    for    a   dead    man.      In    wine    gd.    there 
vie    (sic)    for    the    Sheriff.       In   expenses    of    Master    Henry 
i6d.    Gloucester.        To    Brother    E.    3^d.   for   carting   hay. 
To  the  carters   13d.      For  crobis  (?)  Ozleworth.       For    two 
axes    i6d.    for    R.    Ductune    and    R.    Upton.      To    Brother 
T.    Carter    6d.    towards    Bristol.         To    Brother    Roger    de 
Cherteshull    5d.    for   labour.       To    Adam    Flambard    2s.    by 
the    Abbot.     To    Brother    A.  of  the  lower  grange    5.Vd.  for 
labour.      To    W.    de    Chalelege     13d.    on    departure.       For 
pease   13d.  Tetbury.     For  two  Howis  (?)   iod.     For    Honey 
3d.     for   a  stable  (?)   (marescale.)     To  a  certain  boy   Ad.   to 
Tetbury.     For  herrings   16s.    4d.    Cirencester.      For    1    axe 
8d.  for  B.  La  Banc.     In    expenses  at   Haselden   5^d.  from 
Cirencester.     In  sieves  2d.  at  Haseld'.     In  white  hides  4od. 
Memorandum. — In    the    road    and   quarry    at    Ozleworth 
from   the   feast   of   St.   Andrew    to   the  feast    of  St.    Hilary 
— sum  of  expenses  15s.  8d. 

1  '•  Siligo."     a  Or  county  "com."     3  Scrapers  (5).     *  Eda,  cf.  Ducange. 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     197 

For  pease  for  seed  i8d.  Ozleworth.  To  Adam  de  Lache- 
ford  id.  for  herrings.  In  herrings  2d.  Caldicote.  For 
hay  i4d.  Cirefeld.  To  Roger  Sclat  5c].  for  shoes;  For  a 
boy  freed.  For  Stockings  8d.  at  Tetbury  grange  6d.  ;  In 
works.  At  the  county  of  Gloucester  i4d.  ;  For  coulter 
and  ploughshare  at  Ozleworth  i2d.  To  Hugh  Dagan  i2d. 
In  mackerel  3d.  (megaris).  To  the  Harrowers  6d ;  In 
herrings  and  fish  Sd.  Tetbury.  In  conger  2s. ;  In  cloth 
4s.  5d.  In  expenses  of  the  Abbot  of  Callecot  3s.  2£d. 
Also  to  the  harrowers  6d.  ;  To  a  beater  Tetbury  6d. 
for  emolument.1 

On  Monday  after  Palm  Sunday  :  In  fish,  19s.  5d. — 
100  milvin  and  200  hake.  W.  Upehull  Item  100  milvin 
us.;  Item  us.  in  fish.  Item  in  canvas  10s. ;  Item  in 
fish  7s.  id.  Item  in  fish  13d.;  In  boards  8s.  3d.  To 
Laurence  de  Lasceles  2s.  ;  In  expenses  at  Bristol  6d. 
At  the  lower  grange  6d.  in  labour.  Expenses  at  Bath 
and  Bristol  i8£d. — Easter  week.  To  Brothers  H.  and 
W.  Halseld'  8d.  by  order  of  the  Abbot.  In  lime  6d. 
Haseld' ;  To  a  beater  there  4d.  condiment.  To  W. 
the  Baker  13d.  Tetbury;  To  a  certain  boy  4d.  by  the 
Prior.  For  Maundy  -  43d. ;  To  a  certain  boy  6d.  by 
the  Abbot.  In  oblations  4^d.  Easter.  ;  In  nails  5d.  On 
quasi  modo  Sunday3  two  days  Gloucester  i6d.  For  a 
bit  yd. ;  To  the  wheelwright  6d.  For  a  certain  boy 
running  with  the  Cellarer  for  Homkn  4d.  At  the  upper 
grange  8d.  in  labour.  Lower  grange  4d.  ;  To  the  beater 
there  i^d.  for  emolument.  Tetbury  4d.  for  emolument  to 
a  Harrower,  i2d.  Haseld'.  For  white  salt  i£d.;  For 
enclosure    at    Estleya    3Ad.     In   casu    22d. 

Expenses  in  drink  of  the  lay  brethren  by  the  granges 
in  Lent :  Haseld'  7s.,  Tetbury  3s.  4$d.,  Callecote  3s.  6d., 
Ozleworth  2s.,  Upper  Grange  4s.  4d.,  Lower  Grange  32jd., 
Cherteshule  32 ^d.         Sum  26s.  8d. 

'  Evantagium=avantagium:  (1)  prescriptive  right,  (2)profit  or  emolument. 

2  Ad  Mandatum. 
8  1st  Sunday  after  Easter,  April  7. 

igS  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

Item  in  the  wall  of  Ozleworth  :  First  week  400I.,  second 
week  23d.,  third  8d.,  fourth  133d.,  fifth  i8d.,  sixth  2od. 
Sum   1  os.  2jd. 

To  the  beaters  for  emolument  3d.  For  custody  of 
fowls  8d.  Item  for  emolument  3d.  To  Richard  the 
heater  6d.  for  emolument.1  Item  to  another  thresher  2d. 
To  Brother  A.  de  Lacheford  id.  For  one  crennoch2  of 
salt  1 2d.  For  Master  H.  the  Clerk  8d.  Gloucester. 
For  digging  the  curtilage  of  Dame  Petronella  4d.  At 
Heseld'  5d.  for  Master  H.  Expenses  at  Bristol  33d.  for 
the  Cellarer  and  Andrew  and  N.  the  Smith.  To  a  certain 
boy  at  Ozleworth  6d.  Item  there  i6d.  for  labour.  At 
Callicote  i6d.  for  labour.  To  Brother  T.  carter  4d.  to 
Bristol.  On  Monday  before  Whitsunday  i4d.  expenses 
of  the  County  (?).  In  cloth  for  Hugh  Clerk  for  stockade  (?) 
3od.  In  cloth  for  W.  Clerk  of  the  Sheriff  34d.  In  two 
hides  3s.  In  fish  i6d.  Tetbury.  At  Heseld'  3d.  in  beer. 
Expenses  for  the  Cellarer  in  heath  5d.  Cull(cretone).  To 
Colin  de  Culcreton  4s.  for  quitclaim  of  spurs.  Expenses 
at  Malmesbury  2d.     In  one  white  hide  2s. 

In  two  oxen  Osleworth  22s.  gd.  In  three  oxen  there 
33s.  8d.  Expenses  at  Gloucester  5s.  2d. — minus  Com  (sic). 
In  a  tool  for  the  carter  5s.  8d.  For  one  meadow  3s. 
Wortel(ey).  To  Roger  de  Cherteshulle  6d.  for  labour. 
To  Brother  Godfrey  4d.  In  an  enclosure  3d.  Osleworth. 
To  Peter  de  la  Mare  iod.  for  wine.  For  one  white  roll8 
2gd.  for  the  use  ot  the  Abbot.  In  fish  against  the 
injunction  3s.  In  expenses  at  Tetbury  5d.  To  Brother 
Ernald  3s.  for  threshing.  For  a  sickle  6d.  For  the 
Abbot  i4^d.  Callicote,  for  the  parson  of  Tetbury.  In 
expenses  of  the  Court  at  Culcreton  26d.  ;  At  Osleworth 
to  a  hoer  i4d.  For  the  meadow  of  N.  de  Osleworth 
3s.  3d.  For  the  meadow  of  H.  de  Holacra  32d.  Item 
for  a  meadow   i4d.  for  oxen  at  Osleworth.     For  a  meadow 

1  N.B. — These   two  entries  seem  to  prove  that  "bator"  is  the  same  as 
triturator.— I.H.I. 

a  Crannocum — a  measure,  a  basket.     3  An  alb  would  be  alba,  not  albo. 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kixgswood.     199 

at  Wortel(ey)  us.  id.  for  stable.  For  hoers  and  other 
labourers  2s.  4d.  Tetbury.  To  the  Lady  of  Osleworth 
half  a  mark  for  a  lease.  In  rope  Osleworth  4d.  In  broad 
nails  igd.  for  the  house  (hospitium).  For  a  ploughshare 
for  the  carter  5s.  jjd.  At  Gloucester  5s.  3d.  before  the 
Justices.  For  oais  26d.  besides  "  O  "  expenses  (sic).  In 
expenses  at  Gloucester  12s.  8d. — nine  days.  For  a  cart  5s. 
to  the  Lord  the  King.  In  victuals1  for  the  beaters  and 
servants  Osleworth  6s.  gd.  .  From  the  feast  of  Pentecost 
to  the  feast  of  St.  James  .  Item  For  emolument  to  the 
beaters  for  the  same  term  3s.  iod.  To  a  certain  Thresher 
iod.  on  his  departure.  In  hay  3s.  id.  T.  Bareball.  Also 
in  hay  22d.  R.  Franceis — setes  (?).  Item  at  Wick  23d 
for  hay.  In  expenses  at  Gloucester  2od.  To  the  beaters 
and  servants  at  Osleworth  13d.  for  victuals.  To  the 
Ambler2   3s.  who    taught    the   colts. 

Sum  ^19   15s.  gd.     Arrears  ^3  9s.  5d. 
Sum  total    on  both  sides  of  the  roll  ^"24   is.   5-id.  up  to 
the    feast    of   St.    Peter    ad    Vincula  in    the   year    1241. 

No.    XIII. 

Arrears  of  the  Bursars  of  the  House  of  Kingswood  in 
the  year  of  grace  1241  on  the  feast  of  St.  Peter  ad 
Vincula  (August  1)  from  all  receipts  of  the  House  ^"120 
and  /"15  5s.  o£d.  all  the  wool  and  fleece  wool  being  counted 
together  and  20  pounds  from  arrears  of  wool  of  the  year  '42. 

Received  from  the  same  term  and  then  up  to  the  feast  of 
St.  Andrew  of  the  same  year  :  From  fleece  wool  of  the  year 
'42  5  marks  in  arrears.  From  rents  at  the  feast  of  St. 
Michael  £6  9s.  gd.  with  arrears.  From  sale  of  sheep 
£6  7s.  4d.  From  debt  of  corn  4s.  6d.  From  sale  of  Roc- 
wood  34s.  3d.  From  money  borrowed  for  the  bell  2  marks. 
From  debts  paid  and  money  collected  £6  5s.  5$d.     From  the 

1  Campanagium. 

2  Ambulator,  an  Ambler — a  horse  that  ambles. 

Ambula-instrumentum  in  quo  equi  discunt  ambulare      (?)  Whether 
this  entry  is  in  reference  to  the  breaking-in  of  colts. 

200  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

Lady  of  Tetes  £\  loan.     From  debt  of  cider1  3^d.     From 
pannage  of  Kingswood  8s.     From  entry  of  land  20s. 
Sum  received  ^31   5s.  5^d. 

Sum  total  received  with  arrears  ^166  10s.  6d.  up  to  the 
feast  of  St.  Andrew. 

Sum  of  expenses  from  the  said  feast  of  St.  Peter  ad 
Vincula  of  the  year  1241  up  to  St.  Andrew  by  parts:  In 
gathering  fruits  ^"35  17s.  o£d.  In  hay  for  sheep  £\*j  7s.  iod. 
Item  for  carting  the  Abbots  and  the  Household  Hay  25s.  4d. 
For  rams  bought  in  Lindesay2  25s.  4d.  To  the  Cellarer  for 
expenses  £\i.  To  the  Sub-cellarer  12s.  6d.  To  the  shepherds 
for  expenses  i\  marks.  To  the  Lord  Abbot  36s.  To  the  Baker 
10s.  8d.  In  fish  £y  19s.  oid.  In  salt  £3  13s.  8d.  In  oats 
£8  gs.  In  pensions  and  annual  rents  £\  7s.  8d.  In  pay 
of  mercenaries  to    the  feast  of  Saint  Michael  ^24  16s.  7d. 

In  edificio — In  wine,  3s.;  In  cheese  and  tallow  28s.  5d. ; 
At  Call'  18s.  2d.  about  the  grange;  In  the  monks  infirmary 
6s.  9^d. ;  In  buildings  in  the  cow  shed  8s.  id. ;  In  the  bake- 
house and  cloister  10s.  3^d. ;   In  boards  and  lead  there,  16s. 

In  gold,  jewels,  and  gifts,  £\  12s.  2d.  In  farms  and  lands 
£4  10s.  iod.  In  pleas  17s.  2^d.  In  other  useful  things  of 
the  house  £11  7s.  gd.     Borrowed  13s.  8d. 

Sum  total  of  expenses  from  the  feast  of  St.  Peter  up 
to  St.  Andrew  ^"153  14s.  gd.  Arrears  ^12  15s.  gd.  (or 
otherwise  £\b  os.  3d.  less). 

Item  received  from  the  feast  of  St.  Andrew  up  to  the 
feast  of  St.  Peter  ad  Vincula  of  the  year  1242  :  From  sheep 
sold  £2,  2s.  6d.  From  rents  at  Christmas  £\  4s.  From 
rents  at  Ladyday  £5  33.  4^d.  From  rents  at  Midsummer 
£\  7s.  3d.  From  the  better  wool  40  marks  at  Hokeday. 
From  corn  sold  ^46  4s.  3d. — 19  sacks,  price  of  a  sack  with 
profit3  14  marks.  From  better  wool  ^"137,  £  a  mark  1  sack 
lok.  From  1  sack  of  middle  wool  £6.  From  5  stone  oi 
better  wool  31s. — 6  sacks  16  stone  and  a-half.     From  lok4 

1  Cicero=:cider  ;  cicera,  a  kind  of  pulse  fit  for  fodder. — Ainsworth. 

2  Lincolnshire.         3  Evantagium=avantagium. 

4  Lok — Inferior  wool,  collected  at  the  shearing,  fleece  wool. 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     201 

^"24  18s.  7d.  Besides  1  sack  of  profit  of  pet  (good)  wool  and 
6  stone  and  a-half  of  lok.  From  entry  of  land  and  from 
freedom  21s.  Sd.  From  pigs  in  the  piggery  100s.  6d.  From 
debts  paid  £y  and  33d.  From  1  servant  20s.  as  a  gift.  From 
a  horse  sold  7s.  From  pannage  of  Osleworth  2od.  From 
the  mill  of  Osleworth  33d. 

Sum  total  received  ^"290  7s.  3£d.  with  arrears  ^"16  from 
the  feast  of  St.  Andrew  up  to  the  feast  of  St.  Peter  of  the 
year  '42. 

Expenses  by  parts  from  the  feast  of  St.  Andrew  above 
written  up  to  the  feast  of  St.  Peter  of  the  year  1242 : 
To  the  Cellarer  £18.  To  the  Sub-cellarer  21s.  To  the 
Shepherd1  £■$  8s.  8d.  To  the  Baker  10s.  In  oats  £g  2s.  2d. 
Also  in  oats  for  seed  3  marks.  In  fish  £16  3s.  oj-d.  To  the 
work  of  the  Church  10  marks — gift.  In  the  building  of  the 
new  hospice  £i&  os.  ojd.  Item  in  other  buildings  18s.  iod. 
In  pay  for  mercenarys  at  Hokeday  ^15  os.  id.  In  one  cask 
of  wine  3  marks  4od.  Also  in  wine  6s.  In  soap  and  cheese 
10s.  In  salt  33s.  id.  In  rents  and  payments  £3  7s.  4d. 
In  gifts  and  gold  £3  16s.  8d.  In  farms  and  lands  3  marks 
4s.  In  hay  20s.  gd.  In  pleas  8s.  In  other  minute  things 
^8  3s.   ioid. 

Sum  total  of  expenses  /115  10s.  2^d.  up  to  the  feast  of 
St.  Peter  ad  Vincula  of  the  year  1242.  Arrears  to  the  same 
term  ^174  16s.   nd. 

Sum  of  expenses  in  fish  by  the  hand  of  the  Sub-Prior 
^"24  24|,d.  besides  buildings. 

Also  expended  in  fish  computed  in  the  house  building 
3  marks  2s.  7d. 

No.  XIV. 

Let  present  and  future  know  that  I  John  del  Egge  have 
granted  and  given  and  by  this  present  charter  have  confirmed 
to  God  and  the  Church  of  the  Blessed  Mary  of  Kingeswode, 
and  the  monks  there  serving  God,  all  my  land  which  Gillebert 
my  Father  held,  and  which  descended  to  me  by  hereditary 

1  ?  Bercarius. 

202  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

right,  with  the  wood  and  all  its  appurtenances  at  La  Egge 
in  the  manor  of  Simundeshale  in  perpetual  exchange  of  all 
the  land  which  the  said  monks  held  in  Rocwood  in  the  parish 
of  Biseleye  with  the  wood  and  all  its  appurtenances.  To 
hold  and  to  have  to  the  said  monks  for  ever  freely  and 
quietly  wholly  and  honorably  well  and  in  peace  in  woods,  in 
plains,  in  meadows,  and  pastures,  and  in  all  other  things  and 
places,  with  all  liberties  and  free  customs  which  can  possibly 
belong  to  the  said  land,  saving  the  service  which  I  was 
accustomed  and  bound  to  perform  for  the  same,  to  the  chief 
lord.  And  I  and  my  heirs  or  assigns  will  warrant  to  the  said 
monks  all  the  said  land  with  wood  and  all  appurtenances 
and  liberties  for  ever  against  all  mortals.  But  if  they  are 
unable  to  warrant  all  the  aforesaid  land  of  Rocwood  with 
the  wood  and  all  its  appurtenances  the  said  monks  shall 
freely  seize  it  again  without  any  contradiction  of  me  or  of 
my  heirs  or  assigns.  And  that  this  my  grant  and  gift  may 
remain  ratified  and  stable  I  have  appended  my  seal  to  this 

Witnesses  Peter  de  Eggeworth,  Oliver  de  Berkeley, 
William  de  Troham,  Richard  de  Abbenes,  Robert  de 
Mulecot,  Henry  de  la  Strode,  Roger  Petipas,  and  others. 

Done    in   the    year  of  grace    1243   at    the   feast   of  Saint 


No.  XV. 

Let  present  and  future  know  that  I  John  del  Egge  have 
given  and  granted  and  by  the  present  charter  have  con- 
firmed to  God  and  the  Church  of  the  Blessed  Mary  of 
Kingeswode  and  the  monks  there  serving  God  all  my  land 
which  Gillebert  my  Father  held  and  which  descended  to  me 
by  hereditary  right  with  wood  and  all  its  appurtenances  at 
Le  Egge  in  the  manor  of  Symundeshale  in  perpetual 
exchange  of  all  the  land  which  the  said  monks  had  at  La 
Rocwde  in  the  parish  of  Byseleye  with  the  wood  and  all 
appurtenances.  To  hold  and  to  have  to  the  said  monks  for 
ever  freely  and  quietly  wholly  and  honourably  well  and  in 
peace  in  woods  plains  meadows  and  pastures  and  in  all  other 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     203 

things  and  places  with  all  liberties  and  free  customs  which 
can  pertain  to  the  said  land  saving  the  service  which  I  was 
accustomed  and  bound  to  perform  to  the  Chief  Lord.  And 
I  and  my  heirs  or  assigns  will  warrant  to  the  said  monks  all 
the  said  land  with  wood  and  all  appurtenances  and  liberties 
for  ever  against  all  mortals.  But  if  we  should  not  be  able  to 
warrant  the  whole  of  the  aforesaid  land  of  Rocwde  with 
wood  and  all  appurtenances  the  said  monks  shall  freely  seize 
it  again  without  any  contradiction  from  me  or  my  heirs  or 
assigns.  And  that  this  my  gift  and  grant  may  remain  ratified 
and  stable  I  have  appended  my  seal  to  this  writing. 
Witnesses  Peter  de  Eggeworth,  Oliver  de  Berkeley,  William 
de  Troham,  Richard  de  Abbenesse,  Robert  de  Mulecote, 
Henry  de  la  Stride,  Roger  Petipas,  and  others.     (1243). 

No.  XVI. 
Let  present  and  future  know  that  I  Roger  Barette  for 
love  of  God  and  the  safety  of  my  soul  have  given  and 
granted  to  God  and  the  Church  of  St.  Mary  of  Kingeswode 
in  pure  and  perpetual  and  free  alms  a  messuage  "  on  the 
spring"  with  curtilage  and  other  appurtenances  in  the  Vill  of 
Culcretun.  To  hold  and  to  have  to  the  Monks  of  the  said 
Church  of  Kingeswode  for  ever  as  pure  and  perpetual  and 
free  alms  quietly  and  freely  from  all  customs  and  issues  and 
services  which  can  possible  at  any  time  issue.  Because  I 
and  my  heirs  will  altogether  quitclaim  the  said  messuage 
with  curtilage  and  appurtenances  and  will  warrant  it  to  the 
said  monks  for  ever  against  all  mortals.  In  witness  of 
which  thing  I  have  appended  my  seal  to  this  Charter. 
Witnesses  Bartholomew  La  banc,  William  de  Rodmertune, 
Nicholas  de  Culcretun,  Thomas  de  la  Planke,  Roger  de 
Calfhage,  Geoffrey  distance,  Walter  Bernard,  John  Cusin, 
Walter  de  Fromtune,  William  de  Bradeley,  Henry  de 
Bradel',  Robert  Passelewe,  and   many  others. 

No.    XVII. 
Let  present  and  future  know  that  I  William  Bretun  for 
the  love  of  God  and  the  salvation  of  my  soul  have  given  to 

204  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

God  and  the  Church  of  St.  Mary  of  Kingeswd  and  the 
monks  there  serving  God  in  pure  and  free  alms  one  cotceld 
(cotcelda  =  land  attached  to  a  cottage)  of  land  in  Osleworth 
with  all  appurtenances  which  Alice  Toki  sold  to  me  for  five 
marks.  To  hold  and  to  have  to  the  said  monks  of  Kingeswd 
for  ever,  as  pure  and  free  alms  as  far  as  pertains  to  me 
and  my  heirs.  Paying  for  it  annually,  to  the  said  Alice  and 
her  heirs  on  the  same  land,  one  pair  of  gloves  at  Easter,  or 
one  penny  whichever  they  prefer.  And  to  the  Chief  Lord 
one  pound  of  cummin  at  the  feast  of  St.  Michael.  And  the 
royal  service  which  pertains  to  so  much  land  in  the  same 
Vill.  And  I  and  my  heirs  will  warrant  the  said  land  with 
appurtenances  to  the  said  monks  for  ever  against  all  mortals. 
In  witness  of  which  thing  I  have  appended  my  seal  to 
this  Charter.  Witnesses  Geoffrey  de  Chausi,  Oliver  de 
Berkele,  Bartholomew  La  banc,  Nicholas  Ruffus,  John  le 
New,  Nigel  de  Osleworth,  Henry  de  Linez,  Walter,  clerk 
of  Hillesley,  William  de  Bradeleye,  and  many  others. 

No.    XVIII. 

This  is  the  covenant  made  between  Roger  Baret  of  the 
one  part,  and  the  Abbot  and  Monks  of  Kingeswode  on  the 
other  part,  namely  that  Roger  Bareth  in  the  year  of  grace 
1243  at  the  feast  of  St.  Michael  leased  and  granted  to  the 
said  Abbot  and  Monks  two  acres  of  land  in  the  fields  of 
Culcretun,  that  is  to  say  in  Westfelde  the  acre  in  la  Buchine, 
and  in  Estfeide  the  Head  acre  under  Stanhulle,  so  that  the 
said  Monks  may  hold  the  said  two  acres  up  to  the  end  of  ten 
years  next  ensuing,  that  is  to  say,  until  they  have  received 
five  crops  entirely  from  the  one  acre  and  five  from  the  other  x 
except  enclosed  pieces  ("  exceptis  inhokis"),2  if  by  chance  any 
shall  be  made  in  the  same  vill.  But  they  have  received  the 
first  crop  from  these  two  acres  in  the  autumn  of  the  year  of 

1  Thus  the  common  fields  were  cultivated  on  the  two-course  system. 

*  Inhokum  =  any  corner  of  a  common  field  ploughed  and  sowed  and 
sometimes  enclosed  with  a  dry  hedge  in  that  year  wherein  the  rest  lies 
fallow — Jacob. 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     205 

grace   1244  wherefore   they  will    have  the  last   crop   in   the 

autumn  of  1253  besides  the  crops  from  the  "inhoka"  as  often 

as  there  shall  be  any.     But  for  this  lease  and  grant,  the  said 

Abbot  and  Monks  have  given  him  six  shillings  sterling  into 

his  hands.    When  however  the  said  Monks  have  held  the  said 

acres  to  the  end  of  ten  years,  the  said  acres  shall  return  to 

the  said  Roger  or  to  his  heirs  without  any  contradiction  of 

the   said   Monks.     But   the    said    Roger    and    his    heirs  will 

warrant   to   the   said    Monks    the  covenant    up   to    its    term 

against  all  mortals,  and  will  quitclaim  it  of  all  services  and 

secular  demands  which  may  ever  issue  from  it.     And  that 

this  covenant  may  be  firmly  held  it  has  been  fortified  by  the 

seals   of   both   parties.     Witnesses  William  de   Rodmerton, 

Laurence  de  Lasceles,  Robert  Passelwe,  Geoffrey  Custance, 

Nicholas  de  Culcreton,  Walter  Bernard,  Henry  Bernard,  and 

many  others. 

No.    XIX. 

Let   present  and  future    know  that  this  is  the  covenant 

made  between  the  Abbot  and  Monks  of  Kingeswde  of  the 

one  party,  and  Luke  de  Chirintune  of  the  other  party,  namely, 

that  the  aforesaid  Abbot  and  Monks  by  common  counsel  and 

will   have   leased   to   the   same   Luke  de  Chirintune  all  that 

land    with    messuage    and   all   appurtenances   in    Chirintune 

which  was  Walter  de  Brachele's,  which  land  the  same  Walter 

gave   to   the    Monks  of    Bethlesdene,1    and   the    Monks   of 

Bethlesdene  sold  to  the  said  Abbot  and  Monks  of  Kingeswde. 

To  hold  and  to  have  to  the  same  Luke  and  his  heirs  for  ever 

freely    and    quietly    paying    therefore    annually    to    the   said 

Abbot  and  Monks  of  Kingeswde  six  shillings  sterling,  at  the 

four  terms  of  the  year  namely  at   the  nativity  of  our  Lord 

eighteen  pence,   and   at    Easter  eighteen   pence,   and  at  the 

nativity  of  St.  John  Baptist  eighteen   pence,  and  at  the  feast 

of  St.  Michael  eighteen  pence,  for  all  services  customs  and 

....  saving  the  royal   service  that   is   to  say  as  much  as 

pertains  to  half  a  virgatc  of  land  in  the  same  vill.      But  for 

this  covenant  and  grant  the  same  Luke  de  Chirintune  has 

1   Lat   Bechledene. 

206  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

given  to  the  said  Monks  of  Kingeswde  eight  marks  of  silver 
for  acknowledgement.  And  let  it  be  known  that  the  said 
Luke  de  Chirintune  or  his  heirs  shall  not  be  able  either  to 
sell  or  pledge  the  same  land  without  license  and  assent  of 
the  Monks  of  Kingeswde  his  lords.  And  that  this  covenant 
may  be  made  firm  between  them  and  stable  for  ever  the  seal 
of  the  Monks  has  been  placed  to  the  portion  of  Luke,  and 
Luke's  seal  to  the  portion  of  the  Monks.  Witnesses 
Bartholomew  Labanc,  Roger  de  Duchtune,  Thomas  de 
Rodeburwe,  William  de  Rodmertune,  Henry  Hardewine, 
Nicholas  de  Leppegete,  Geoffrey  distance,  and  many 

No.    XX. 

Let  present  and  future  know  that  I  Roger  de  Newentun 
son  of  Philip  de  Berkeley  for  love  of  God  and  the  salvation 
of  my  soul  have  given  and  granted  to  God  and  the  Church  of 
St.  Mary  de  Kyngeswde  and  the  Monks  there  serving  God 
in  pure  and  perpetual  and  free  alms  an  acre  of  land  with  all 
its  appurtenances  in  the  tenure  of  Newinton  which  lies  on 
the  eastern  side  of  the  grange  of  Callicote  and  tapers  one 
head  on  to  Le  Rugeweie,  and  the  other  towards  the  grange 
of  Callicote,  near  the  two  acres  which  the  Monks  have  of  the 
gift  of  Philip  my  father.  To  hold  and  to  have  the  said  acre 
to  the  said  Monks  with  all  appurtenances  freely  and  quietly 
well  and  in  peace  as  pure  and  free  and  perpetual  alms.  And 
I  and  my  heirs  will  warrant  to  the  said  Monks  the  said  acre 
with  all  appurtenances  for  ever  against  all  mortals.  And  we 
will  quitclaim  it  from  royal  services,  and  from  all  suits  and 
demands  and  customs  and  services  which  can  ever  issue.  In 
witness  whereof  I  have  appended  my  seal  to  this  writing. 

Witnesses  Peter  de  Ywelega,  Symon  son  of  Nigel  de 
Haselcote,  Adam  de  la  Home,  Richard  le  Duck,  William  de 
Westcote,  and  many  others. 

No.  XXI. 

Let  present  and  future  know  that  I  Roger  de  Newentunc 
for  God  and  the  salvation  of  my  soul  have  given  and  granted 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     207 

and  by  the  present  charter  have  confirmed  to  God  and  the 
Church  of  the  Blessed  Mary  of  Kyngeswode  and  the  monks 
there  serving  God  in  pure  perpetual  and  free  alms  all  the 
land  of  Bollecote  with  pasture  and  all  appurtenances  which 
lies  between  Yweleg'  (Uley)  and  Egge  near  Le  Ros  in  the 
manor  of  Newenton.  To  have  and  to  hold  to  the  said 
monks  and  their  successors,  and  to  the  aforesaid  Church, 
freely  and  quietly  and  honourably  well  and  in  peace,  in  all 
things  and  places,  with  all  appurtenances  and  all  liberties 
pertaining  to  the  said  land,  as  pure  perpetual  and  free  alms 
for  ever  so  that  they  be  responsible  to  no  one  except  for 
prayers  only.  Moreover  they  the  said  monks  have  granted 
to  the  said  Roger  and  his  heirs  that  they  may  have  entrv 
into  the  wood  of  Bollecote,  and  there  take  of  the  wood 
whenever  and  whatever  they  wish,  so  long  as  it  be  done 
without  damage  to  the  corn  and  pastures  of  the  said  monks. 
But  I  and  my  heirs  will  warrant  the  aforesaid  land  with  all 
its  appurtenances  and  liberties  belonging  to  the  said  land 
to  the  said  monks  and  their  successors  and  to  the  said  Church 
of  Kyngeswode  for  ever  against  all  mortals,  and  we  will  acquit 
them  of  suits  of  courts,  and  of  all  services  which  may  there- 
from arise  for  ever.  And  that  this  my  grant  and  gift  may 
be  ratified  and  stable  for  ever,  I  have  appended  my  seal  to 
this  writing.  Witnesses  Lord  Geoffrey  de  Chausi,  Henry  de 
Linez,  Peter  de  Yweleg',  Walter  de  Neylesworth,  Hugh 
de  Kyllecote,  Robert  de  Uptune,  and  others. 

No.     XXII. 

Let  present  and  future  know  that  I  Nicholas  de  Newinton, 
son  of  Roger  de  Newynton,  have  granted  quitclaimed  for  me 
and  for  my  heirs  and  by  this  present  charter  have  confirmed 
to  God  and  the  Church  of  the  Blessed  Mary  of  Kyngeswod 
and  the  monks  there  serving  God,  all  the  donations  of  Roger 
my  father  namely  all  the  land  of  Bollecote  (Bowcot  ?— V.R.P.) 
with  all  its  appurtenances  and  all  other  lands  rents  houses 
and  tenements  which  the  said  monks  have  of  the  grant  of 
Roger  my  father  within  the  manor  of  Newynton  or  elsewhere. 

208  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

To  have  and  to  hold  all  the  aforesaid  freely  and  quietly 
according  as  (the  charters)  of  the  said  Roger  my  Father  made 
to  the  same  more  freely,  more  fully,  and  better,  bear  witness. 
But  I  and  my  heirs  will  warrant  acquit  and  defend  all  the 
aforesaid,  to  the  aforesaid  monks  and  their  successors  as  is 
aforesaid  against  all  mortals  for  ever.  And  that  this  my 
grant,  quitclaim,  and  confirmation  of  the  present  writing,  may 
remain  ratified  and  stable  for  ever  I  have  fortified  the  present 
writing  with  the  impression  of  my  seal. 

Witnesses  Milo  de  Langthol,  Bartholomew  de  Olepenne, 
Robert  de  Stone,  Robert  de  Bradestane,  Ralph  de  Camme, 
John  de  Olepenne,  and  others. 

No.  XXIII. 

Let  present  and  future  know  that  I  Roger  de  Newentun 
for  God  and  the  salvation  of  my  soul  have  given  and  granted 
and  by  the  present  charter  confirmed  to  God  and  the  Church 
of  St.  Mary  of  Kyngeswode  and  the  monks  there  serving 
God  in  pure  perpetual  and  free  alms  all  that  land  of 
Bollecote  with  pasture  and  all  appurtenances  which  lies 
between  Yweleg'  and  Egge  near  Le  Ros  which  I  sometime 
held  in  the  manor  of  Newentune.  To  have  and  to  hold 
to  the  said  monks  and  their  successors  and  to  the  aforesaid 
Church  freely  and  quietly,  well  and  in  peace,  wholly  and 
honourably,  in  all  things  and  places,  with  all  appurtenances 
and  all  liberties  pertaining  to  the  said  land  as  pure 
perpetual  and  free  alms  for  ever  so  that  they  be  responsible 
to  no  one  except  in  respect  of  prayers.  But  the  said  monks 
have  granted  to  me  and  my  heirs  that  we  may  have  entry 
into  the  wood  of  Bollecote,  and  there  take,  whenever,  and  as 
much  as  we  like  from  the  wood,  provided  however  that 
this  be  done  without  damage  of  corn  or  pasture  of  the 
said  monks.  But  I  and  my  heirs  will  warrant  the  afore- 
said land  with  all  its  appurtenances  and  aforenamed 
liberties  to  the  said  monks  and  their  successors  and  to 
the  aforesaid  Church  of  Kyngeswode  for  ever  against  all 
mortals    and    will     acquit    them    of    suits    of    courts,  and 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     209 

hundreds,  and  of  all  services  which  may  issue  therefrom 
for  ever.  And  that  this  my  grant  and  gift  may  be  ratified 
and  stable  for  ever,  I  have  appended  my  seal  to  this 
writing.  Witnesses  Dom.  Geoffrey  de  Chausi,  Henry  de 
Linez,  Peter  de  Yweleg',  Walter  de  Neylesworth,  Hugh 
de  Kyllecote,  Robert  de  Uptun,  and  others. 

No.  XXIV. 

Wages  of  the  House  of  Kingswood  in  the  year  of  grace 
of  our  Lord    1255 

WAGES  OF  HOCKDAY  (i.e.  2nd  Tuesday  after  Easter). 

Upper  Grange. — Three  ploughmen  6s.  Four  drivers 
i  mark.  Carter  and  Harvestman  4s.  Horseman  and  Cook 
and  Cowherd  4s.  6d.         Sum  21s.  2d. 

Lower  Grange. — Four  ploughmen  8s.  Four  drivers 
£  mark  ;  a  fifth  25.  Carter  and  harvestman  4s.  Horseman 
Cook  and  Cowherd  4s.  6d.         Sum  25s.  2d. 

Haseldene. — Four  ploughmen  7s.  4d.  Three  plough- 
men 6s.  Five  ox  drivers  7s.  6d.  Three  horse  drivers  5s. 
Carter  and  2  harvestmen  6s.  To  another  Carter  2od. 
Horseman  i8d.  Cook  and  boys  of  the  Grange  barn  3s.  4d. 
Cowherd  i8d.  Cook's  boy  gd.  Swineherd  iSd.  Sum 
42s.   id. 

Tetbury. — Horse  ploughmen  2s.  Two  drivers  3s.  2d. 
Carter  and  Harvestman  43d.  Horseman  Cook  and  Cow- 
herd 4s.  6d.         Sum   13s.  4d. 

Calecote.  —  Horse  ploughman  2s.  Another  22d.  Two 
Drivers  3s.  Horse  driver  i8d.  Carter  22d.  Horseman 
Cook  and  Cowherd  4s.  6d.         Sum  13s.  c;d. 

Osleworth. — Two  ploughmen  44d.  Three  drivers  4s.  6d. 
Carter  and  Harvestman  43d.  Horseman  Cook  and  Cow- 
herd 4s.  6d.         Sum  16s.  4d. 

Egge. — Two  ploughmen  44d.  Three  drivers  4s.  6d. 
Carter  and  harvestman  3s.  Sd.  Horseman  i8d.  Cook  and 
Cowherd  34d.         Sum   16s.  2d. 

Vol.  XXII. 

210  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

Cherteshull. — Ploughman  and  driver  2od.  Horseman 
2s.     Cook  and  Cowherd  3s.         Sum  8s.  8d. 

Baggeston. — Master  2s.  Ploughman  2od.  Driver  i8d. 
Cowherd  1yd.     Horseman  i8d.         Sum  8s.   id. 

Bakery. — Baker  and  brewer  £  mark.  Baker  and  miller  5s. 
Sifter1  ?  and  boy  for  the  Brewery  4s.  Swineherd  i8d. 
Also  two  swineherds  of  the  Cellarer  3s.         Sum  16s.   iod. 

?  Curtill.  —  Two  ditchers  4s.  Laundryman  (laven- 
darius)    2s.      Carter   22d.  Sum    7s.    iod. 

Shepherds  49s.  id.  Eleven  threshers  20s.  2d.  A 
twelfth  i8d.  because  he  came  at  the  feast  of  All  Saints. 
Five  Carters  9s.  iod.  Five  boys  of  the  Abbot  7s.  6d. 
At    the   Cowhouse  22d.         Sum  £\  9s.   nd. 

In  the  Abbey. — John  Haybstabularius  2s.  Forester  22d. 
The  Cellarer's  boy  i8d.  The  sub-cellarer's  boy  2od.  The 
skinner   .    .    .         Sum  8s. 

Sum  total  of  wages  ^"14  us.  2d. 

Upper  Grange. — Three  ploughmen  9s.  2  drivers  6s.  4d. 
Two  other  drivers  5s.  Carter  and  harvestman  6s.  Horse- 
man and  Cook  5s.     Cowherd  3od.         Sum  32s.  iod. 

Lower  Grange. — Four  ploughmen  12s.  Driver  "  con- 
versus "  and  a  second  driver  5s.  4d.  on  account  of 
Morwellese,  three  others  7s.  6d.  Berkeley  2s.  Carter  and 
harvestman  6s.  Cook  and  Cowherd  5s.  Horseman  3od. 
Sum   15s.  4d. 

Haseldene. — Three  Horseploughmen  20s.  6d.  Four 
others  14s.  Three  horse  drivers  8s.  Three  others  going 
to  Mor'lese  8s.  Two  others  5s.  Carter  3s.  Another 
carter  34d  ;  a  third  3od.  Two  harvestmen  6s.  Cook  and 
Boys  of  the  grange  5s.  2d.  Cowherd  29d.  Cook's  boy  2s. 
Swineherd  3od.         Sum  73s.   nd. 

Tetbury. — Horseploughman  3s.  2d.  Carter  and  harvest- 
man  6s.  Two  drivers  3s.  4d.  Horseman  and  cook  6s.  2d. 
Cowherd  2gd.         Sum  22s.  2d. 

Callicote. — Horseploughman  3s.  2d.  Another  plough- 
man 3s.     Three  drivers  7s.  iod.     Carter  3s.     Horseman  and 

1  Buletare^rto  sift  meal. 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     211 

cook  5s.  2d.     Cowherd  2gd.  Cook's  boy  2od.    Swineherd  i4d. 
Harvestman  3s.         Sum  30s.  5d. 

Osleworth. — Two  ploughmen  6s.  Three  drivers  8s. 
Carter  3s.  Horseman  cook  and  cowherd  7s.  gd.  Harvest- 
man  3s.     Cook's  boy  8d.         Sum  28s.  5d. 

Egge.— Two  ploughmen  6s.  Two  drivers  5s.  8d.  ;  a 
third  3od.  Carter  and  harvestman  6s.  Horseman  3 id. 
Cook  and  cowherd  4s.  4d.         Sum  27s  id. 

Cherteshull. — Ploughman  3s.  Driver  32d.  Horse- 
man 3s.     Cowherd  2gd.     Cook  3id.         Sum  13s.  8d. 

Baggestone. — Master  3s.  Ploughman  3s.  Driver  32d. 
Cowherd  2s.         Sum  10s.  8d. 

Bakery.  —  Baker  and  Brewer  \  mark.  Miller  and 
Baker  (oven  man  ? — V.R.P.)  6s.  Sifter1  3od.  Swine- 
herd 2s.     Brewer's  boy  2od.         Sum   18s.   iod. 

Curtill.  —  Two  ditchers  and  laundryman  9s. 
Carters    34d.       Sum     us.    iod. 

Pag'.  —  Thirty  -  five  shepherds  and  seven  peasants 
£\  14s.  4d.     Ten  Threshers  30s. 

Four  carters  and  a  cutter  of  brushwood  14s.  iod. 
Five  boys  of  the  Abbot  6s.  At  the  Cowhouse  32d. 
Sum    23s.    6d. 

Cellarer's    boy     i8d.        Stableman     3s.        Forester    3s. 
Sub-cellarer's   boy    28d.       Skinner   2s.         Sum    us.    iod. 
Sum  total  of  wages  ^"23  4s.  gd. 

At  the  Upper 


■»  a 



At  the  Lower 


...  a 



At  Haseld' 

-  £13 



At  Tetbury 

••■  £1 



At  Kallicote 

■■  £3 



At  Ozleworth 



At  Egge 




At  Charteshull 




At  Baggeston 



At   Hull 


Sum  total     ,£39  1 

3s.   iojd. 

1  Cnbrator 

212  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

The  sum  of  all  the  sums  both  in  wages  and  harvestings 
of  the  whole  year  ^77  9s.  4^d. 

ON    THE    BACK. 

Wages  of  the  House  of  Kyngeswood  in  the  year  of 
grace  1256  at  the  feast  of     .     .     . 


Upper  Grange. — Three  ploughmen  9s.  Two  drivers 
rising  at  the  morning  watch  5s.  4d.  Two  other  drivers  5s. 
Carter  and  harvestman  6s.  Horseman  and  cook  5s.  Cow- 
herd 29d.  Also  a  ploughman  at  the  plough  newly  raised 
(levatitm)    2s.    6d.      Also  a  driver  for  the  same  2s.         Sum 

37s.   3^. 

Lower  Grange. — Four  ploughmen  12s.  Two  drivers 
rising  at  the  morning  watch  6s.  4d.  Three  other  drivers 
7s.  6d.  Berkeley  (?)  2s.  Carter  and  harvestmen  6s.  Cook 
and  cowherd  5s.     Horseman  3od.         Sum  15s.  4d. 

Egge. — Two  ploughmen  6s.  Two  drivers  5s.  4d.  A  third 
driver  2s.  6d.  Carter  and  harvestman  6s.  Horseman  2s.  6d. 
Cook  and  cowherd  4s.  4d.         Sum  26s.  8d. 

Charteshull. — Ploughman  and  horseman  6s.  Driver 
2s.  8d.     Cowherd  2gd.     Cook  2s.  6d.         Sum   13s.  7d. 

Haseld'. — Three  horse  ploughmen  9s.  6d.  Four  others 
12s.  Three  horsedrivers  8s.  Three  others  rising  at  morning 
watch  8s.  Two  others  6s.  Carter  3s.  Another  34d.  A 
third  2s.  6d.  Two  harvestmen  6s.  Cook  and  boy  of  the 
grange  5s.  2d.  Cowherd  2s.  5d.  Cook's  boy  2s.  Swine- 
herd 2s.  6d.         Sum  68s.   nd. 

Tetbury. — Horse  ploughman  3s.  2d.  Carter  and  harvest- 
man  6s.  Driver  5s.  4d.  Horseman  and  cook  5s.  2d.  Cow- 
herd 2gd.         Sum  22s.   id. 

Osleworth. — Two  ploughmen  6s.  Three  drivers  8s. 
Carter  3s.  Horseman  cook  and  cowherd  7s.  9d.  Harvest- 
man  3s.     Cook's  boy  8d.         Sum  28s.  5d. 

Cali.icote. — Horse  ploughman  3s.  2d.  Another  3s. 
Three   drivers    7s.   iod.     Carter    3s.      Horseman    and    cook 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     213 

5s.  2d.  Cowherd  23d.  Cook's  boy  2od.  Swineherd  i4d. 
Harvestman  3s.         Sum  30s.  5d. 

Baggeston. — Master  3s.  Ploughman  3s.  Horseman  3s. 
Driver  2s.  8d.     Cowherd  2S.         Sum   13s.  8d. 

Shepherds. — 33  shepherds  and  5  peasants  (?)  £\  6s.  6d. 


Bakery.— Baker  and  brewer  6s.  8d.    Miller  and  baker  6s. 

Sifter  2s.  6d.     Swineherd  2s.     Brewer's  boy  2s.  6d.         Sum 

igs.  8d. 

Carters. — Four  carters  namely  three  for  corn  and  a 
fourth  for  brush  with  a  cutter  and  a  carter  of  stones  17s.  iod. 
Each  carter  3s.     The  cutter  2s.  iod.         Sum   17s.   iod. 

Nine  beaters  27s. — that  is  to  each  3s.  Also  two  beaters 
3s.  6d.  Five  boys  of  the  Abbot  7s.  6d.  Adam  de  Vaccar  32d. 
Sum  41s.  8d. 

Cuthill. — Two  ditchers  and  laundryman  9s.  Carter  34d. 
Sum   us.   iod. 

In  the  Abbey. — Stableman  3s.  Forester  3s.  Cellarer's 
boy  3s.         Sum  9s. 

No.  XXV. 

Receipts  from  Michaelmas  term  1262 : — From  rent  in 
Montan'  (?  ?  in  amount)  48s.  4d.  Also  from  the  same 
rent  from  term  of  St.  John  Baptist  (midsummer)  42s.  4d. 
From  the  gift  of  Robert  le  Greye  2s.  From  Ygete  for  two 
terms  2 id.  From  Ralph  le  Bank  i2d.  From  Witflur  8d. 
From  the  widow  of  Gregory  sub  bosco  (Underwood)  13d. 
From  a  Knight's  widow  i2d.  From  the  Widow  Thurkild 
1 2d.  From  Tredelaz  for  two  terms  of  Midsummer  and 
Michaelmas  7s.  6d.  From  rent  of  land  La  Skay  for 
Easter  and  Michaelmas  terms  7s.  From  Symon  sub  bosco 
2s.  iod.  From  Roger  Hok  6d.  From  Walter  Cook  Mid- 
summer and  Michaelmas  terms  3od.  From  Thomas  Everard 
Midsummer  and  Michaelmas  terms  I2d.  From  Thomas 
Everard  for  John  de  Ductun  6d.  From  Robert  Harding  for 
Midsummer  and  Michaelmas  iod.  From  rent  of  Bulcard 
7s.  8d.     From  Pochampton  5s.       From  William  de  Taunton 

214  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

of  Bath  3s.  Arrears  4s.  From  widow  Le  Furmer  i8d. 
From  Richard  Hope  3s.  From  Richard  de  Haselcote  5s. 
From  rent  of  Richard  de  Gloucester  5s.  From  John  Le 
Wayte  3s.  From  Reginald  Pelliparius  (  =  Skinner)  from 
arrears  and  for  the  Michaelmas  term  4s.  From  Loriner  6s. 
Arrears  3s.  6d.         Sum  £7   14s. 

Receipts  from  other  things  : — From  the  Vicar  of  Frocester 
for  £  quarter  of  corn  .  .  .  From  Richard  Le  Nevou 
for  i  quarter  of  corn  .  .  .  From  due  of  corn  from 
Tetbury  .  .  .  From  pannage  of  the  wood  of  Kyng'  .  .  . 
From  Dom.  Sampson  de  Brunegrove  .  .  .  From  the 
Fuller  .  .  .  ^36  .  .  .  £16  .  .  .  From  pence  of 
Brother  W.  Pilewyne  £5  .  .  .  From  the  Sacristan  40s- 
From  Brother  Alexander  .  .  .  From  the  Precentor  .  .  . 
From  Roger  Russell  9s.  From  Hugh  de  la  Ford  ^  mark. 
From  Walter  Jacob  4s.  From  William  Whiting  2s.  From 
John  Crisp  i2d.  From  the  Granger  of  Charteshull  1  mark 
for  1  ox.  From  Brother  W.  Knyht  for  pigs  sold  30s. 
From  the  Swineherd  40s.  From  old  sheep  sold  £10  . 
From  the  Refectorius  50s.  Sum  ^38  14s.  6hd.  Sum  tota 
of  receipts  £6y  3s.  2£d. 

Expenses  from  the  term  as  above : — To  the  Prior  of 
Lanton'  20s.  To  the  Church  of  Oseneye  20s.  To  the 
Church  of  Wottun  10s.  To  the  Church  of  Nywentun  8s. 
To  the  Church  of  Olepenne  3s.  To  the  parson  of  Tetbury 
£  mark.  To  Humphy.  de  la  Barre  10s.  In  rent  of  Mister 
H.  de  Bilesby  from  Michaelmas  term  2  marks.  In  rent  of 
Nicholas  de  Culkertun  1  mark.  To  Cecile  de  Rocheford 
9s.  6d.  To  William  Hayrun  6s.  8d.  To  John  Culling  for 
his  rent  2s.  In  rent  of  Dame  Joan  de  Wottune  2s. 
Sum  £6  1 6s. 

Expenses  in  other  things : — In  the  first  payment  for 
Osleworth  £50.  To  the  Shoemaker  ^"10.  In  one  horse- 
bought  for  the  granger  of  Osleworth  14s.  id.  In  another 
horse  bought  from  William  Spilemon  15s.  To  the  Abbot 
of  Cirencester  for  amercement  £  mark.  In  eight  quarters 
of  Corn  bought  at  Aired'  32s.     To  the  sub-cellarer  going  to 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     215 

London  20s.  In  Lead  42d.  In  17  quarters  of  Oats  bought 
from  R.  de  New  .  .  .  25s.  6d.  For  Gaudichun  (?  sic) 1  of 
Robert  le  Nevouz  2s.  6d.  In  victuals  of  Robert  le  Nevou 
from  the  feast  of  St.  Lambert  to  the  Circumcision  of  our 
Lord  4s.  In  victuals  of  the  Smiths  from  the  Sunday  before 
Michaelmas  to  the  Sunday  next  after  the  Epiphany  6s.  3d. 
In  expenses  of  Brother  R.  de  Cumbe  going  to  London  5s. 
In  expenses  of  the  same  to  Northampton  9s.  yd.  For  meat 
for  9  Shepherds  6s.  For  provends  for  .  .  .  Shepherds 
1  mark.  To  the  Abbot  for  Alms  12s.  for  2  terms.  In  one 
palfrey  for  the  Abbot's  use  20s.  In  10  quarters  of  Beans 
33s.  4d.  For  oats  of  W.  de  Rocheford  from  Christmas 
term  40s.  In  cloth  namely  eleven  rods  gs.  In  beer  at 
Osleworth  6s.  In  beef  at  Osleworth  3s.  iod.  In  partridges 
there  13s.  In  flesh  of  Sheep  bought  ...  In  meat  for 
9  Shepherds  at  .  .  .  27d. — each  3d.  For  meat  for  22 
Shepherds  .  .  .  34d. — each  i£d.  To  the  young  men  of 
the  Abbot  of  Flexl'  i2d.  To  the  clerk  of  the  Sheriff  and 
his  young  man  5s.  7d.  To  the  Charcoal-burner  at  Horsley 
.  .  In  expenses  of  the  Prior  to  Tintern  ...  In 
meat  ...  In  handles  ...  In  straw  .  .  .  To  Dame 
Katherine  ...  In  gaudichun  (sic)1  of  the  Abbot's  boys 
.  .  .  In  expenses  of  the  sub-cellarer  at  Gloucester  .  .  . 
In  expenses  of  Brother  W.  de  Bisel'  to  Tintern  .  .  .  To 
the  Mower  at  Cherefeld  .  .  .  To  Brother  Richard  de 
Cumbe  and  Brother  Thomas  to  Northampton  ...  To  the 
Bailiff  at  Chippenham  6d.  In  Gold  weight  of  5s. — 35s.  6d." 
To  the  young  man  of  W.  de  Monte  4d.  To  the  young  man 
of  the  Vicar  of  Berkeley  2d.  To  the  young  man  of  Peter  de 
\Vaunchau6d.     To  the  Nephew  of  Master  H.  de  Bilesby  2s. 

1  Probably  a  gift  or  payment  of  money  or  food. 

2  Ruding,  Annals  of  the  Coinage,  p.  II,  ed.  iii  ,  gives  the  ratio  of 
value  of  gold  to  silver  as  1  to  9  in  1105,  1156,  1207  and  1226  ;  1  to  g^fc  '" 
1257;  and  1  to  10  in  1230  and  1278.  The  figures  are  derived  from  the 
fineness  of  the  metals  in  the  coinage,  and  the  ratio  current  in  business 
transactions  would  no  doubt  vary  from  this.  The  transactions  mentioned 
in  the  accounts— "  in  auro— pondus  V  sol  XXXVs.  VW."  would  give 
a  ratio  of  only  1  to  7^. 

2i6  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

In  expenses  of  Brother  Roger  to  Tintern  3d.  To  a  certain 
yonng  man  sent  with  letters  to  the  Abbot  of  Waverley  iod. 
To  a  young  man  of  Tintern  who  brought  salmon  3d. 

Column  II. 

Receipts  from  Christmas  term: — (The  items  of  rents)  18 
in  number,  are  for  the  most  part  missing  owing  to  the  ruinous 
state  of  the  parchment.)  The  sum  of  all  the  rents  is 
£\  16s.  6^d. 

Receipts  from  other  things : — From  old  stock  sold  at 
Egge  22s.  From  Richard  le  Messor  of  Cherletun  for  entry 
of  land  2s.  From  relief  of  land  Custaunce  i6d.  From  the 
Abbot  of  Malmesbury  received  for  old  sheep  £9.  From 
Peter  de  Wike  for  sheep  20s.  Sum  £12  4s.  io^d. 
Sum  of  all  receipts  £i&  2s  4d. 

Expenses  from  same  term  : — To  Humphrey  de  La 
B  .  .  .  10s.  To  Cecile  de  Rocheford  gs.  6d.  For  the 
Lamp  of  Ozleworth  7s.  To  the  Lady  of  Wotton  8d.  To 
Adam  de  Berkeley  27d.  To  William  de  Rocheford  from 
Christmas  .  .  .  From  Easter  term  18s.  4d.         Sum  47s.  gd. 

Expenses  in  other  things  : — In  20  quarters  of  Oats  bought 
at  H  .  .  .  33s.  4d.  In  one  cask  of  wine  55s.  2d.  In  a 
horse  24s.  In  another  at  Haseld'  12s.  To  Master  H.  for 
8  quarters  of  corn  8  quarters  of  oats  5  quarters  of  beans 
62s.  2d.  To  Robert  le  Skay  for  corn  viz.  15  quarters  meslin 
(i.e.  wheat  and  rye  mixed)  g£-  quarters  of  barley  45s.  2d. 
To  Henry  de  Cumb  for  one  quarter  of  barley  28s.  In  2 
weys  of  cheese  16s.  In  cloth  for  the  Abbot's  use  20s. 
To  Dora  Jordan  le  Warr  1  mark.  In  expenses  of  Robt.  le 
Veel  to  London  28s.  To  Richard  of  St.  Augustine's  6s.  8d. 
To  Walter,  Clerk  of  Cirencester  13s.  4d.  In  expenses  of 
the  Abbot  at  Gloucester  31s.  For  pasture  of  Suthehay  8s. 
For  pasture  at  Northay  5s.  To  Roger  Baret  for  pittance 
from  the  ...  of  St.  John  Baptist  to  feast  of  St.  George 
...  To  Robert  le  Nevouz  for  pittance  from  Circumcision 
of  our    Lord   to   the   feast  of  S    .    .    .     In    victuals  of  the 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     217 

smiths  from  1st  Sunday  after  Epiphany  to  Easter  .  .  . 
To  W.  de  Rocheford  for  his  firewood  (?)  from  Easter  term  i^d. 
In  an  iron  cross  at  Egge  i2d.  To  the  boy  of  Henry  de 
Durseley  3d.  In  expenses  of  Brother  W.  de  Bristoll  6d. 
To  W.  Dimmok  and  John  de  Sorstan  .  .  .  Cokyn  (?) 
(cokinus  =  an  inferior  servant)  4d.  in  1  furur  (?)  for  the  head 
for  the  use  of  .  .  .  In  expenses  of  W.  Rop  to  Flexley. 
/;;  caudel  parts  faciend  (?)  {sic).  In  expenses  of  Brother  H.  de 
Hortun  at  Bagge(stone)  ...  In  expenses  of  the  Abbot 
to  Waverley  .  .  .  To  the  young  man  Nonni  I.  de  Tyng- 
hurst  .  .  .  To  the  young  man  of  Master  H.  de  Bilesley 
...  In  lead  .  .  .  To  the  young  man  of  the  Vicar  of 
Berkeley  3d.  To  the  young  man  of  Dom  J.  la  Warr  6d. 
In  wax  for  the  Charters  3d.  To  John  de  Framptun  5s.  To 
Henry  de  Cumb  2s.  In  expenses  of  the  Abbot  to  Gloucester 
and  Tynterne  5s.  In  one  acre  of  land  for  sowing  bought  yd. 
To  John  de  Sorstan  at  the  schools  i2d.  In  expenses  of 
Brother  Waismer  5d.  For  tiling  the  house  of  W.  de  Roche- 
ford  4d.  In  expenses  of  Brother  Llewelin  i6d.  In  expenses 
of  the  Abbot  to  the  Bishop  3s.  io^d.  For  sewing  belts  13d. 
To  the  plaisterers  at  the  new  house  6d.  To  the  Abbot  for 
alms  i5id.  To  Bartholomew  de  Olepenne  for  his  loss  from 
sheep  bought  by  us  6s.  8d.  In  meat  for  the  shepherds  on 
Shrove  Tuesday  i2d.  (die  Martis  ante  cap).  To  the  com- 
panion (?)  (socius)  of  Peter  de  Waucham  i8d.  To  the  young 
men  of  Peter  de  Waucham  i8d.  To  John  de  Actun  for 
tiling  the  new  house  4s.  In  expenses  of  Brother  R.  de 
Cumb  at  Baggeston  3£d.  In  30  lbs.  of  figs  and  12  lbs.  of 
raisins  4s.  In  expenses  of  the  Abbot  to  Cirencester  2s.  io^d. 
To  the  2  beadles  of  Grumboldshof1  i8d.  To  the  Abbot  for 
the  use  of  John  de  Meysy  4W.  To  Philip  the  carpenter  for 
wages  3s.  To  the  hoers  i8d.  To  Hapulf  13d.  To  the 
warrener  of  Tetbury  6d.  To  the  beadle  of  Wallingford  6d. 
To  the  messenger  of  the  Lord  Edward  4d.  To  2  cokyns 
(inferior   servants,  v.  supra)  4<1.     To  the  charcoal  burner  of 

1  Grumbold's  Ash.     The  beadles  were  officials  of  the  Hundred  called 
by  that  name. 

2i8  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

Horsley  gd.  In  12  carcases  of  mutton  5s.  To  the  cellarer 
£\.  To  the  sub-cellarer  40s.  To  .  .  .  for  an  agreement 
6s.  8d.         Sum  ^29  14s.  4^d. 

All  the  next  part  to  the  foot  of  the  second  column  is  so 
mutilated  that  it  is  impossible  to  decipher  it.  It  is  appar- 
ently the  account  for  Fish, — Herrings,  Salmon,  Ray,  Conger, 
Minnows  and  many  other  kinds  being  mentioned. 


The  Heading  is  missing  and  the  items  of  the  Rent 
receipts  are  for  the  most  part  missing.  The  sum  (of  the 
rents)  is  34s.  5£d. 

Receipts  from  other  things  : — From  payment  of  wool  at 
Hockday  ^"50. 

Sum  total  £$\   14s  5^d. 

Expenses  from  the  same  term  : — To  the  Prior  of  Lanton' 
20s.  To  the  Church  of  Wotton  10s.  To  Cecile  de  Roche- 
ford  8s.  6d.  To  Humphrey  de  la  Barre  10s.  To  William 
de  Rocheford  .  .  .  To  Master  H.  de  Billesby  15s.  To 
Adam  de  Berkeley  .  .  .  To  the  sister  of  Richard  le 
Nevouz  for  rent  6d.     Sum  73s.  4d. 

Also  expenses  in  other  things  : — In  one  cask  of  wine  for 
use  of  the  Abbot  of  Cirencester  4  marks  5d.  Also  in  wine 
5s.  gd.  In  hay  bought  at  Tortworth  20s.  In  hay  at 
Thornbury  40s.  4^d.  In  pasture  in  Wast'  2s.  6d.  In 
pasture  in  Sapertun  12s.  In  pasture  in  Styptun  \  mark. 
In  pasture  of  lambs  6s.  .  .  .  33s.  4d.  for  .  .  .  ;  .  .  .  for 
cheese  4s.  .  .  .  quarters  of  oats  bought  of  R.  de  Skay 
33s.  4d.  .  .  .  Rochford,  for  his  oats  from  Easter  term  6s. 
.  .  .  Wottun  £25.  The  servants'  wages  at  Hockday 
£g  15s.  3d.  .  .  .  de  Nevouz  a  gift  10s.  To  Dame 
Katherine  2s.  To  Jordan  de  Aula  i2d.  In  expenses  of 
Brother  W.  de  Culcretun  and  Brother  J.  to  Bath  6d.  In 
linen  cloth  9d.  In  .  .  .  pair  of  spurs  6^d.  .  .  .  Hosley 
I2d.  .  .  .  de  Olepenne  I2d.  .  .  .  Tynterne  2s.  .  .  . 
of  the  Abbot  i2d.    .    .    .    Wyk  to  London   i2d.    .    .    .    9d. 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     219 

.  .  .  to  Oxford  i£d.  ...  who  brought  two  lamps  2d. 
.  .  .  Tynterne  i8d.  .  .  .  the  charcoal-burner  from  Easter 
to  Sunday  feast  of  St.  Philip  and  James  3s.  .  .  .  the 
charcoal-burner  for  three  weeks  gd.  ...  by  Richd.  de 
Cumb  2 id.  To  the  young  man  of  the  Vicar  of  Berkeley  2d. 
To  one  Hoer  3d.  In  the  passage  of  Brother  W.  de  Bisel' 
2£d.  In  the  monument  of  W.  de  Maunsel  3s.  To  John  de 
Actun  for  roofing  the  new  house  4s.  To  the  charcoal-burner 
i2d.  In  expenses  of  the  sub-prior  to  Bristol  3i-d.  In  the 
King's  writs  i2d.  To  the  King's  messengers  6d.  To  the 
Prior's  nephew  6d.  To  the  cheirographer  4s.  To  Richard 
de  Boilond  4s.  To  W.  de  Rocheford  for  leggings  2od.  In 
cloth  for  the  use  of  R.  de  Veel  8s.  8d.  To  the  boy  of  Elias 
of  Cumb  4d.  To  the  boy  of  G.  de  Burtun  4d.  In  pigs 
22s.  8d.  In  the  Abbot's  expenses  in  London  37s.  To  the 
boy  of  Robert  Wallrand  4d.  To  the  Abbot  for  alms  i2d. 
To  the  Assarters  3s.  Sd.1  In  beer  for  the  use  of  the  Abbot  at 
Krtllicotte  i3^d.  In  expenses  of  Brother  R.  de  Cumb  3^d. 
To  the  Esquire  (?)  of  Mathew  de  Bisile  i2d.  To  Thomas 
Clerk  of  Besill  for  a  cup  bought  2s.  In  expenses  of  John 
de  Haseld'  and  his  companions  to  London  5s.  7^d.  In  beer 
for  the  use  of  the  Abbot  at  Tetbury  4d.  To  John  Hapulv 
for  4  weeks  1 2d.  To  W.  de  Rocheforde  in  hand  from 
Midsummer  21s.  To  one  dubbetot  (?  duthator)  2s.  To  the 
stonecutters  about  the  gate  i2d.  .  .  .  8d.  In  gifts  i2d. 
In  the  Abbot's  expenses  "  ad  dies  amoris '"'  at  Gloucester  8s. 
To  the  King's  Messenger  4d.  In  eggs  by  Brother  H.  de 
Tetbury  2s.  i£d.  In  12  gallons  of  wine  4s.  In  one 
quarter  of  beef  2s.  In  the  Abbot's  expenses  at  Gloucester 
8s.  gd.  To  Robert  de  Nevouz  from  feast  of  St.  George  to 
the  feast  of  S.S.  Gervase  and  Prokasins  2s.  To  Walter 
de  Wymbervile  4s.  Sum  ^"6o  15s.  2 Ad.  with  the  Cellarers 
and  the  sub-cellarers.    .    .    . 

(Here   at    the   bottom   of    this   column    follows    the    fish 
account,  very  mutilated.) 

1  Assart  =  a  woodland  grubbed  up  for  cultivation. 

'  Dies  amoris -dies  ad  controversial!  amice  conferendam. — Du  Cange. 

220  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

Column  II.  on  Back. 

Receipts  from  Midsummer  term  a.d.  1263  : — From  rent 
in  "montan"  in  (?  amount)  42s.  40!.  From  John  le  Blund 
of  Acton  3s.  gd.  From  Walter  Mahel  for  the  whole  year 
2s.  From  rent  of  Osleworth  31s  o£d. — owed  to  this  gd. 
From  Bulcard  8s.  From  Pockhampton  5s.  From  rent  of 
Land  de  Skay  3s.  6d.  From  Yegte  (?)  ioAd.  From  Robert 
de  Buxwell  6d.  From  Thomas  Jacob  2od.  From  Roger 
Fforester  i2d.         Sum  71s.  3d. 

Also  receipts  for  other  things  : — From  Brother  W.  de 
Cnigt  for  pigs  £8.  From  .  .  .  dead  13s.  4d.  .  .  .  41s. 
.  .  .  7£  marks.  In  victuals  .  .  .  carpenter  10s.  Sum 
£12  3s.  4d. 

Also  from  payment  of  wool  at  the  feast  of  St.  Peter  ad 
Vincula  a.d.  125 — ^154  os.  4d. 

Sum  total  of  receipts  ^"169  17s.   nd. 

Expenses  for  the  same  term  : — To  Cecile  (de  Roche)ford 
15s.  6d.  To  William  Hayrun  4od.  To  Adam  de  Berkeley 
i8d.  for  2  terms.  To  Dame  Agnes  de  Kyngton  5s.  To 
Richard  le  Nevouz  tor  his  rent  3s.  4d.  For  a  meadow  of 
Tetbury  6s.  8d.         Sum  35s.  4d. 

Expenses  in  other  things  : — To  the  Lady  of  Wottun  ^"25. 
To  John  Giffard  ^"10.  In  hay  bought  for  use  of  the  sheep 
^22  18s.  Also  in  hay  for  the  Abbot's  stable  5s.  In  hay 
bought  for  the  guests'  stable  and  the  carter  20s.  Also  in 
hay  bought  from  Badminton  of  R.  le  Veel  8s.  In  servants' 
wages  at  Michaelmas  £9  18s.  6d.  In  corn  bought  of  W.  le 
Maunsel  ^10  16s.  8d.  In  reaping  at  the  Upper  Grange 
3s.  2M.  In  reaping  at  the  Lower  Grange  15s.  oAd.  In 
reaping  at  Tetbury  6s.  3d.  In  cloth  for  Caps  60s.  (Note  no 
account.)  In  cheese  17s.  In  one  horse  bought  of  P. 
Caperun  40s.  Also  in  another  horse  20s.  In  one  mare 
bought  of  the  granger  of  the  Upper  Grange  12s.  3d.  In 
another  mare  12s.  In  one  cask  of  wine  at  Bristol 
bought  3s.  Also  in  wine  there  I2d.  Also  in  another 
cask    there    3s.      Also    in     12    gallons    of    wine    there    2s. 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     221 

Also  in  wine  there  3s.  In  wine  22^d.  Also  in  wine 
at  Tetbury  140!.  Also  in  wine  at  Sodbury  22^d.  In 
cloth  for  use  of  J.  the  Priest  (Vicar  of  Berkeley)  15s.  In 
fourteen  crannocks  of  salt  bought  at  Corsham  14s.  3^d. 
For  oats  to  W.  de  Rocheford  7s.  6d.  To  the  same  for  his 
firewood  (?  busca)  13d.  For  the  house  of  W.  de  Rocheford 
6s.  To  Nicholas  de  Culkertun  for  his  pittance  from  the 
feast  of  Purification  to  the  feast  of  St.  Mary  Magdalene 
2s.  3d.  To  Roger  Baret  for  his  pittance  from  the  feast  of 
St.  George  to  the  feast  of  St.  Calixtus  4s.  To  Robert  le 
Nevouz  for  his  pittance  from  the  feast  of  SS.  Gervase  and 
Prothasius  to  the  feast  of  St.  Dionysius  4s.  In  expenses 
of  the  Abbot  to  Bristol  6s.  iojd.  To  the  Prior  for  his 
fishpond  I2d.  To  Peter  de  Stabulo  to  London  g^d.  To 
Brother  W.  de  Margan  6d.  In  expenses  of  the  Abbot  at 
Gloucester  when  he  spoke  with  J.  Giffard  5s.  In  harness 
and  hides  for  the  use  of  Master  H.  8s.  yd.  In  meat  6d. 
For  a  fine  of  our  men  at  Culkerton  10s.  To  John  de 
Haseld'  and  his  companion  to  London  2s.  2d.  In  expenses 
of  the  Abbot  to  Tintern  6d.  For  eggs  delivered  to  the 
sub-cellarer  i2d.  In  alms  3^d.  To  John  Le  D  ...  2s. 
To  the  Esquire  (?  Scutario)  of  Master  H.  i2d.  To  Peter 
who  was  at  the  Abbot's  stable  I2d.  For  eggs  delivered  to 
the  sub-cellarer  and  his  young  man  22d.  To  the  cellarer's 
brother  2s.  To  the  Abbot  for  alms  2s.  Item  in  eggs  nd. 
In  expenses  of  R.  de  Cumb  to  Bristol  i3£d.  In  mowing  of 
the  land  Bulcard  33d.  To  the  Abbot  going  to  the  Chapter 
2s.  In  one  ptce  (?)  for  the  use  of  I.  priest  .  .  .  i8d.  To 
William  le  May  to  Wa  .  .  .  i2d.  In  tithes  of  sheep  at 
.  .  .  2s.  In  tithes  of  sheep  at  .  .  .  2s.  In  tithes  of 
sheep  at  ...  for  2  years  4s.  To  John  Hapulf  8d.  To 
a  certain  workman  6d.  To  John  de  Cha  .  .  .  of  a  certain 
meadow  6d.  To  a  servant  ...  for  victuals  4d. 
(The  rest  much  too  mutilated  to  translate.) 

222  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

No.  XXVI. 

Imperfect    at    Top. 

In  expenses  of  the  Abbot  going  to  Tintern  8d.  In 
leather  for  making  belts  i6d.  In  "  alimel "  (=  lamine  = 
blade  of  a  knife  or  sword,  v.  Roquefort)  2s.  In  expenses 
of  Brother  S.  going  to  Charthuse  (?)  3d.  In  parchment 
bought  for  use  of  R.  de  Chirechesdun  3d.  In  firewood  (?) 
W.  De  Rocheford  13d.  In  one  bridle  for  the  use  of  the 
Abbot  2s.  In  spurs  3^d.  In  girdles  nd.  In  physic  of  the 
Monk  of  Elemos  (Almshouse  ?)  8d.  The  King's  messenger 
Gd.  To  the  clerk  of  Siptune  6d.  In  four  gallons  of  wine  4s. 
To  the  cellarer  £6  10s.  To  the  sub-cellarer  20s.  Sum 
^83   19s  8*d. 

In  200  herrings  two  fresh  salmon  and  eels  bought 
against  the  arrival  of  the  under-sheriff  6s.     In  400  herrings 

2  pike  250  herrings  us.  5d.  In  9  hake  1  milvin  200 
herrings  400  barun  =  (fish)  5s.  8|d.  In  500  herrings  3 
milvin  3  hake  1  fresh  conger  and  minnows  us.  3^d.  In 
600  herrings  10  fresh  milvin  10  fresh  hake  12  bren  =  bream 
one  pot  of  raye  22s.  $d.  In  18  conger  500  herrings  300 
mackerel  7  milvin  15  haddock  20s.  5d.  In  1  pike  and 
minnows  .  .  .  herrings    3    hake    20s.     njd.     In    fresh    hake 

3  salted  conger  24  bren  =  bream  1  fresh  milvin  us.  id. 
In  29  hake  half  a  bundle  of  herrings  20  salted  salmon 
.  .  .  fresh  mackerel  14s.  8d.  In  30  hake  powdered  and  one 
hake  fresh  4  milvin  4  conger  15  hake  18s.  5d.  In  30  salted 
conger  2  bundles  of  herrings  22s.  id.  In  12  fresh  conger 
and  4  salted  conger  1  bundle  of  white  herrings  500  red 
herrings  3  fresh  milvin  14s.  7d.  In  62  conger  salted  12 
fresh  milvin  16  fresh  hake  36s.  gd.  In  1000  red  herrings 
3  bundles  of  white  herrings  6  bundles  of  pilchards  61  hake 
25s.  3d.  Sum  of  all  the  fish  £11  13s.  2d.  Sum  total  of 
expenses  ^202  8s.  6d.  And  expenses  exceed  receipts 
£l5   5S.    4d- 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     223 

2nd  column. 
Imperfect  at  the  Top. 

In  1  sum  of  conger  and  haddock  5s.  6d.  In  1  sum 
of  raye  and  1  sum  of  conger  7s.  iod.  In  vino  ? 
(?  alive)  17  conger  and  8  milvin  us.  In  1  bundle  of 
herrings  2  fresh  conger  13  powdered  conger  8s.  6d.  In 
15  conger  20  milvin  powdered  ns.  In  14  salmon  20  milvin 
3  ling  6s.  6£d.  In  1  bundle  of  herrings  20  milvin  2  conger 
10s.  5d.  In  20  milvin  2  conger  16  ling  8s.  8d.  In  |  a  100 
milvin,  £  a  100  ling  35s.  Sum  of  all  the  fish  £15  6s.  4d. 
Sum  of  all  the  expenses  £$\  12s.  iod.  And  expenses  exceed 
the  receipts  by  ^36  10s.  6d. 

In  9  conger  salted  8  milvin  5s.  iod.  In  2  quantities 
of  fish  16  salted  conger  24  milvin  and  ling  8s.  3d.  In 
15  conger  salted  20  milvin  and  ling  4  hake  gs.  iod.  In 
15  conger  63  milvin  and  ling  us.  6d.  In  30  milvin  30  ling 
and  herrings  8s.  gd.  In  40  milvin  and  ling  and  one  quantity 
of  fresh  conger  and  plaice  13s.  2^d.     In  6  powdered  conger 

6  milvin  and  ling  5s.  nd.     In  7  powdered  conger  12  plaice 

7  fresh  milvin  half  a  hundred  mackerel  10s  7^d.  In  100 
mackerel  42  milvin  and  ling  10s.  7d.  In  4  fresh  conger 
half  a  hundred  mackerel  30  ling  24  milvin  and  ling  16s  4^d. 
In  one  salmon  at  Gloucester  3s.  7d.  To  the  Cellarer  £3  10s. 
To  the  sub-cellarer  56s.  Sum  of  all  the  fish  ^16  15s.  2d. 
Sum  total  of  expenses  £%!  6s.  4£d.  And  expense  exceeds 
receipts  ^"29  us.  nd. 

In  20  conger  1  bundle  of  senderlings  13s.  In  28  conger 
200  herrings  10  cheeses  (?)  us.  6d.  In  £  quantity  of 
senderlings  and  £  quantity  of  conger  7s.  In  1  bundle  of 
senderlings  5  conger  4s.  7d.  In  £  bundle  of  herrings  4 
conger  4s.  8d.  In  8  hake  5  fresh  conger  5  salted  conger 
100  herrings  8s.  4d.  In  27  hake  30  salmon  10s.  8d.  In  one 
bundle  and  a  half  and  1000  pilchards  30  hake  19s.  ud. 
Sum  of  all  the  fish  £ti  is.  3d.  Sum  of  all  the  expenses 
/"158  us.  8d.  And  the  receipts  exceed  the  expenses 
£11  6s.  3d. 

224  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

No.  XXVII. 

To  all  the  faithful  of  Christ  to  whom  this  present  writing 
shall  come.  Maurice  de  Berkeley  son  and  heir  of  Dom 
Thomas  de  Berkeley  greeting  eternal  in  the  Lord.  Know 
ye  that  I  have  granted  and  given  and  released  and  for  me 
and  my  heirs  for  ever  have  quitclaimed  to  the  religious 
men  the  Abbot  and  Convent  of  Kyngeswode  all  right  and 
claim  which  I  had  or  in  any  way  can  have  in  a  certain 
annual  rent  of  ten  pence  issuing  from  his  lands  at  La 
Egge  within  the  manor  of  Symundeshalle  which  lands 
indeed  the  said  religious  men  have  sometime  held  of  the 
grants  of  the  late  Thomas  de  Berkele  uncle  of  the  aforesaid 
Dom.  Thomas  my  father. 

I  have  given  also  granted  remised  and  for  me  and  my 
heirs  for  ever  quitclaimed  to  the  above-mentioned  religious 
men  a  certain  rent  of  the  Capons  issuing  from  the  lands 
which  the  said  religious  men  have  sometime  held  in  the 
Ville  of  Pokhampton  within  my  manor  of  Hyneton1  of 
the  gift  of  the  late  Robert  de  Berkeley  brother  of  the  late 
Dom.  Thomas,  grandfather  of  Dom.  Thomas,  my  father. 

To  hold  and  to  have  all  the  aforesaid  rents  with 
appurtenances  by  name  of  perpetual  exchange  to  the  said 
religious  men  and  their  successors  from  me  and  my  heirs 
freely  and  quietly  for  ever.  So  that  neither  I  nor  my  heirs 
nor  any  other  in  our  name  shall  be  able  to  exact  or  claim 
any  right  or  claim  in  the  aforesaid  rents  or  in  any  of  their 
appurtenances  for  ever  but  that  the  said  religious  men  may 
possess  the  said  rents  with  their  appurtenances  issuing  from 
the  aforesaid  lands  and  may  for  ever  enjoy  the  same  rents 
for  ever  as  free  pure  and  perpetual  alms  more  freely  and 
purely  to  be  held  and  considered  for  ever.  I  have  granted 
also  for  me  and  my  heirs  to  the  aforesaid  religious  men  and 
their  successors  that  whenever  it  shall  please  them  to  remove 
their  conduit  of  water  from  our  park  of  Hawe  within  which 
park  it  lay  on  the  day  of  the  making  of  this  writing  enclosed, 

1  Hinton  in  Berkeley. 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     225 

to  another  competent  place  elsewhere  outside  the  park, 
we  will  cause  to  be  dug  and  uncovered  their  said  conduit 
at  our  own  expense,  and  in  another  place  outside  our  said 
park  as  far  as  that  park  extends  and  forty  perches  beyond, 
wherever  they  like,  and  where  it  shall  be  agreeable  to  the 
same  religious  men,  to  place  the  conduit  more  conveniently 
and  more  directly  without  contradiction  or  impediment  of 
any  one  in  as  good  a  condition  or  better  as  it  now  lies  in, 
together  with  the  house  at  the  aforesaid  conduit  to  be 
repaired  cleaned  and  examined  as  often  as  it  shall  be 
necessary  and  as  they  shall  wish,  notice  however  having 
been  given  of  a  month  or  three  weeks  at  least  concerning 
the  removal  of  the  said  conduit.  And  after  that  the  aforesaid 
conduit  as  is  aforesaid,  has  been  removed  we  and  our  heirs 
will  warrant  the  same  to  the  said  religious  men  and  their 
successors  beyond  our  lands  and  the  lands  of  our  men 
children  or  servants  as  far,  that  is  to  say,  as  our  said  park 
extends  and  forty  perches  more  beyond  as  is  aforesaid  and 
we  will  defend  them  from  all  hardships  hindrances  and 
claims  whatever,  which  may  be  laid  on  them  by  our  said 
men  or  any  of  our  bailiffs  by  occasion  of  the  said  conduit. 
So  however,  as  all  men  on  whose  lands  the  said  conduit 
may  happen  to  lie  may  be  able  to  plough  and  sow  freely 
and  be  preserved  unharmed.  In  witness  whereof  I  have 
appended  my  seal  to  the  present  writing.  Witnesses 
Dom  Nicholas  son  of  Ralph,  John  de  Sancto  Laudo, 
Thomas  de  Berkeley  son  of  Dom  Thomas  de  Berkeley, 
William  de  Wautone,  knights;  Robert  de  Bradeston, 
Henry  de    Camme,  Thomas  de   Swanhungre,  and  others. 


Let  present  and  future  know  that  I  Nigel  de  Kyngescote 
for  God  and  the  salvation  of  my  soul  and  the  souls  of 
Petronella  my  wife  and  of  Walter  de  Mortone  have  given 
and  granted  and  by  this  my  present  charter  confirmed  to 
God  and  the  Church  of  the  Blessed  Mary  of  Kyngeswode 
and  to  the  Monks  there  serving  God  in  pure  and  perpetual 

Vol.  XXII. 

226  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

alms,  one  acre  of  my  land  on  the  field  of  Nywenton,  and 
one  head  of  it  abuts  on  the  road  leading  to  Callicote 
towards  Kyngeswode,  and  the  other  on  the  pit  where  the 
said  Monks  are  accustomed  to  water  their  cattle.  To 
hold  and  to  have  the  said  acre  with  its  appurtenances  to 
the  said  Monks  and  their  successors  from  me  and  my  heirs 
for  ever,  freely  and  quietly,  well  and  in  peace,  wholly  and 
honorably,  and  in  all  things  and  in  all  places  as  pure  and 
perpetual  alms.  But  I  and  my  heirs  will  warrant  the  said 
acre  with  all  its  appurtenances  to  the  said  Monks  and  their 
successors  for  ever.  And  because  I  wish  that  this  my  grant 
and  alms  may  remain  ratified  and  stable  I  have  appended 
to  this  writing  my  seal.  Witnesses  William  de  Lasseberg, 
Thomas  de  Rocheford,  Peter  du  Ywele,  Elias  du  Cumbe, 
Geoffrey  Caperun,  and  others. 

No.   XXIX. 

In  the  year  of  our  Lord  1280  on  the  feast  of  St.  Mark, 
Evangelist,  it  was  so  agreed  between  the  religious  men  the 
Abbot  and  Convent  of  Kyngeswode  on  the  one  part,  and 
Brother  Adam,  Prior  of  the  Hospital  of  St.  Bartholomew 
Gloucester  and  the  Brethren  of  the  same  place  on  the  other 
part,  that  the  said  Abbot  and  Convent  have  given  and  for 
them  and  their  successors  have  leased  and  granted  to  the 
said  Prior  and  the  Brethren  aforesaid  five  acres  of  land 
with  appurtenances,  whereof  an  acre  and  half  lie  at  Acche- 
cumbe  towards  Olepenne  namely  between  the  wood  of  the 
said  Prior  and  Brethren  of  Lotegareshale,  and  the  land  of 
Robert  de  Benecumbe  at  the  head  of  which  acre  lies  another 
half-acre  on  the  south  side  between  the  land  of  the  aforesaid 
Brethren  on  the  east  side  and  the  land  of  William  de  Tette- 
penne  on  the  west  side  And  one  ferendel  {i.e.  £  of  an  acre) 
of  land  lies  between  the  land  of  William  de  Tettepenne  on 
the  north  side  and  the  land  pertaining  to  the  Church  of 
Symondeshale  on  the  south  side  and  abuts  on  the  road  of 
Wodewelle  to  the  west  And  a  half  acre  and  a  ferendel  of 
land  lie  between  the  land  of  the  Lord  of  Olepenne  on  the 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     227 

south  side,  and  the  land  pertaining  to  the  Church  aforesaid 
on  the  north  side,  and  abuts  on  the  aforesaid  road  of  Wode- 
welle  on  the  west  side  And  one  acre  lies  between  the  land 
of  Gilbert  Clappe  of  Newenton  on  the  north  side,  and  the 
land  of  Gilbert  Holcroft  of  Symondeshale  on  the  south  side, 
and  abuts  on  the  road  which  is  called  Stondingeston  on  the 
west,  and  on  the  land  of  the  aforesaid  Gilbert  on  the  east. 
And  a  ferendel  lies  between  the  land  of  the  said  Gilbert 
Holcroft  on  the  south,  and  the  land  of  Wm.  de  Tedepenne  on 
the  north,  and  abuts  on  the  wall  of  Tedepenne  on  the  east. 
And  one  ferendel  of  land  lies  between  the  land  of  the  Lord  of 
Olepenne  on  the  east,  and  the  land  of  Adam  de  Tedepenne 
on  the  west,  and  abuts  on  the  hedge  of  the  aforesaid  Adam 
on  the  north,  and  on  the  land  of  Walter  le  Southurne  of 
Baggepath  on  the  south.  And  a  half  acre  lies  between  the 
land  of  the  said  Brethren  of  St.  Bartholomew  on  the  north, 
and  the  land  of  the  Rector  of  the  Church  of  Newenton  on 
the  south,  and  abuts  on  the  road  to  Tetbury  westward,  and  to 
the  land  of  Wm.  de  Tedepenne  on  the  east.  To  have  and  to 
hold  the  said  five  acres  of  land  to  the  aforesaid  Prior  and 
his  said  Brethren  and  their  successors  freely  and  quietly 
well  and  in  peace  from  the  aforesaid  religious  men  for  ever. 

But  for  this  grant,  lease,  and  concession,  the  said  Prior 
and  his  Brethren  abovesaid  have  given  and  for  themselves 
and  their  successors  have  leased  and  granted  to  the  said 
Abbot  and  their  successors  in  name  of  a  perpetual  exchange 
live  acres  of  their  land  whereof  three  acres  lie  in  the  south 
field  of  Caldecote,  between  the  land  of  the  Lord  of  Newentun 
on  the  south  side,  and  the  land  of  William  de  Tedepenne 
abutting  on  the  road  from  Cottenhulle  on  the  north  side. 
And  one  acre  lies  between  the  land  of  Walter  Petyth  on 
either  side  abutting  on  to  the  muleweye  towards  the  west, 
and  on  to  the  land  of  the  said  Abbot  and  Convent  on  the 
east.  And  one  acre  lies  between  the  land  of  Andrew  Miller, 
and  the  land  of  John  Richer  de  Kyngescot,  and  abuts  on  the 
land  of  the  same  Abbot  and  Convent  to  the  north,  and  on 
the  Bath  road  to  the  south. 

228  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

To  hold  and  to  have  the  said  five  acres  of  land  with 
appurtenances  to  the  said  Abbot  and  Convent  and  their 
successors  freely  quietly  well  and  in  peace  from  the  said 
Prior  and  the  Brethren  of  the  same  place  and  their  suc- 
cessors for  ever.  But  the  said  Abbot  and  Convent  for 
themselves  and  their  successors,  to  the  Prior  and  Brethren 
of  the  same  place  and  their  successors,  as  also  the  said  Prior 
and  Brethren  for  themselves  and  their  successors,  to  the 
same  Abbot  and  Convent  and  their  successors,  will  warrant 
acquit  and  defend  for  ever  the  aforesaid  lands  with  their 
appurtenances  thus  alternately  exchanged.  And  if  it  should 
happen  that  the  above  mentioned  parties  shall  be  unable  to 
alternately  warrant  the  aforesaid  lands  with  their  appur- 
tenances as  is  aforesaid,  or  if  they  shall  be  hindered  by  royal 
or  chief  Lords,  or  by  any  other,  in  reason  whereby  the  said 
exchange,  as  is  described  above,  cannot  hold,  it  may  be 
lawful  for  both  parties  to  revert  to  their  own  lands  as  they 
were  before  the  exchange  and  to  hold  them  as  they  had 
them  before  without  any  claim  or  contradiction  of  the  parties 
predecessors  or  successors  In  witness  whereof  the  above 
named  parties  have  appended  their  seals  alternately  to  this 
hand-written  deed.  Given  in  the  Monastery  of  Kyngeswod 
in  the  year  and  day  above  mentioned. 

No.    XXX. 

In  the  year  of  our  Lord  1280  on  the  feast  of  St.  Michael 
it  was  thus  agreed  between  the  religious  men  the  Abbot  and 
Convent  of  Kyngeswode  on  the  one  part,  and  Thomas  de 
Haselcote  son  and  heir  of  the  late  Richard  de  Haselcote  on 
the  other  part,  namely  that  the  aforesaid  Abbot  and  Convent 
have  given  and  for  themselves  and  their  successors  have 
leased  and  granted  unto  the  aforesaid  Thomas  two  acres 
and  a  ferendel  of  land  with  appurtenances  in  the  fields  of 
Kyngescote,  whereof  three  ferendels  lie  in  the  vale  of 
Kyngescote  along  the  land  of  the  Rector  of  Beverston 
Church  on  one  side,  and  on  the  other,  near  the  land  of 
William  son  of  the  late   Richard  and  Amice  de  Kyngescote, 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     229 

and  one  acre  is  called  Blakenaker  in  the  same  field  King 
between  the  land  of  Nigel  son  of  the  late  Richard  Lord  of 
Kyngescote  on  the  east  and  the  land  of  the  late  Henry  de 
Mathcumbe  on  the  north,  and  one  half  acre  lies  in  the  same 
field  between  the  land  of  the  said  Thomas  on  either  side, 
namely  between  the  Croft  and  meadow  of  the  same.  To 
have  and  to  hold  the  said  two  acres  with  the  abovesaid 
ferendel  to  the  aforesaid  Thomas  and  his  heirs  or  assigns 
freely  quietly  well  and  in  peace  from  the  aforesaid  religious 
men  for  ever.  But  for  this  grant,  lease,  and  concession,  the 
said  Thomas  has  given  and  for  himself  and  his  heirs  or 
assigns  has  leased  and  granted  to  the  aforesaid  religious  men 
and  their  successors  by  name  of  an  exchange  two  acres  and 
a  half  of  land  in  the  field  of  Newyntun,  whereof  one  acre 
lies  at  the  Wynch  of  the  said  religious  men,  between  the 
lands  of  the  same  on  either  side.  And  the  other  lies  in  the 
cultivated  land  of  Popethorn,  between  the  land  of  the  late 
Andrew  Muller  on  the  east,  and  the  land  of  the  above-named 
Thomas  on  the  west,  and  half  an  acre  lies  at  Fiscleshole 
between  the  land  of  the  late  John  Richard  on  the  east,  and 
the  land  of  the  aforesaid  monks  on  the  north.  To  have  and 
to  hold  the  aforesaid  two  acres  and  a  half  of  land  with 
appurtenances  to  the  aforesaid  religious  men  and  their 
successors  freely  quietly  well  and  in  peace  from  the  aforesaid 
Thomas  and  his  heirs  for  ever.  But  the  said  religious  men 
for  themselves  and  their  successors  to  the  often-mentioned 
Thomas  and  his  heirs  or  assigns,  and  the  aforesaid  Thomas 
for  himself  and  his  heirs  to  the  same  religious  men,  will 
warrant  acquit  and  defend  the  aforesaid  lands  with  their 
appurtenances  mutually  exchanged  in  the  above-mentioned 
manner  for  ever.  And  if  it  should  happen  that  the  above- 
named  parties  are  unable  mutually  to  warrant  the  aforesaid 
lands  with  their  appurtenances  as  is  aforesaid  or  even  should 
be  reasonably  hindered  by  royal  or  chief  lords  or  by  any 
others  wdiereby  the  said  exchange  as  is  described  above 
cannot  hold,  it  may  be  lawful  for  either  party  to  revert  to 
their  own   lands  as  they  were  before  the  exchange  and  to 

230  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

hold  them  as  they  held  them  before,  without  any  claim  or 
contradiction  of  the  parties  or  of  their  successors  or  heirs. 
In  witness  whereof  the  often-mentioned  have  mutually 
appended  their  seals  to  this  manuscript  writing. 

Given    on    the   year    and    day    above    mentioned    in    the 
Grange  of  the  said  Monks  of  Caldecote. 

No.    XXXI. 

In  the  10th  year  of  the  reign  of  King  Edward  on  the  day 
of  St.  Cyricus  and  St.  Julita  (16th  June)  it  was  thus  agreed 
between  the  Abbot  and  Convent  of  Kyngeswod  on  the  one 
part,  and  Henry  Passelewe  of  Rodmarton  on  the  other, 
namely  that  the  Abbot  and  Convent  have  leased  and  for 
themselves  and  their  successors  have  granted  to  the  said 
Henry  for  term  of  his  life  four  acres  of  land  in  the  field  of 
Rodmarton  which  indeed  they  had  by  grant  of  the  late 
William  de  Rodmarton,  called  Le  Knyth.  Whereof,  to  wit, 
two  acres  lie  in  the  north  field  at  La  Seyorthforlong  between 
the  lands  of  John  Brachel  on  the  south  side,  and  the  lands 
belonging  to  the  lamp  of  St.  Mary  in  the  Abbey  of  Cyren- 
cester  on  the  north  side,  and  two  acres  lie  in  the  south  field 
between  the  lands  of  John  Brachel  on  the  east,  and  the  lands 
of  Richard  In  la  Lane  on  the  west,  and  extend  on  to  the  wall 
lying  near  the  road  from  Rodmarton  towards  Bristol.  To 
have  and  to  hold  the  said  four  acres  with  all  their  appur- 
tenances to  the  said  Henry  for  term  of  his  life  from  the  said 
Abbot  and  Convent  freely  quietly  well  and  in  peace.  So  that 
after  term  of  life  of  the  said  Henry,  the  said  four  acres, 
without  hindrance  from  the  heirs  of  the  said  Henry,  shall 
return  peaceably  to  the  said  Abbot  and  Convent,  excepting 
however  the  crop  of  the  aforesaid  land  if  it  should  be  at 
that  time  sown,  to  the  heirs  or  assigns  of  the  said  Henry. 
And  that  this  agreement  may  remain  ratified  and  stable  all 
the  aforesaid  term  the  parties  have  mutually  appended  their 
seals  on  the  chirographic  writing. 

Witnesses  John  le   Bruth  Lord  of  Weston,  Philip  de  la 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     231 

Hulla    of  Snyptone,    William,    Lord    of   Rodmarton,    James 

Folyoth,     Henry     Constaunce,     Henry     le     Feeman,     and 

others.     (1282.) 

No.  XXXII. 

Let    present    and    future  know   that   I   Henry  Passelewe 
of   Rodmerton  for  God  and  the  salvation  of  my  soul  have 
given  granted  and  by  this   present  charter  have  confirmed 
to  God    and  the  Church  of   St.   Mary  of  Kyngeswude    and 
the  Monks  there   serving  God  in   pure    free    and    perpetual 
alms  three    acres    and  a  half  of  arable  land  in  the  field  of 
Culcretun,  whereof  two  acres   extend  on   to   Stonhulle  and 
lie    between    the  land   of    the  said    Abbot   and   convent   on 
the  north,  and  the  land  of  Richard  Launcing  on  the  south, 
and  one  half  acre  at   La   Butine  lies   between  the  land  of 
the   late  Walter   Bernard    on    the    south,   and    the   land    of 
the  late  Walter  Suth  on  the  north,  and   another  half   acre 
is  at  Smalthorne,  and   lies    between    the    land    of  the    said 
Abbot  and  Convent  on  the   west,  and  the  land  of  the  late 
John  Suth  on  the  east,   and  one  half  acre  is   in   the  same 
furlong  and  lies  between  the  land  of  the  late  Walter  Suth 
on  the  west,  and  the  land,  of  the  late  Henry  Peris  on  the  east. 
To  hold  and  to  have  the  said  three  acres  and  a  half  with  all 
their   appurtenances   to    the    said   Abbot   and    Convent    and 
their    successors    and    to    the   said  Church  of   Kyngeswude 
from    me    and    my   heirs    freely    quietly    well    and    in    peace 
as  pure  and  perpetual  alms  as   far  as  pertains  to  me.     So 
that  they  never  be  answerable   to   any   man    for  the  same, 
but    to   God    alone    in    prayers,   saving   one   penny  payable 
yearly  on  the  feast  of  St.  John  Baptist  to  Roger  Le  Freman 
of  Culcretun  and  his  heirs  for  all  services,  secular  exaction, 
or  demands.     And  I  Henry  and  my  heirs  will  warrant  acquit 
and  defend  by  the  said  service  the  said  3  acres  and  a  half 
with   all   their   appurtenances  to  the  said    Monks  and  their 
successors  against  all  mortals  for  ever.       And  that  this  my 
gift    grant    and    confirmation    of    my    present    charter    may 
be  ratified  and  stable  for  ever   I     have  appended    my   seal 
to  this  writing. 

232  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

Witnesses  John  de  Hamekyntone,  Elias  Kokerel,  William 
de  Rodmertun,  Roger  de  Bley,  James  Folioth,  John  Neel, 
Roger  de  Lonwesmere,  and  others. 


Account  of  Brother  William  de  Cumb,  Warden  of  the 
Grange  of  Charteshull,  of  Baggestone,  of  Hull,  of  Aldrinctun, 
at  Christmas  1289. 

And  received  £"8  10s.  gd.  for  18  oxen.  Also  received 
30s.  for  4  cows.  Also  received  69s.  for  16  stone  of  wool. 
Also  received  36s.  for  24  sheep.  Also  received  8s.  for  a 
Bull.  Also  received  i8d.  for  5  calves.  Also  received  for 
1  stone  of  cheese  8s.  Also  received  i8d.  for  3  casks  of 
butter.     Also  received  6s.  for  10  horse  skins.         ^"17  14s.  gd. 

Then  in  19  oxen  £\o  6s.  iod.  Also  in  4  Cows  15s.  2d. 
Also  in  4  bullocks  12s.  Also  in  1  heifer  4s.  Also  in 
24  sheep  48s.  Also  in  42  ewes  42s.  Also  in  Hay  24s. 
Also  to  the  sub-cellarer  nd.  Also  in  my  expenses  and  my 
gifts  thro'  the  autumn  to  the  Monks  3s.  6d.  Also  in  wages 
for  Hibrdun  3s.  Also  in  increase  of  wages  for  Kele  iod* 
Also  in  wages  for  E.  Nereford  2od.  Also  in  wages  for 
E.  de  Sti  .  .  usenton  3s.  Also  in  table  for  the  lay-brothers 
4s.  6d.  Also  in  pittances  for  servants  against  Christmas 
and  against  the  feast  of  Pancras  3s.  3d.  The  expenses 
exceed  the  receipts  at  Chartishull  by  27s.  iod.  In  the 
year    89. 

Oxen  at  Ch(ertishull)  16  at  Baggestone  13  at  Hull  7 — 
price  for  each    13s.  4d.  Sum  ^24   13s.  4d. 

At  Alarintun.  —  Oxen  8  price  each  10s.  Sum  £\. 
Cows  22  price  each  5s.  Sum  4os(?).  Two  bulls  price  10s. 
1  bullock  of  3  year's  price  6s.  8d.  And  3  .  .  .  7  price  28s. 
Bullocks  of  2  years  2  male  and  i  female  price  6s.  Bullocks 
over  a  year  5  remaining  price  5s.  Calves  5  price  3s.  4d. 
Mares  5  price  45s.  Brood  mares  9  price  9s.  Sheep  90 
price  £\  5s.  Lambs  20  price  10s.  Total  price  dues  being 
extracted  ^44   14s.  4d. 

State  of  Baggestone. — Oxen  11,  and  bullocks  2,  cows  for 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     233 

the  yoke  4,  bull  1,  bullocks  7  of  4  years,  bullock  male  1  of 
3  years,  bullocks  male  3  of  2  years,  female  1  of  2  years, 
and  female   1   of   1    year,   heifers   2. 

State  of  Charteshull. — Oxen  14,  and  bullocks,  2  yoke  cows 
17,  bull  1,  bullocks  male  2  of  2  years,  female  1  of  1  year, 
calves  3 — 2  male  and  1   female,  heifer  1. 

State  of  Hull. — Oxen  7,  bullock  1,  yoke  cows  2,  bullocks 
3  of  2  years,  bullock  1  of  1  year,  calves  2,  heifers  2. 

State  of  Aldrinctun. — Oxen  8,  1  cow  at  the  sheephouse,. 
1  cow  at  the  cowhouse,  1  calf. 

on  the  back. 

Account  of  Brother  William  de  Cumb  of  the  Grange 
of  Charteshull,  of  Baggestone,  of  Hull,  of  Aldrinctun,  in 
the  year   of  our   Lord   1288. 

Items. — Received  from  7  oxen  of  his  own  sold  60  (£5). 
and  12s.  Received  also  from  1  heifer  of  his  own  sold  6s.  6d. 
Also  from  7  oxen  "horned"1  51s.  7d.  Also  from  7  cows 
sold  38s.  gd.  (41s.,  sic).  Also  from  2  heifers  15s.  6d.  Also 
received  from  8  calves  sold  4s.  Also  received  from  4  pigs  8s. 
Also  received  from  2  brood  mares  4s.  Also  received  from 
1  wey  of  cheese  8s  Also  from  4  casks  of  butter  i6d. 
Also   from    4   cowskins  and   from    1   oxskin  of  2   years  and 

1  calfskin  .  .  .  Also  received  from  4  mareskins  5s.  6d. 
Also   from  8  stone  of  wool   32s.         Sum  /13   13s.  gd. 

Then  in  2  mares  bought  16s.  Also  in  4  oxen  bought 
44s.  6d.  Also  in  8  oxen  bought  for  fattening  31s.  gd.  Also 
m  3  (?  5)  cows  bought  for  calving  22s.  gd.  Also  in  5  cows 
bought  for  fattening  22s.  4d.  Also  in  1  bullock  of  3 
years   4s.  4d.     Also  in   3   bullocks,   1    of  3   years,  and    1    of 

2  years,  and  1  of  1  year,  6s.  (?  8s.)  Also  in  3  heifers 
2    for    fattening    and    1    for   calving   10s.    6d.      Also  in  four 

1  Crochunct.  I  have  suggested  horned  from  the  old  Latin  word 
crocha,  a  hook;  but  perhaps  the  old  French  word  crochere— joug, 
— "  morceau  de  bois  courbe'  du  Ton  attache  les  boeufs"  [s.v.  yoke) 
(Roquefort's  glossary) — is  the  foundation  of  the  word.  Hence  the 
meaning  yoke  oxen.  But  I  have  given  in  other  parts  yoke  oxen  as 
the  equivalent  of  boves  adjuncti  (conf.   Du  Gange). 

234  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

pigs  bought  6s.  Also  in  20  sheep  and  31  ewes  61s.  8d. 
Also  in  servants'  wages  in  various  places  34s.  4d.  Also 
in  table  of  lay  Brothers  4s.  2d.  Also  in  "  Colurs "  2d. 
Also  in  "Beches"  4d.  Also  in  gifts  to  servants  6d.  Also 
to  Robert  de  Yet  i2d.  Also  to  the  sub-cellarer  i2d.  Also 
for  the  meadow  of  .  .  .  vel  3s.  6d.  Also  in  my  expenses 
in  the  Autumn  and  in  gifts  throughout  the  Grange  3s.  2d. 
Also  in  wages  for  Hebed  2s.  4d.  Also  in  wages  for  Nereferd 
2s.  6d.  Also  for  Monks  and  sick  lay  brothers  and  in  my 
expenses  throughout  the  place  2s.  gd.  Also  in  rents  5s.  6d. 
Sum  ^"14  7s.  4d.  (?i5s.  7d.)  And  the  expenses  exceed 
the  receipts  21s.  7^d. 

Memorandum    of    3  mares   dead    at    Baggestone    and   of 

1  cow  dead  at  Charteshull  and  of  2  bullocks  of  2  years 
and  of  1  calf  the  same.  Also  memorandum  of  3  cows 
delivered  for  the   Larder. 

State  of  Charteshull  &c.  at  Christmas  1288. — Charteshull 
12  oxen,  Baggestone  11  oxen,  Hull  7  oxen,  Aldrincton  7  oxen, 

2  bulls  price  8s.  24  cows,  namely  at  Charteshul  14,  at 
Baggeston  6,  at  Hull  2,  at  the  sheephouse  2.     Bullocks  of 

3  years  7 — namely  at  Baggeston  3,  at  Charteshul  2,  at 
Hull  2.  Heifers  of  3  years  7,  bullocks  of  1  year  4,  and 
heifers  of  1  year  calves  5,  mares  6,  brood  mares  at  Bagge- 
stone 19,  ewes  31,  sheep  20.     Bullocks  of  3  years  2. 

These    are    the    debtors    of    Brother    W.    de    Cumbe    at 

Christmas  1288: — Walter  Wytink  and  Henry  de  Bredebrug' 

32s. — and    Walter    Cook    12s.    2d.    and    his    brother    "  con- 

versus "  swineherd  with  Master  John   C     ...    9s.     A  lay 

brother  of  Charteshul   12s.  William   Kniht  of  Hull   12s.  6d. 

Robert  Sale  16s.    Cristina  de  Cumb  3s.    William  de  Brug- 

geaunt  3s. 

No.    XXXIV. 

Let  present  and  future  know  that  I  Ralph  Mucator  of 
Solbir  (Sodbury)  for  God  and  the  salvation  of  my  soul  have 
given  granted  and  by  the  present  charter  confirmed  to  God 
and  the  Church  of  the  Blessed  Mary  of  Kyngeswode  and  to 
the  monks  there  serving  God  in  perpetual  and  free  alms  that 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     235 

burgage  with  all  its  appurtenances  in  the  borough  of  Solbir, 
which  lies  between  the  land  of  Walter  son  of  Nicholas, 
Clerk  on  the  west  side  near  the  bridge  which  is  towards 
the  house  which  was  Ralph  de  Rupe's  on  one  side,  and 
that  bank  which  flows  into  in  the  fishpond  from  the  said 
bridge  on  the  other  side  in  the  same  vill.  To  have  and 
to  hold  the  same  burgage  with  all  its  appurtenances  and 
liberties  and  free  customs  pertaining  to  the  aforesaid  land, 
to  the  said  monks  and  their  successors  freely  and  quietly, 
wholly  and  honorably,  well  and  in  peace,  for  ever.  Paying 
for  it  annually  to  me  and  my  heirs  on  the  feast  of  St.  Michael 
one  pair  of  gloves  of  the  price  of  one  penny  for  all  services, 
suits  of  court,  and  hundreds,  and  all  secular  demands. 
But  I  and  my  heirs  will  warrant  to  the  said  monks  and 
their  successors,  and  to  the  said  Church  of  Kyngeswod, 
the  aforesaid  land  with  all  appurtenances  and  before-named 
liberties  against  all  mortals  and  will  acquit  them  of  all 
services  which  may  issue  from  the  same  for  ever.  And 
that  this  my  grant  and  concession  may  remain  ratified 
and  stable.  I  have  appended  my  seal  to  this  writing. 
Witnesses  John  de  Actune,  William  de  Frompton,  Adam 
Pistor,  Benedict  de  Dodintun,  Thomas  Carpenter,  Henry 
Bunz,   Henry  Cokhil,  and  others. 

No.    XXXV. 

Let  present  and  future  know  that  I  Jordan  de  Budeford 
for  God,  and  the  safety  of  my  soul,  have  granted  and  by  the 
present  charter  have  confirmed  to  God  and  the  Church  of 
the  Blessed  Mary  of  Kyngeswode  and  the  monks  there 
serving  God  in  pure  and  perpetual  alms  the  grant  of 
Geoffrey  de  Budeford  my  father  by  his  charter  confirmed 
to  the  said  monks  containing  these  words:  "Let  present 
and  future  know  that  I  Geoffrey  de  Budeford  for  love  of 
God  and  for  the  salvation  of  my  soul  have  given  and 
granted  to  the  monks  of  Kyngeswud  in  pure  and  perpetual 
alms,  one  cartload  of  hay  from  my  meadow  of  Auckesbury.1 

1  Hawkesbury. 

236  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

So  forsooth  that  when  I  or  my  heirs  have  made  hay  of  our 
meadow  and  wish  to  carry  our  hay,  the  aforesaid  monks 
by  their  servants  shall  come  with  one  cart,  and  fill  that 
cart  with  our  better  hay,  and  take  it  with  them  whither 
they  wish.  This  aforesaid  gift  I  have  granted  and  given 
to  the  aforesaid  monks  of  Kyngeswud  with  the  consent 
of  my  heirs  for  love  of  God  to  be  received  from  me  or  my 
heirs  every  year  for  ever.  And  I  and  my  heirs  will  make 
known  each  year  to  the  aforesaid  monks  when  we  wish  to 
carry  the  hay  of  my  meadow,  that  they  may  come  and 
receive  their  hay.  And  let  it  be  known,  that  though  our 
meadow  which  we  have  for  the  time,  be  turned  into  arable 
land  the  aforesaid  monks  shall  receive  the  rent  of  hay  in 
the  better  place  in  which  we  have  a  meadow."  Wherefore 
I  Jordan  de  Budeford  wish  and  grant  for  me  and  my  heirs 
and  confirm  that  the  aforesaid  monks  may  receive  freely 
every  year  the  aforesaid  cartload  of  hay,  as  by  the  grant 
of  Geoffrey  my  father  was  aforesaid.  And  that  the  afore- 
said charter  may  obtain  strength  of  confirmation  I  and  my 
heirs  will  warrant  and  defend  the  said  gift  to  the  said  monks 
for  ever,  against  all  men  and  women.  And  that  this  my 
confirmation  may  remain  ratified  and  stable  I  have 
appended  my  seal  to  the  present  writing.  Witnesses  Dom 
William  Le  Maunsel,  John  De  Waunton,  Robert  le  Veel, 
Knights  ;  Elias  de  Cumbe,  Yvo  de  Cumbe,  Thomas  le  Archer, 
Richard  de  Colewiohe,  and  others. 

No.  XXXVI. 

In  the  year  of  our  Lord  1302  on  the  feast  of  St.  Michael 
it  was  thus  agreed  between  the  religious  men  the  Abbot  and 
Convent  of  Kyngeswode  on  the  one  part,  and  Laurence  de 
Brome  on  the  other,  namely  that  the  aforesaid  Laurence  by 
consent  and  wish  of  Agnes  his  wife  has  given  and  for  himself 
and  his  heirs  has  leased  and  granted  to  the  said  Abbot  and 
Convent  and  their  successors  twelve  acres  and  a  half  and  a 
ferendel  of  his  land  with  appurtenances  lying  in  the  fields 
of  Caldecote  in  various  parcels,  of  which  forsooth  certain 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     237 

portions    lie    in    the    North    field,   namely   one    portion    near 
La  Leyhtonacre  on  the  south  part,  and  two  other  portions 
whereof  one   lies  in    the    eastern    part    of  the   land    of   the 
Lord  of  Lasseberewe,  and  the  other  in  the  west  part  of  the 
same  land.    And  one  portion  lies  near  Le  Homelonde  in  the 
south  part.     And  on    two  other   portions  Hyldebrondesslad 
extends.     And  one  portion  lies  at  Wowelande  near  the  land 
of  the   aforesaid  religious    men,  which  they  sometime  held 
from  Walter  Petyt  in  exchange,  in  the  western  part     And 
one  portion    lies    on    Slepareshulle    abutting   on    the    path 
leading  from  Caldecote  towards  Kyngescote   from  the  land 
of  the  then    Lady  of   Newenton.      And  one  portion  lies  at 
Haselgrovethornes  stretching  one  head  on  Le  Rugweye  and 
another  on  the  Lower  Haycroft.     But  other  portions  lie  in 
the  South  field  whereof  forsooth  one  lies  at  the  Tumbrell  of 
the  said  religious  men,  near  the  land  of  the  same,  abutting 
one  head  to  the  north  another  to  the  south     And  a  second 
lies  against  Godescroft  stretching  one  head  from  the  western 
part  on  to  the  path  leading  from  Newynton  towards  Calde- 
cote.    And  a  third  portion  lies  at  Popethorne  which  is  called 
Gorbrodelond.  And  a  fourth  portion  lies  at  Slauhterslade  which 
similarly  is  called  Gorbrodelond,  and  abuts  from  the  west  on 
to  the  Kings  Street,  leading  towards  Bath.     To  have  and  to 
hold    the  said  twelve  acres  and  a  half  and  one  ferendel  of 
land    to    the  said  Abbot  and  Convent  and  their  successors 
freely  quietly  well  and  in  peace  from  the  chief  Lords  of  the 
fee  for   ever.     But   for  this  gift,  lease,  and  grant,  the  said 
Abbot  and  Convent  have  given  and  for  themselves  and  their 
successors  have  leased,  and  granted,  to  the  aforesaid  Laurence 
and  his  heirs  by  name  of  exchange,  twelve  acres  and  a  half 
and  one  ferendel  of  land  with  appurtenances  in  the   North 
and  South  fields  of  Baggepath  lying  also  in  various  parcels, 
of  which    certain    portions  indeed    lie  in  the  South  field   of 
Baggepath,  namely  between  Baggepath  and  Yrcumbe.     One 
portion  lies  in  Stepforlong  extending  towards  the  north  on 
Hungersforlong      And    a    second    portion   lies   in    the    same 
Stepforlong,    extending    like    the    other    northward,    which 

238  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

portions  indeed,  an  acre  of  someone  else's  separates.  And 
one  portion  lies  in  Hungersforlong,  stretching  one  head 
towards  Baggepath,  and  another  towards  the  meadow  of 
Newenton.  And  one  portion  lies  in  Brokeleyesflad  so  called. 
And  one  portion  lies  in  another  field  of  Baggepath,  namely  in 
the  furlong  at  Fragnum,  extending  on  the  vill  of  Baggepath, 
And  one  portion  lies  in  Hosmareleyeclive,  in  a  third  field  of 
Baggepath,  namely  under  the  same  vill  between  the  land  of 
the  aforesaid  Laurence  on  both  sides  extending  northwards 
on  to  the  croft  of  the  aforesaid  Laurence.  And  another 
portion  lies  on  the  croft  of  the  aforesaid  Laurence  at 
Tonewelle.  And  one  portion  lies  in  the  same  field  under  two 
crofts  of  the  same  Laurence  lengthwise  at  the  aforesaid 
Tonewelle.  To  have  and  to  hold  the  aforesaid  twelve  acres 
and  a  half  and  a  ferendel  of  land  with  appurtenances,  to 
the  aforesaid  Laurence  and  his  heirs  or  assigns  freely  quietly 
well  and  in  peace  from  the  chief  Lords  of  the  fee  for  ever. 
Moreover  the  said  Abbot  and  Convent  for  themselves  and 
their  successors,  to  the  said  Laurence  and  his  heirs  or 
assigns,  as  also  the  said  Laurence  for  himself  and  his  heirs, 
to  the  aforesaid  religious  men  and  their  successors,  will 
warrant  acquit  and  defend  for  ever  all  the  said  lands  with 
their  appurtenances  mutually  exchanged  in  the  manner 
above-mentioned.  And  if  it  should  happen  that  the  afore- 
said parties  should  be  reasonably  hindered  by  the  royal  or 
chief  Lords  or  others,  whereby  the  said  exchange  as  is  set 
forth  above,  cannot  hold,  let  it  be  lawful  for  either  party  to 
revert  to  their  own  lands  as  they  were  before  the  exchange, 
and  as  they  before  held  them,  without  any  claim  or  contradic- 
tion of  the  parties  or  their  heirs.  In  witness  whereof  the 
often-named  parties  have  mutually  appended  their  seals  to 
this  chirograph  writing.  Witnesses  William  de  Dene  Lord 
of  Lassebrewe,  Nigel  de  Kyngescote,  Walter  Petyt,  Thomas 
de  Haselcot,  Robert  Trylly,  and  many  others. 

Given  in  the  Monastery  of  Kingswood  on  the  year  and 
day  above  mentioned. 

Cistercian*  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     239 

No.    XXXVII. 

Petition  to  the  King  and  the  Council  from  the  Abbot 
and  Convent  of  Kingswood  for  redress  against  John  de 
Anesleye  who  by  coverture  of  the  Lady  of  Chirinton  whom 
he  had  espoused,  holds  himself  to  be  Lord  of  Chirinton  and 
in  spite  of  a  composition  made  of  old  time  between  the  said 
Abbey  and  the  Lords  Chirinton  concerning  certain  common 
of  pasture,  has  erected  a  fence  and  enclosed  part  of  the  com- 
mon to  the  serious  grievance  of  the  said  Abbey  and  the 
Abbey's  sheep  and  cattle.     Undated.     Tern.   E.  III. 

No.     XXXVIII. 

This  indenture,  made  at  Berkeley  on  Monday  the  Feast 
of  St.  Mary  Magdaline,  in  the  twenty-seventh  year  of  the 
reign  of  Edward  the  third  after  the  conquest,  between 
William  brother  and  heir  of  Thomas  de  Swonhunger  of 
the  one  part,  and  John  Seriaunt  the  younger  of  the  other. 
Witnesseth  that  the  aforesaid  William  and  John  have  made 
the  partition  and  division  of  all  the  tenements  lands  and 
rents  which  they  held  in  common  on  the  day  of  the  making 
of  these  presents  in  the  vill  and  hamlets  of  Ham,  Cam, 
Stinchcomb,  Kingscote,  and  Haselcote,  except  the  fishery  in 
Severn  which  is  excepted  from  this  partition,  and  will  remain 
in  common,  that  the  said  William  shall  have  and  hold  to  him 
and  his  heirs  all  the  tenements,  lands,  and  rents,  in  Kingscote 
and  Haselcote  severally,  that  is  to  say  five  shillings  of  annual 
rent  to  be  taken  from  the  land  of  William  Thomas,  and  two 
crofts  called  le  Rocdecroftes  in  Kyngescote,  and  half  a  rod  of 
land  in  Haselcote.  And  the  said  John  shall  have  and  hold  to 
him  for  his  whole  life  as  tenant  by  the  courtesy  of  England 
in  law  the  heritage  of  Joan  daughter  of  the  said  John  all  the 
tenements  lands  and  rents  and  reversions  in  Ham,  Cam,  and 
Stinchcomb,  that  is  to  say,  the  services  and  two  shillings  of 
annual  rent  to  be  taken  from  the  land  of  William  son  and 
heir  of  John  Passemir  with  wards  marriages  escheates  and 
all  other  appurtenances  and  eight  shillings  rent  to  be  taken 

240  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

from    the   land    of   William    Le    Longe    together    with   the 

reversion  of  the  fourth  part  of  a  rod  of  land  after  the  death 

of  the  said  William  as  it  sh.ill  fall  in  Cam,  and  Stinchcomb, 

and  one  parcel  of  meadow  lying  near  the  meadow  called  Le 

Longemed    in    the    vill    of   Ham.      In    witness    whereof   the 

above-named  parties  have    interchangeably    put    their   seals 

to  these  indentures.     Witnesses  John  Capel,  John  Purlewent, 

John  Draicote,  Stephen  Kyneltre,  and  others. 

These  indentures  written    on   the   year  and  date   above. 

(July  22,  1353.) 

No.    XXXIX. 

This  is   the  covenant  made  at  Berkeley  the  first  day  of 
May  in  the  year  of  King  Edward  the  third  after  the  conquest 
the  third,   between  John   son   of  John   de   Swonhungre  and 
Alice  his  wife  of  the  one  part,  and  John   son   of  John   Le 
Seriaunt  and  Joan  his  wife  on  the  other  part,  daughter  and 
heir  of  Thomas  de  Stone,  that  is  to  say  that  John  the  son  of 
John    de    Swonhungre    and   Alice  his   wife    have    .    .    .    and 
released  for  themselves  and   for   their  heirs  for  ever  to  the 
said  John  son  of  John  le  Seriaunt  and  Joan  his  wife,  all  their 
right  and  claim  which  they  had  in  all  the  messuages  lands 
and    tenements  in  Olverstone,   Netterstone,  and  Woodford, 
which  belong  to  them  of  the  heritage  of  the  aforesaid  Thomas 
de  Stone  as  in  messuages,  lands,  meadows,  pastures,  commons, 
woods,  fisheries,  and  rents,  together  with  all  the  reversions  of 
all  the  tenements  which  the  tenants  hold  for  term  of  their 
life,  and  the  heriots  and  other  profits  arising  from  the  said 
tenants  with  all  their  appurtenances. 

To  have  and  to  hold  all  the  aforesaid  messuages,  lands, 
tenements,  meadows,  pastures,  commons,  woods,  fisheries,  and 
rents,  together  with  all  the  reversions  of  all  the  tenements 
which  the  tenants  hold  for  term  of  their  life,  with  the  heriots 
and  other  profits  of  the  said  tenants  with  all  the  appurte- 
nances to  the  aforesaid  John  son  of  John  Seriaunt  and  to  Joan 
his  wife  and  to  the  heirs  of  the  said  John  forever,  without  any 
retention,  except  the  rent  of  Thomas  le  Whyte  together  with 
the  reversion  of  the  particular  tenements  which  he  holds  in 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     241 

Stone,  and  in  Woodford,  of  the  heritage  aforesaid,  as  it  shall 
fall,  of  the  chief  Lordships  of  the  fee  by  the  rents  and  services 
which  pertain  to  the  aforesaid  tenements.     And  the  aforesaid 
John  son  of  John  le  Seriaunt  and  Joan  his  wife  will  and  grant 
for  themselves  and  the  heirs  of  the  said  Joan,  that  they  be 
charged  to  perform  their  rents  and  services  which  pertained 
to    the    chief   Lordships   of  the    tenements    which   the   said 
Thomas  le  Whyte  holds  in  Stone  and  in  Woodford.     And 
by  this  grant  and  release  the  aforesaid  John  son  of  John  le 
Seriaunt  and  Joan  his  wife  have  granted  and  released  to  the 
aforesaid  John  son  of  John  le  Swonhungre  and  to  Alice  his 
wife    all    their   right   and  claim   which   they   had  in   all    the 
messuages  lands  and  tenements  in  Wanswell  which  belong 
to  them  of  the  heritage  of  the  aforesaid  Thomas  de  Stone  as 
in  lands  meadows  pastures  commons  woods  fisheries  rents 
and  reversions  and  all  the  appurtenances,  except  all  the  land 
which   lies   in   Burifeld,    in  Calchushull,    Ricardescroft,   and 
fourteen  acres  of  land  in  Wyndmullefeld,  in  all  the  meadow 
in    Longemede,    and    in    Eghammore,    together    with    forty 
shillings    rent    issuing    from     a    virgate  (?)    of   land    which 
William  de  Swonhungre  holds  for  term  of  his  life,  with  the 
reversion  of  the  said  "  virgee  "  of  land  after  the  said  William's 
death  in  proportion  as  it  shall  fall  with  all  the  appurtenances. 
To  have  and  to  hold  all  the  aforesaid  messuages  lands  and 
tenements    as   in   lands   meadows   pastures  commons  woods 
fisheries    rents    and  reversions  with    all    the   appurtenances 
to  the  aforesaid  John  son  of  John  de  Swonhungre  and  to 
Alice  his  wife  and  to  the  heirs  of  the  said  Alice   for  ever, 
except  all  the  land  in  Buryfield,  Calcheshulle,  Ricardescroft 
fourteen  acres  of  land  in  Wyndmullefeld,  and  all  the  meadow 
of    Longgemed,    and    in    Eghammore,    together    with    forty 
shillings   rent    issuing    from    a    "  vergee "    of    land    which 
William   de    Swonhungre    holds    for   term    of   his    life,   with 
the   reversion   of  the  said  "vergee"  of  land   after  the  said 
William's  death   as   it   shall   fall   then    with    all   the    appur- 
tenances.    The  which  lands  meadows  rents  and  reversions 
with    all   the   appurtenances   shall    remain    to    the    aforesaid 

Vol.  XXII. 

242  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

John  son  of  John  le  Seriaunt  and  Joan  his  wife  and  the  heirs 
of  the  said  Joan  for  ever  paying  for  them  yearly  to  the  chief 
lordships  ...  for  all  services  and  demands.  And  the 
aforesaid  John  son  of  John  de  Swonhungre  and  Alice  his 
wife  will  and  grant  for  them  and  for  the  heirs  of  .  .  .  which 
to  the  chief  lordships  belong  of  all  the  land  in  Calchushulle, 
Richardescroft,  fourteen  acres  of  land  in  Wyndmullefeld,  and 
'the  whole  meadow  of  Longgemede,  and  in  Eghammore.  So 
nevertheless  that  all  the  land,  rents,  and  reversions,  which 
Elyanora  de  Stone  mother  of  the  aforesaid  Alice  and  Joan 
held  in  Kyngescote,  remain  entirely  to  the  aforesaid  John 
son  of  John  de  Swonhungre  and  Alice  his  wife  and  John  son 
of  John  le  Seriaunt  and  Joan  his  wife  and  to  the  heirs  of  the 
aforesaid  Alice  and  Joan  by  reasonable  portion  for  ever. 
In  witness  whereof  the  seals  of  the  parties  are  interchange- 
ably put  to  this  indenture.  Witnesses  John  Capel,  William 
Capel,  John  Wynch,  John  de  Egeton,  Robert  de  Asshelworth, 
William  Gylemyre,  Thomas  de  Crawlegh,  and  others. 

Given  at  Berkeley  on  year  and  day  above  named. 
(May    1,   1329.) 

No.  XL. 


Memorandum. — That  Dom.  Roger  de  Berkeley  Lord  of 
Dursley  gave  to  Thomas  de  Rocheford  the  manor  of  Osle- 
worth  by  charter  containing  these  words  :  "  Let  present 
and  future  know  that  I  Robert  de  Berkeleye  have  granted 
and  by  this  present  charter  confirmed  to  Thomas  de 
Rochefford,  for  his  homage  and  service,  the  manor  of 
Osleworth.      To  have  and  to  hold,"  &c. 

Afterwards,  Thomas  de  Rochefford  granted  to  Henry  de 
Billesbi  the  same  manor  by  his  charter  containing  these 
words  :  "  Let  present  &c.  know  that  I  Thomas  de  Roche- 
fford have  granted  ...  all  that  tenement  in  Osleworth 
with  all  right  and  lordship  which  falls  or  may  fall  to  me 
after  the  death  of  ...  To  hold  and  to  have  to  the  said 
Henry  and  his  heirs  or  assigns,  or  to  whomsoever  he  may 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     243 

assign  or  bequeath  the  same — with  reliefs,  wards  and  all 
other  escheats  &c.  —  freely  and  quietly  from  all  pleas, 
complaints,  aids,  demands,  and  customs,  &c.  Paying  for 
it  annually  to  me  and  my  heirs  one  pair  of  gloves,  or  one 
penny,  at  Easter  for  all  services,  suits,  customs,  and  demand?, 
excepting  foreign  service,  pertaining  to  the  aforesaid  tene- 

Afterwards  Master  Henry  de  Billesby  gave  the  aforesaid 
manor  of  Osleworth  to  the  Abbot  and  Convent  and  Church 
of  the  Blessed  Mary  of  Kyngeswod.  To  have  and  to  hold 
by  the  same  service  altogether  by  which  the  said  Master 
Henry  held  it. 

Afterwards  the  aforesaid  William  de  Rochefford  brother 
and  heir  of  Thomas  de  Rochefford  confirmed  the  whole  gift 
of  the  said  Henry  of  the  said  manor  to  the  Abbey  Convent 
and  Church  of  Kyngeswod  in  free  pure  and  perpetual  alms. 
And  as  for  him,  so  for  his  heirs,  he  remitted  and  quitclaimed 
the  annual  rent  of  one  pair  of  gloves  of  the  value  of  one 
penny,  or  one  penny  to  the  aforesaid  Church  Abbot  and 
Convent.  To  have  and  to  hold  the  same  as  free  pure  and 
perpetual  alms  for  .  .  .  customs  and  demands,  saving 
however  foreign  service. 

Afterwards  Dom.  Henry  de  Berkeleye  .  .  .  confirmed 
the  said  manor  to  God  and  the  Church  of  the  Blessed 
Mary  .  .  .  free  and  quit  of  all  services  and  customs 
saving  foreign  service     .     .     . 

William  de  la  Home  gave  to  the  Church  .  .  .  the 
tenement  of  La  Home  with  all  its  appurtenances  in 
free  pure  and  perpetual  alms  which  tenement  the  said 
William  de  la  Home  (had  from)  Jordon  de  la  Warre 
Lord  of  Cnolle  and  his  ancestors  for  the  service  of  one 
pound  of  pepper  for  all  services.  Which  pound  of  pepper 
the  said  Jordan  has  remitted,  and  confirmed  the  said 
tenement  of  La  Home  from  himself  and  his  successors 
in  pure  and  perpetual  alms  to  the  said  Church  for  ever. 
Moreover  Dom.  John  de  Berkeley  son  and  heir  of  Henry  de 
Berkeley  has  confirmed  all  the  lands  and  possessions  in  free 

244  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

pure  and  perpetual  alms  which  the  same  Abbot  and  Convent 
have  in  the  tenure  of  Newynton. 


Account  of  the  Cellarer  of  Bagg  in  the  year  of  our 
Lord  131 1  : — In  purse  namely  4s.  6d.  And  received  of 
42s.  for  two  oxen  sold.  And  of  16s.  for  one  Bull  sold.  And  of 
6s.  6d.  for  5  calves  sold.  And  from  6s.  6d.  for  cheese  sold. 
Sum  ^4  5s. 

Then  in  2  oxen  bought  39s.  6d.  And  in  hay  bought  16s. 
And  in  wages  for  cowherd  3s.  5d.  And  in  pittance  and  gloves 
6£d.  And  in  geese  bought  4s.  Sum  63s.  5^d.  And  the 
receipts  exceed  the  expenditure  22s.  6Jd.  Then  for  12 
oxen  remaining  in  the  last  account  and  from  2  above 
bought,  sum  14s.  Then  in  above  sold  2  and  remain  12 
value  13s.  4d.         Sum  £&. 

Also  received  from  12  cows  remaining  and  from  1  yolk- 
cow  sum  13.  Then  in  1  killed  and  remain  12  value 
per  head  5s.  Sum  60s.  The  same  received  from  1  bull 
remaining  and  from  1  for  the  yoke  sum  2  and  1  remains. 
Value  6s.  8d.  The  same  received  for  3  yearlings  and  two 
remain  value  3s.  each.  Sum  6s.  The  same  received  from 
one  bullock  remaining  and  a  bull  is  added  above  and 
nothing  remains.  The  same  received  for  3  calves  and 
there  remain  now  1  male  yearling  and  two  female  value  6s. 
The  same  received  from  1  female  bullock  (heifer)  and  is 
added  above.  The  same  received  from  1  bull  remaining 
and  value  remains  as  9s.  and  3  colts  value  returned  xxs. 
The  same  received  from  7  calves  from  issue.  Then  in  5 
above  sold   and   in    murrain    one,   and    2  remain  value   2s. 

And  from  one  foal  from  issue     .     .     .     s. 

Sum  of  the  whole   estate   with    what    remains    in   purse 

^14  8s.  2^d. 

Hulle. — Also   the    account    of  the  same   for    Hull   and 

there   remains  in   purse   48s.   6£d.     From   2   oxen  sold  and 

i6d.  from   1  calf  sold    sum   44s.    iod.        Sum    £\  us.  33d. 

Then  in  2  oxen  bought  44s.  iod.     And  in  increase  of  wages 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     245 

6d.  And  in  pittance  and  gloves  6£d.  Sum  45s.  io£d.  And 
in  gifts  85s.  5d.  Sum  £\  us.  3^d.  The  same  received 
from  8  oxen  remaining — value  per  head  13s.  4d.  Sum 
106s.  8d.  The  same  from  2  cows  value  13s.  4d.  Also 
1  heifer  value  6s.  8d.  The  same  received  from  2  yearlings 
value  4s.  The  same  received  from  2  mares  remaining. 
There  is  one  with  murrain  and  there  remains  1  value  10s. 
The  same  received  from  1  colt  (foal)  remaining  value  10s. 
Sum  of  the  whole  estate  £y  10s.  8d. 
And  from  what  remains  in  purse  (=  cash  in  hand)  56s.  id. 
The  Account  of  the  same  from  the  Cowherd. — And  received 
from  £6  10s.  from  9  oxen  sold.  And  from  20s.  from  1  bull 
sold.  And  from  lis.  4d.  from  8  calves  sold.  And  from 
48s.  lod.  from  wool  sold.  And  from  £6  10s.  from  corn  sold 
in  sheaf  of  Osleworth.  And  from  1  foal  sold  10s.  Sum 
£21  6s.  3d.  Then  in  n  oxen  bought  £6  10s.  3d.  And  in 
sheaf  (corn)  bought  at  Osleworth  £6.  Also  46s.  8d.  for 
the  present  year's  tithes.  And  in  32  lambs  16s.  And  in 
hay  bought  18s.  And  in  forage  for  the  cowherd  6s.  And 
in  wages  for  the  Cowherd  2s.  8d.  And  in  wages  for  the 
cowherd's  boy  i2d.  And  in  grease  and  tar  3s.  iod.  And 
in  gifts  to  various  bailiffs  5s.  And  in  my  own  expenses  10s. 
And  in  pittances  and  geese  (?)  8d.  Sum  ^"18  12s.  id. 
And  the  receipts  exceed  the  expenditnre  54s.  2d.  And  for 
1  Heriott  "  Tredelaz."  The  same  received  from  11  oxen 
above  bought  of  them  9  sold  above.  And  in  .  2s.  .  2 
and  in  1  delivered  at  Culkerton  and  none  remain.  Sum 
12  and  2.  The  same  received  from  17  cows  remaining  and 
from  1  added1  (for  yoke).  Sum  18  of  them — 2  killed  for 
the  larder  and  16  remain  value  7s.  Sum  112s.  The  same 
received  from  1  bull  remaining  and  from  1  added  sum 
2.  Of  them  in  1  sold  above  and  1  remains  value  7s.  The 
same  received  from  2  mares  q.  sup.  adjung'  and  nothing 
remains.  And  received  from  5  bullocks  remaining  and  1  as 
a  gift  and  there  remain  2  male  and  2  female  value  per  head 
4s.      Sum  8s.      Then    in   8  sold    above   and    2    in    murrain 

1  Adjunct. 

246  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

sum  2.  And  5  remain  value  i2d.  each.  Sum  5s.  The  same 
received  from  120  sheep  22  remain  and  black.  Then  in 
gifts  2  and  in  murrain  1  sum  3  And  48  remain  value  6d. 
each.  Sum  23s.  6d.  The  same  received  from  2  foals 
remaining  and  from  1  given  sum  3  Of  them  in  1  sold 
above  and  2  remain  value  each  10s.     Sum  28s. 

On  the  back  of  the  deed  :   Sum  extracted  owed  ^"4  3s. 

No.    XLII. 

Account  of  the  Cellarer  from  the  feast  of  St.  Lawrence  in 
the  year  1315  to  the  feast  of  St.  Michael  next  following1  : — 
Received  :  36s.  3d.  paid  for  43  sheep  sold.  And  36s.  for  six 
quarters  of  barley  sold.  And  £6  os.  8d.  for  52  quarters  2 
bushels  of  oats  sold.  And  £15  from  cash  (de  bursa  =  purse). 
And  53s.  4d.  received  from  the  smith,  a  lay  brother  (con- 
versus).  And  6s.  8d.  received  from  the  grange  at  Osleworth. 
And  10s.  for  heriot  of  Richard  Lancyng.  And  7s.  from 
the  goods  of  Adam  le  Droys.  And  4s.  from  wood  sold* 
Sum  ^"28  13s.   1  id. 

In  wages  of  servants  both  of  the  Abbey  and  of  the  grange 
/io  10s.  5d.  And  on  the  part  of  harvest  cutting  of  all  the 
granges  ^17  2s.  8d.  And  in  2^  quarters  of  salt  21s.  gd. 
And  paid  for  green  wax  4s.  6d.  And  in  payment  to  the  sub- 
cellarer  8s.  6d.  And  in  pittances  of  various  servants  gs.  6d. 
And  in  expenses  about  a  man  killed  (?)  (occisum)  14s.  6d. 
And  in  expenses  of  a  boy  to  Le  Wych  (Droitwich  ?)  "pro  sale 
sub-arrando"2  I2d.  And  in  expenses  at  Osle(worth)  about  the 
Clerk  6d.  And  in  linen  cloth  I7d.  And  in  his  own  expenses 
for  travelling  22^d.  And  in  gifts  2s.  7d.  And  in  stockfish 
9s.    id.     And  expenses  of  David  in  looking  for  Richard  de 

1  In  the  autumn  of  1315  there  commenced  the  worst  famine  ever 
recorded  in  England  :  in  1316  wheat  sold  for  16s.  a  quarter,  the  average 
price  from  1261  to  1540  being  5s.  n£d.  Compared  with  the  prices  in  No. 
XXXIII.,  the  value  of  sheep  had  already  fallen  considerably  ;  but  it  is 
unfortunate  that  the  account  ends  at  Michaelmas,  for  the  full  effects  of  the 
famine  which  arose  from  excessive  wet  were  not  felt  till  the  following 
year.     (Rogers,  Six  Centuries  of  Work  and  Wages,  pp.  215,  218,  Ed.  1884.) 

2  Sub  arare=to  plough  up.     Sub  arrare—  to  espouse,  to  give  a  pledge. 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     247 

Rodeneye  iod.  And  in  expenses  of  2  boys  travelling  4d. 
And  in  expenses  about  the  Abbot  and  Prior  and  their  com- 
panions at  the  Grange  i6d.  And  in  hay  bought  6s.  8d. 
Sum  £$i   7s.    id.      And  the  expenses   exceed    the    receipts 

53s-  2£d- 

And  in  task  of  the  threshers  14s.  6Jd.     And  in  gloves  and 

autumn  (?)  gloves  of  the  same  igd.     And  in  pittance  of  the 

thresher  iod.     And   in  gloves  for  servants   3s.  6d.     And  in 

gloves  for  the   monks  4s.     And  in  pittance  for  the  thresher 

being  in  arrear   i4d.     And  in  expenses  of  the  Prior  in  the 

grange  4s.  5id.     And  in  leather  (coriaco)  work  (?)  one  skin 

yd.     And    in   1   augur  2d.      And   in    furniture   one    horn    at 

Haselden  4d.     And  in  payment  of  the  plumber  for  work  8d. 

And  in  alteration  of  one  saddle  6d.     And  in  gathering  seed 

for  corn  at  the  lower  grange  7d.     And  in  nails  3d.         Sum 

34s.  2d. 

No.    XLIII. 

On  Saturday  in  the  feast  of  Faith  (6  Oct.)  in  the  year  of 
the  reign  of  King  Edward  the  thirteenth  It  was  so  agreed 
between  the  religious  men  Dom.  Richard  by  the  grace  of 
God  the  Abbot  of  the  Church  of  the  Blessed  Mary  of 
Kynggeswode  and  the  Convent  of  the  same  place  on  the 
one  part,  and  Hugh  Lanfford  on  the  other  part,  namely, 
that  the  aforesaid  religious  have  leased  and  granted  to  the 
aforesaid  Hugh  and  his  wife  which  he  shall  first  marry  after 
the  making  of  these  presents,  one  toft  in  the  vill  of  Culkertun 
situated  between  the  tenement  of  William  le  Cartere  on  the 
one  part,  and  the  tenement  of  Roger  le  Reue  on  the  other 
part  and  twenty-four  acres  of  land  with  appurtenances  in  the 
fields  of  Culkertun,  whereof  four  acres  lie  at  Beettesest  near 
the  land  of  Walter  atte  Mere,  and  one  acre  at  Salt- 
harpewey,  and  two  acres  and  a  half  lie  at  Oldehull,  and  one 
acre  and  a  half  at  Barlynghull,  and  two  acres  lie  at 
Rotherewey,  and  one  acre  lies  in  the  same  field,  near  the  land 
of  Richard  West,  and  four  acres  lie  at  Ffernhamthorne  near 
Fosse,  and  one  acre  and  a  half  lie  at  Lyncheforlang,  and  three 

248  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

acres  near  the  way  which  leads  towards  Tettebury,  and  one 
acre  at  Culkerbrugge,  and  two  acres  and  a  half  lie  at  Wad- 
berewe.     To  have  and   to  hold  the  aforesaid  toft   with  the 
afore-mentioned   land    with    all    other    appurtenances    as    in 
roads,  paths,  meadows,   fields,   and  pastures,  from  the  said 
religious  and  their  successors  to  the  aforesaid  Hugh  and  his 
wife  freely  wholly  well  and  in  peace  for  all  their  lives  only. 
Paying  therefore  annually  the  said  Hugh  and  his  wife,  and 
the  one  of  them    who   shall  survive  the  other,  to  the  said 
religious  and  their  successors  six  shillings  and  eight  pence  at 
the  four  terms  of  the  year,  namely  at  the  feast  of  St.  Michael 
the  Archangel  twenty  pence,  and  at  the  feast  of  St.  Thomas 
Apostle  twenty  pence,  and  at  the  feast  of  the  Annunciation 
of  the  Blessed  Mary  twenty  pence,  and  at  the  feast  of  the 
Nativity  of  St.  John  Baptist  twenty  pence,  the  term  beginning 
at  the  feast  of  St.  Michael  Archangel  next  ensuing  after  the 
date  of  the  presents,  for  all  servile  services  pertaining  thereto 
to  the  aforesaid  religious    saving    suit   at   the    court  of  the 
said  religious  in  the  vill  of  Culkerton,  as  often  as  it   shall 
happen  to  be  held  after  reasonable  summons,  and  the  service 
of  our  Lord  the  King  if  any  be  due  therefrom.     Moreover 
the  aforesaid  Religious  and  their  successors  will  warrant  and 
defend  the  aforesaid  toft  with  all  the  land  aforenoted,  together 
with  all  their  appurtenances,  during  the  whole  life  of  the 
aforesaid    Hugh    and    his    wife    as    is    aforesaid.     It  is  also 
agreed  between  the  aforesaid  parties  that  the  aforesaid  Hugh 
and  his  wife  shall  build  on  the  said  toft  at  their  own  expense, 
except  that  the  said  Religious  shall  find  the  big  timber  the 
virge  (  =  yard  ?  laths)  and  straw  for  one  house.     In  witness 
whereof  the    aforesaid    parties  have    alternately    appended 
their  seals  to  this  indented  writing.     Witnesses  John  Burdon, 
Stephen  Clencham,  Robert  Passelewe,  John  Bernard,  Henry 
Constaunce,    Thomas   le    Fremon,   William  le  Duk  and  all 
others.     Dated  at  Kyngeswode  on  the  day  and  year  above- 
mentioned.     (October  9,  1339.) 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     249 

No.  XLIV. 

In  the  year  of  the  reign  of  King  Edward  the  third  from 
the  conquest  the  twenty-fourth  on   the  feast  of   St.  Martin 
Bishop  it  was  so  agreed  between  the  religious  men  the  Abbot 
and  Convent  of  Kyngeswod  on  the  one  part,  and  Richard 
Ardarne   and   Matilda  his  wife   on   the  other,  namely,   that 
the  said  Abbot  and  Convent  have  granted  and  leased  to  the 
aforesaid    Richard    and    Matilda    all    that    their    tenement, 
together  with  one  virgate  of  land  and  a  half,  and  with  all 
other   appurtenances    in    Colkerton    which   indeed  tenement 
Jacobus   de   Lambard  formerly   held  in   the   same  place,  of 
which    land  indeed  two  acres  and   a  half  lie  at  Smalthorn 
between  the  lands  of  Henry  Passelewe  and  Roger  Banewell, 
and  one  acre  lies  at  Le  Garstonghede,  near  the  land  of  John 
Wylecryk,  and  one  acre  lies  at  Swetenhullested,  near  the  land 
of  Henry  West,  and  half  an  acre  lies  at  Lynch  between  the 
lands  of  Roger  Banewell  and  Henry  Passelewe,  and  one  acre 
and  a  half  lies  at  Asschemeslad  which  Walter  Le  Launsyng 
formerly  held,  and  four  acres  lie  beyond  Asschemerseye,  and  a 
half  acre  lies  at  la  Sandputtes  between  the  lands  of  William 
Constaunce  and  Henry  West,  and  one  acre  lies  at  La  Butine 
which   is    called   Le   Hedacre  which  Walter    de    Launsyng 
formerly  held  and  one  acre  lies  at   Smalthorn  between  the 
lands  of  Thomas  Neel  and  Edith  la  Reue,  and  one  acre  and 
a  half  at  Le  Gores  lies  between  the  lands  of  John  Bernard 
and   the   land    which    Walter   de   Launsyng   formerly  held, 
and    one    acre    lies    at     Middleforlong    between     the    land 
which    Walter    atte     Mere     formerly     held     and    the    land 
of     Edith     Le     Reue,    and    half     an    acre    near    Smythes- 
weye  lies   between   the   land  of  Henry  West  and   Thomas 
Neel,  and  one  acre  lies  at  Middleforlong  between  the  land 
of  Walter  Le  Geg  and  William  Constance,  and   two  acres 
lie  beyond  Smythesweye  between   the  land  of  Roger  Perus 
and  John  Barnewell,    and    one    acre    which   extends   on  Le 
Fosse,  and  one  acre  near  Smythesweye,  lie  between  the  lands 
of  William  Constance  and  William  Arnald,  and  one  acre  lies 

250  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

at  Rondoune  between  the  lands  of  Roger  Barewel  and  John 
Bernard,  and  one  acre  lies  at  Sweltenhulleshide,  between 
the  lands  of  Henry  West  and  Edmund  La  Reue,  and  one 
acre  and  a  half  lie  at  Asschemeslad  near  La  Rythie,  and 
one  acre  and  a  half  lie  near  his  close  and  near  the  lands 
of  Henry  West,  and  one  acre  lies  at  the  head  of  the  said 
land  near  the  land  of  John  Wilecryk,  one  half  acre  lies  at 
la  Butine  between  the  land  of  Henry  Passelewe  and 
Edmund  La  Reue,  and  one  half  acre  lies  at  Templersquarer 
which  is  called  Le  Hedacre,  and  two  acres  lie  at  La  Brech 
between  the  land  of  John  Bernard  and  Thomas  Down,  and 
one  acre  lies  at  le  Brech  between  the  land  of  John  Bernard 
and  Launsyngeslond,  and  extends  over  Chiryeinedoun,  and 
three  acres  lie  in  Le  Girston  before  his  gate,  and  half  an  acre 
lies  beyond  Wokemeweye  between  the  land  of  John  Bernard 
and  John  le  Reue,  and  one  acre  lies  at  Le  Wawes  between 
the  land  of  John  Bernard  and  Henry  Passelewe,  and  two 
acres  lie  at  Le  Lokforlong  between  the  lands  of  Roger  Perns 
and  Edmund  La  Reue,  and  one  acre  lies  at  Barlychhulle  near 
the  land  of  Henry  West,  and  one  acre  lies  near  Le 
Rucherweye  and  the  land  of  Henry  West,  and  one  acre  lies 
at  Stonhull  between  the  land  of  Henry  West  and  Walter 
atte  Mere,  and  one  acre  lies  at  Stanmere  near  the  land  of 
Roger  Perus,  and  half  an  acre  at  Stanmerlies  near  the  land 
of  William  Constaunce,  and  one  acre  lies  at  Annesdene 
between  the  land  of  Roger  Perus  and  Roger  Barnewell,  and 
one  acre  lies  at  Le  Quarer'  between  the  lands  of  Henry 
Passelewe  and  John  Le  Reue,  and  one  acre  lies  at  Le 
Lokfforlong  between  the  lands  of  Roger  Perus  and  Edmund 
Le  Reve,  and  one  acre  and  a  half  lie  at  Lokforlong  near  the 
land  of  Thomas  Neel,  and  half  an  acre  lies  at  Smalthorn 
between  the  lands  of  Roger  Barnewell  and  Edmund  La  Reue, 
and  an  acre  lies  near  Le  Rycherweye,  and  an  acre  lies 
at  Stonhull  near  the  land  of  Thomas  Neel,  and  one  acre  lies 
at  Le  Riccherweye  between  the  land  of  Roger  Perus  and 
John  Rubel,  and  two  acres  lie  at  Wodemannesthorn  between 
the  land  of  Henry  Passelewe  and  Henry  West,  and  one  acre 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     251 

lies  at  Hordeston  between  the  land  of  Roger  Perus  and 
Thomas  Neel,  and  one  acre  lies  at  Saltharperweye  between 
the  land  of  John  Wilecryk  and  Walter  atte  Mere,  and  half 
an  acre  lies  at  Le  Riccherweye  between  the  land  of  Henry 
Passelewe  and  Alice  Bernard,  and  one  acre  lies  at  Salt- 
harpeweye  near  the  land  cf  Henry  Passelewe,  and  one  acre 
lies  at  Mixenhull  between  the  land  of  Henry  West,  and  one 
acre  lies  at  Stepenhull  near  the  land  of  Thomas  Neel  and 
Roger  Barnewell,  and  one  acre  lies  at  Stepenhulleslad 
between  the  lands  of  Henry  Passelewe  and  John  Wilecryx, 
and  one  acre  lies  at  Oldenhull  near  the  land  of  Henry  West, 
and  one  acre  and  a  half  lie  at  Le  Publilond  between  the 
lands  of  Walter  Le  Geg  and  Thomas  Neel,  and  one  acre 
lies  at  Oldenhulleslad  and  is  called  Le  Hedacre,  and 
one  acre  lies  at  La  Rylond  between  the  land  of  William 
Constance  and  Thomas  Down,  and  one  acre  lies  at  Oldenhull 
near  the  land  of  Roger  Banewell,  and  three  acres  lie 
at  Le  Gores  between  the  lands  of  Roger  Perus  and 
William  Constance.  To  have  and  to  hold  all  the  said 
tenement  with  all  the  said  land  and  with  all  their 
appurtenances  aforesaid  to  the  said  Richard  and  Matilda 
his  wife  to  the  end  of  their  lives,  and  the  life  of  the  longer 
liver,  from  the  said  Abbot  and  Convent  and  their  successors 
freely  quietly  well  and  in  peace.  Paying  for  the  same 
annually  to  the  aforesaid  Abbot  and  Convent  and  their 
successors,  sixteen  shillings  sterling,  at  the  four  principal 
terms  by  equal  portions  for  all  services  and  secular  demands, 
saving  suits  of  their  court  and  royal  service,  namely,  as  much 
as  pertains  to  such  tenement  and  land  in  the  same  vill.  And 
heriots  when  they  shall  fall  in.  But  the  said  Richard  and 
Matilda  shall  duly  keep  at  their  own  expense  the  said 
tenement  with  all  its  appurtenances  whatsoever,  in  as  good  a 
state  or  in  a  better  state  as  that  in  which  they  received  it. 
Nor  shall  it  be  lawful  to  the  said  Richard  and  Matilda  at 
any  time  or  in  any  way  to  give,  sell,  or  alienate,  the  said 
tenement  with  its  appurtences  without  their  special  licence 
first  asked  for  and  obtained.     And  the  said  Abbot  and  Con- 

252  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

vent  and  their  successors  will  warrant  and  defend  the  said 
tenement  and  lands  with  all  the  above-named  appurtenances 
to  the  said  Richard  and  Matilda  his  wife  for  the  term  of  their 
lives,  and  the  life  of  the  longer  liver,  against  all  mortals  by 
the  aforesaid  service.  In  witness  whereof  they  have  alter- 
nately placed  their  seals  to  these  presents. 

Witnesses  Richard  de  Cherletun,  Henry  le  Wariner, 
William  Macherlyng,  William  Constaunce,  Henry  Passelewe, 
and  others. 

Dated  at  Kyngeswod  on  the  year  and  day  above- 
mentioned.    (November  11,  1350.) 

No.  XLV. 

Account  of  Brother  Walter,  Granger  del'Egge  : — And 
received  53s.  for  3  oxen  sold.  And  17s.  for  1  ox  sold.  And 
14s.  for  1  bull  sold.  And  10s.  for  1  cow  sold.  And  4s.  for  a 
young  ox  sold.1  And  7s.  id.  for  4  calves  sold.  And  £■$ 
received  from  corn.  And  38s.  for  13  pigs  sold.  And  6s.  for 
1  heifer2  sold.  And  3s.  for  wax  and  honey  sold.  And  3s.  for 
a  cowhide  sold.      Sum  £11    15s.   id. 

Then  in  debts  repaid  £\  9s.  nd.  Item  in  2  oxen  bought 
41s.  6d.  Item  in  1  ox  bought  21s.  Item  in  1  ox  bought  18s. 
Item  in  1  cow  bought  13s.  3d.  Item  in  1  sow  bought  with 
7  little  pigs  3   14s. 

Item  in  servants'  wages  for  gifts  "  ad  communium  " 
23s.  2d.  Item  in  wages  for  Cowherd  3s.  3d._  Item  in  wages 
for  Swineherd  2s.  And  in  food  for  the  swine  5s.  6d.  Item 
in  "ref"  10s.  Item  in  tallow4  and  (unct?)  grease  5s.  Item 
in  horseshoes  and  harness  2s.  Item  for  a  hoop  2s.  Sum  of 
expenses  £1 2  us.  7d. 

On  the  back :  Below  remains  unpaid  45s.  Oxen  50. 
Cows  13.  Bull  1.  Bullocks  3,  1  male  2  female.  Yearlings  6. 
Calves  4  price  4s.  Mares  (jumente)  for  carts  2  price  20s. 
Mares  (jumente)  for  pasture  2  price  10s.     Sows  3   price  3s  6d. 

1  Boviculus  mas.         2  Bovicula  feminina.         3  Porcellis. 
1  Cepo  pro   sepo. 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     253 

Hogs  4  price  5s.     Pigs  6  price  16s.     Little  pigs  16     .     .     . 
propter.     .     .     .     pre. 

No.  XLVI. 

Enquiry  is  to  be  made  in  what  way  the  Abbot  and 
Convent  of  Kyngeswood  hold  those  2  acres  of  land  and  the 
tenement  which  were  sometime  Thomas  le  Archer's  at  .  .  . 
They  were  not  of  the  land  of  the  said  Aylward  ...  In 
pure  perpetual  and  free  alms.  [The  following  12  lines  are  so 
rubbed  and  so  illegible  that  nothing  connected  can  be  got 
from  them.]  .  .  .  And  although  a  second  charter  of  Robert 
de  Berkeley  makes  mention  of  1  virgate  of  land  at  Swineheye 
and  the  mill  of  Byfford  they  indeed  understand  that  John  le 
Skey  of  Nybbeley  holds  that  virgate  of  land  in  chief  of  the 
Abbot  of  Kyngeswode.  And  that  1  messuage  and  1  virgate 
of  land  of  which  mention  is  made  in  the  charter  of  Thomas 
de  Berkeley  is  now  in  the  hand  of  John  Crennel  at  La 

Also  to  enquire  how  one  croft  above  Aleynghurst  near 
the  hedge  of  Hawe  Park  is  held. — In  free  pure  and  perpetual 

Also  how  the  tenement  of  William  Tudenham  is  held. 
It  is  held  similarly. 

Also  how  the  grange  "  del  Egge  "  is  held,  for  they  indeed 
say  that  those  ten  pence  rent  of  which  the  charter  of  the 
said  Lord  Maurice  de  Berkeley  makes  mention  as  above 
were  due  for  that  wood  near  Bradpen.  All  in  pure  and 
perpetual  alms. 

Also  to  enquire  who  enfeoffed  the  Abbey  of  the  well  and 
the  position  of  the  conduit. 

No.    XLVII. 

This  deed  consists  simply  of  the  names  of  eighty-seven 
donors  of  gifts,  in  money,  and  kind,  for  the  use  of  the  Church. 
There  is  nothing  to  fix  the  date  of  it. 

254  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

No.    XLVIII. 

To  all  the  faithful  of  Christ  to  whom  this  present  writing 
shall  come,  Brother  John,1  Prior  of  the  Cathedral  Church  of 
St.  Mary  of  Worcester  and  the  Chapter  of  the  same  place 
greeting  in  the  Lord  Everlasting. 

We  have  received  the  letters  of  the  Reverend  father  and 
Lord  .  .  .  (Thomas)  Bishop  of  Worcester  in  these  words  : 
To  all  the  sons  of  Mother  Church  to  whom  the  present 
letters  shall  come,  Thomas  z  by  divine  permission  Bishop  of 
Worcester  greeting  in  the  Saviour  of  all  men.  Whereas  out- 
most excellent  prince  the  Lord  Henry,  by  the  grace  of  God 
Illustrious  King  of  England  and  France,  and  Lord  of  Ireland, 
by  his  letters  patent  at  the  request  of  our  beloved  in  Christ 
the  Abbot  of  Kyngeswode  suggesting  that  he  and  the  whole 
religion  of  the  Cistercian  order  have  been  from  ancient  times 
privileged  and  exempt  from  all  manner  of  ordinary  juris- 
diction, (so  that  no  one  except  only  our  Lord  the  supreme 
Pontiff  and  the  Court  of  Rome  or  his  conservators  should 
have  jurisdiction  over  them)  and  that  the  same  convent 
within  the  said  Abbey  holding  the  parish  Church  has  not 
pension,  portion,  lands,  or  rents,  wherewith  to  sustain  them 
and  their  servants  sufficiently  to  support  their  burdens,  has 
granted  to  the  said  Abbot,  that  he  and  his  successors  the 
Abbots  of  the  aforesaid  place,  should  not  be  assigned  or 
burdened  with  any  tithe  or  other  tax  to  be  granted  to  our 
aforesaid  Lord  the  King  or  his  heirs  by  our  lord  the  supreme 
Pontiff,  or  the  clergy  of  the  realm  of  England,  but  that  they 
shall  be  quit  and  exonerated  therefrom  for  ever,  notwith- 
standing any  assignation  or  order  by  us  the  lord  Bishop  or 
our  successors  to  the  same  Abbot  or  his  successors  for  being 
collectors  of  any  such  tithe  or  subsidy  hereafter  to  be  made, 
as  in  the  letters  our  Lord  the  King  abovesaid  more  plainly 
appears.  We,  considering  the  pious  intention  of  our  afore- 
said Lord  the  King  in  this  particular,  wishing  to  graciously 
1  John  Fordham,  1415 — 1438. 

2  Thomas  Peverell,  consecrated  to   the  See  of  Ossory  in  1397,  trans- 
lated to  Llandaff  in  1398  and  to  Worcester  in  1407  ;  died  March  2,  1419. 

Cistercian  Monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Kingswood.     255 

follow   with   our    favour    the    said    Abbot    by    sight   of   the 
premisses  and   contemplation  of  Thomas  Lord  of  Berkeley 
patron  of  the  said  Abbey,  but  especially  through  reverence  of 
God,  and  the  observance  and  continuance  of  the  worship  of 
the  most  blessed  Virgin  Mary  in  the  aforesaid  Abbey,  have 
granted  for  us  and  our  successors  to  the  same  Abbot  that  he 
or  his  successors  and  the  Abbots  of  that  place  may  not  be 
assigned  or  burdened  by  the  said  Bishop  or  his  successors 
with  any  tithe  or  other  subsidy  which  may  in  any  way  be 
granted  to  our  Lord  the  King  of  England,  or  his  heirs  the 
Kings  of  England,  by  our  Lord  the  supreme  Pontiff,  or  the 
clergy  of  the  realm  of    England,  at   the  collection  of  such 
subsidy    in   any    way,    but    that    the   said   Abbot    and    his 
successors  may  be  for  ever  quit  and  exonerated  therefrom 
except  this,  that  the  aforesaid  Abbot  or  any  of  his  successors 
may  be  in  any  way  burdened  and  assigned  at  the  collection 
or  levy  of  any  title,  quota,  or  subsidy  to  be  granted  to  our 
Lord  the  King  of  England  or  to  any  of  his  heirs  in  the  form 
aforesaid,  to  be  made  by  us  or  our  successors.     In  witness 
whereof  we  have  caused  our  seal  to  be  appended.     Given 
at  our  House  within  the  parish  of  the  blessed   Mary  de  la 
Stronde  outside  the  bar  of  the  New  Temple  London,  on  the 
8th  day  of  February  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  1412  and  in  the 
6th  year  of  our  Translation.     But  we  the  Prior  and  Chapter 
aforesaid  contemplating  the  benign  will  of  our  said  Lord  the 
illustrious  King,  and  on  account  of  reverence  of  the  letters  of 
Thomas  Lord  of  Berkeley  patron  of  the  said  Abbey  directed 
to  us  in  this  particular,  and  also  wishing  that  the  servants  of 
God  of  the  Abbey  aforesaid  may  serve  their  Creator  more 
freely  and  quietly,  do  corroborate  and  confirm  the  aforesaid 
grant  of  our  Lord  the  Bishop  aforesaid,  and  all  and  singular 
the  things  contained  in  the  said  letters  as  far  as  in  us  lies 
and  pertains  to  us  for  us  and  for  our  successors.     In  witness 
of  all  which  things  our  common  seal  has  been  appended  to 
these  presents. 

Given  in  our  Chapter  House  at  Worcester    .    .    .    octavo 

256  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

No.  L. 

Mr.  Knewton's  notes  as  I  take  yt : 

I  finde  that  William  Berkeley  Lord  of  Dursley  was 
founder  of  the  Abbey  of  Kingeswood,  who  had  issue  Roger 
Berkeley  of  Dursley  in  the  time  of  Kinge  Henry  II.  in  whose 
(which)  name  they  continued  lords  thereof  till  Richard  II. 
daies,  in  whose  time  John  (Berkeley)  Lord  of  Dursley  had 
issue  Elizabeth  married  to  Richard  Chelder  who  solde  the 
foundation  of  the  said  Abbey.  D  83. 

Kinge  Henry  I.  graunted  to  the  Abbot  and  Monks  of 
Kingeswood  the  manor  of  Athold  in  such  sorte  as  Roger 
Berkeley  had  formerlie  given  it  to  them. 

More.  I  have  not  yet  seene  this  Monastery  of  Kinges- 

William  Berkeley  Lord  of  Dursley  giveth  to  the  Abbott 
of  Tenterne  his  manor  of  Acholte  which  now  is  named 
Kingeswood  To  edefie  and  build  an  Abbey  of  the  Order 
of  Cistercians.  And  Maude  the  Empresse  confirmed  it. 
The  Abbott  and  the  convent  received  the  said  William 
Berkeley  sonne  and  heire  Lord  of  Dursley  in  theire 
Chapter  House  founders  there.  Now  cometh  Roger  Berkeley 
sonne  and  heire  to  William  Berkeley  and  confirmeth  the 
guifte  of  his  Father,  and  Henry  the  Second  the  Empress' 
sonne  confirmeth  the  guift  of  Roger  Berkeley,  and  soe 
Berkeleys  of  Dursley  continued  unto  King  Richard  II. 

TR6EII.  orEIII.  and  Tyntarne  Monastry.  I  Reige- 
nold's  olde  clarke  of  Mr.  Osbornes  Worne's  office. 

THE    ABBEY    OF     ST.    MARY,     HAYLES. 

EXCAVATIONS  IN   1 899  AND   I90O. 

By  the  Rev.  WILLIAM  BAZELEY,  M.A.,  Hon.  General  Secretary. 

The  Cistercian  Abbey  of  Hayles,  near  Winchcombe,  Glouces- 
tershire, was  founded  in  1246  by  Richard,  Earl  of  Cornwall, 
brother  of  Henry  III.,  and  he  transferred  thither  from  the 
Abbey  of  Beaulieu,  in  Hampshire,  twenty  monks  and  ten 
lay  brethren. 

A  short  chronicle  of  Hayles,  in  the  British  Museum,  tells 
us  that  the  church  was  finished  in  1251,  together  with 
dorter,  cloisters  and  frater,  at  a  cost  of  8,000  marks.  The 
ruined  arches  of  the  cloisters,  on  the  outer  side,  are  of  this 
date.  On  the  9th  of  November  in  that  year  the  church  was 
dedicated  to  God's  service.  Henry  III.  and  his  Queen, 
Eleanor  of  Provence,  and  Earl  Richard  and  his  second  wife, 
Sanchia,  sister  of  the  Queen,  were  present.  Thirteen  bishops, 
whose  names  and  dioceses  are  given  in  an  ancient  manuscript 
preserved  in  the  library  of  Wells  Cathedral,  said  mass,  each 
at  his  own  altar,  Grossetete,  Bishop  of  Lincoln,  consecrating 
at  the  high  altar.  Besides  these  were  an  innumerable  host 
of  nobles,  clergy,  and  common  folk,  who  crowded  thither  to 
do  honour  to  the  founder. 

The  first  abbot  is  said  to  have  been  Jordan,  a  monk  of 
Beaulieu.  The  lists  of  abbots  hitherto  given  are  not  to 
be  depended  upon.  Hayles  has  been  confused  with  the 
Praemonstratensian  abbey  of  Hales  Owen,  on  the  borders 
of  Worcestershire  and  Shropshire. 

In  1256  Richard  was  elected  King  of  the  Romans,  and 
he  and  his  wife  were  crowned  at  Aix.  Queen  Sanchia  died 
in  1261,  and  was  buried  at  Hayles,  near  the  high  altar. 
In  the  same  year,  Richard,  an  infant  son  of  Earl  Richard,  is 
said  to  have  died  at  Grove  Myle,  near  Hayles,  and  to  have 

Vol.  XXII. 

258  Transactions  for  the  Year  i8gg. 

been  buried  in  the  Abbey.  The  founder's  eldest  son,  Henry, 
had  been  born  in  the  Castle  of  Hayles,  and  baptised  in  the 
church  in  the  year  1237.  This  castle  and  church  were  built 
by  Ralph  de  Worcester  in  the  reign  of  King  Stephen.  Only 
the  earthworks  of  the  castle  remain,  but  the  little  parish 
church  is  intact.  In  1267  Richard  married,  as  his  third 
wife,  Beatrice  von  Falkenstein,  the  beautiful  niece  of 
Conrad,    Archbishop    of    Cologne. 

In  the  same  year,  the  chronicle  tells  us,  Edmund,  the 
second  son  of  the  founder,  purchased  in  Germany  some  of 
the  Holy  Blood  of  Jesus.  A  portion  of  this  he  gave  to 
Hayles  on  the  festival  of  the  Exaltation  of  the  Cross, 
September  14th,  1270,  and  it  was  accompanied  by  a 
certificate  from  Urban,  Patriarch  of  Jerusalem,  afterwards 

On  March  12th,  1271,  Henry  of  Almayne,  eldest  son  of 
Richard,  was  cruelly  murdered  in  the  little  church  of  San 
Sylvestro,  at  Viterbo,  during  the  saying  of  mass,  by  his 
cousins,  Guy  and  Simon  de  Montford,  sons  of  the  great 
patriot  Earl.  The  flesh  of  the  ill-fated  prince  was  buried 
between  the  tombs  of  two  pontiffs  in  the  church  of  Santa 
Maria  dei  Gradi ;  his  heart  was  placed  in  a  golden  vase 
and  enshrined  in  the  tomb  of  Edward  the  Confessor  at 
Westminster.  His  bones  were  conveyed  in  a  leaden  coffin 
to  Hayles,  and  buried  in  the  Abbey  Church  before  the  high 
altar.  Richard,  broken-hearted  at  the  untimely  and  terrible 
death  of  his  son,  had  a  seizure,  from  which  he  died  on  April 
2nd,  1272.  He  was  buried  in  the  presbytery  beside  Queen 
Sanchia,  and  his  widow,  Beatrice  von  Falkenstein,  placed 
above  him  "a  noble  pyramis  "  or  raised  tomb,  which  was 
ruthlessly  broken  in  pieces  at  the  Dissolution. 

Richard  was  succeeded  as  Earl  of  Cornwall  by  his  son 
Edmund,  who  in  1272  married  Margaret,  sister  of  Gilbert, 
Earl  of  Hertford  and  Gloucester.  In  1277  "the  new  work 
at  Hayles,  together  with  the  shrine  in  which  was  deposited 
the  precious  Blood  of  Christ,  were  dedicated  by  Godfrey 
Gifford,  Bishop  of  Worcester."     In  1280  Hugh  is  mentioned 

The  Abbey  of  St.  Mary,  Hayles.  259 

as  Abbot.  In  1292  the  Infirmary  and  the  buildings  attached 
to  it  were  commenced.  In  1295  Edmund  gave  to  the  Abbey 
a  golden  cross  containing  a  portion  of  the  true  cross  of 
Christ.  In  1299  the  boveria  or  oxhouses  were  begun  and 

On  October  31st,  1300,  Edmund,  Earl  of  Cornwall,  died 
at  Ashridge,  and  his  bones  were  buried  at  Hayles  in  the 
presence  of  Edward  I.  and  a  great  company  of  bishops 
abbots,  and  knights.  Hugh,  Abbot  of  Hayles,  is  men- 
tioned in  the  Patent  Rolls  as  one  of  the  executors  of  the 
Earl's  will. 

Hugh  appears  to  have  been  succeeded  by  John,  who  was 
still  ruling  the  Abbey  in  1332,  though  of  great  age. 

On   the  vigil  of   Corpus    Christi,   1337,   about    the    hour 
of  Vespers,  a  great  flood  of  water  burst   upon   the  Abbey, 
and  caused   much  loss  and  destruction.     The   situation  of 
the  Abbey  in  the  lowest  part  of  the  valley,  between  two  high 
hills,  has  always  laid  it  open  to  such  visitations.     Very  little 
has  been   recorded   about   the    Abbey  during  the   long   and 
eventful  reign  of  Edward  III.  and  the  reigns  of  his  imme- 
diate successors ;    but   we  know  that   the  plague    raged   at 
Hayles    in    1361-2,    and    nearly   exterminated    the    monks, 
regular   and  lay.      The  last   entry  in   the  chronicle  tells   us 
that  on   Sunday,    October    31st,    1364,    some    "satellites  of 
Satan"  broke  into  the  sacristy  and  carried  off  many  of  the 
sacred    vessels.      In    the   same    year   many   other    English 
monasteries  were  similarly  robbed.     Robert  Alcester,  Abbot 
of  Hayles,  is  said  to  have  been  buried  at  Dowdeswell,  near 
Cheltenham,  about    1420.      He  was  succeeded   by  William 
Hendley,   a   native  of   Gloucester.      I    have   found   a   deed 
amongst  the  muniments  of  the  Corporation  of  Gloucester, 
dated  1426,  bearing  his  signature  and  the  Abbey  seal.     John 
appears  as  Abbot  in  1463,   and  Richard  in  1465.     William 
\\  hytchurch,    whose    name   as  Abbot  appears  in   1466,  has 
the  credit  for  rebuilding  the  cloisters  in  the  Perpendicular 
style,  and  converting  the  cellarium,  or  house  of  the  la)-  monks, 
on  the  west  side  of  the  cloisters,  into  the  Abbot's  lodgings. 

260  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

A  document  has  been  found  amongst  the  Vatican  papers, 
dated  1458,  in  which  Pope  Callixtus  III.  exhorts  all  the 
faithful  to  assist  the  monks  of  Hayles  in  repairing  their 
ruined  Abbey.  Whytchurch  was  at  one  time  Vicar  of 
Didbrook,  a  parish  adjoining  Hayles.  He  rebuilt  the 
church  and  had  it  reconciled  in  1471,  after  the  sacrilegious 
murder  of  some  fugitive  Lancastrians  lrom  the  fatal  field 
of  Tewkesbury.  He  is  said  to  have  been  buried  in  the 
church;  and  there  are  remains  of  painted  glass  in  the  east 
window  with  an  inscription  to  his  memory  as  founder  of  the 

The  name  of  John  de  Clitheroe,  as  Abbot  of  Hayles  at 
the  close  of  the  15th  century,  is  given  in  a  list  of  monks 
of  Whalley  Abbey.  Two  sets  of  16th  century  tiles,  of  which 
we  found  fragments  in  the  Chapter  House,  bear  the  initials, 
name,  or  rebus  of  Anthony  Melton  and  Anthony  Stafford 
as  abbots.  These  cannot  be  earlier  than  the  beginning  of 
the  16th  century,  as  companion  tiles  bear  the  Tudor  Rose, 
Pomegranate,  and   Portcullis. 

The  last  Abbot  of  Hayles  was  Stephen  Sagar,  also  called 
Whalley,  because  he  was  educated  as  a  monk  of  that  abbey. 
He  was  made  King's  chaplain  in  1537,  and  obtained  a 
pension  of  ^"100  and  the  use  of  Coscombe  House  for  his 
lifetime  after  the  surrender  of  the  Abbey  to  the  King's 
Commissioners  in  December,  1539.  He  was  buried  with 
his  brother  in  Warmfield  Church,  near  Halifax,  and  the 
following  inscription  was  placed  over  their  grave  : — "  We 
be  two  brothers,  I  pray  you  let  us  rest,  Stephen  Sagar, 
some  time  Abbot  of  Hayles,  and  Otho  Sagar,  Vicar  of 
this   parish." 

At  the  Dissolution  the  late  Abbot's  lodging,  extending 
from  the  church  to  the  frater  southward,  with  pantry, 
buttery,  kitchen,  larder,  cellars,  and  the  lodging  over  the 
same,  the  baking  and  brewing  houses  and  garner,  the  gate- 
house, the  great  barn,  two  stables,  the  oxhouse,  and  the 
sheephouse  were  assigned  to  remain  undefaced.  The 
church     with     aisles,    chapels,    and     steeple,    the    cloister, 

DOOR    OF    r.\I>;:kCk(>i  T    <>!•    DORMITORY,    IIAYI.KS    A.BBEY 

Kindly  lent  by  the  Society  i  f  Architect*. 

-      F'  \Rl.<  >ur,     havl:  - 

The  Abbey  of  St.  Mary,  Hayles.  261 

chapter  house,  dorter  and  frater,  the  infirmary  with  chapels 
and  lodgings  to  them  adjoining,  the  prior's  chamber  and  all 
other  chambers  lately  belonging  to  the  officers  there,  were 
deemed  to  be  superfluous.  Most  of  the  possessions  of  the 
Abbey  were  granted  to  Admiral  Seymour,  and,  on  his 
attainder,  to  William,  Marquis  of  Northampton,  who  leased 
them  to  Henry  Hodgkins.  Queen  Elizabeth  renewed  this 
lease  in  1565,  and  the  manor  passed  by  marriage  to 
William  Hobby,  who  restored  the  parish  church,  and  was 
buried  there,  at  the  age  of  103,  in  1603.  His  son  died  in 
the  same  year,  and  the  manor  was  sold  to  Sir  John  Tracy 
created  in  1642  Viscount  Tracy.  His  grandson,  John,  third 
Viscount  Tracy,  died  at  Hayles  in  16S6,  after  which  time 
the  house  does  not  appear  to  have  been  used  as  a  residence 
by  the  Tracys.  Views  of  Hayles  given  by  Atkyns  (1712), 
Buck  (1732),  and   Lysons  (1794)  show  the  process  of  ruin. 


It  was  for  many  years  the  wish  of  Mrs.  Dent,  of  Sudeley 
Castle,  whose  death,  early  in  1900,  all  her  many  friends 
deplore,  to  arrest  the  unceasing  destruction  of  Hayles  Abbey, 
but  the  opportunity  was  lacking. 

In  1899,  by  the  courteous  permission  of  the  present 
owners,  the  Economic  Assurance  Society,  and  the  tenants, 
the  Toddington  Orchard  Company,  the  Bristol  and  Glou- 
cestershire Archaeological  Society  were  enabled  to  commence 
an  examination  of  the  site  and  the  repair  of  the  broken 
arches.  The  superintendence  of  the  work  was  confided  to 
me  as  Secretary  of  the  Society,  and  with  me  was  associated 
one  of  the  members  of  our  council,  Mr.  St.  Clair  Baddeley, 
an  expert  in  Italian  history  and  architecture.  After  consulta- 
tion with  Mr.  St.  John  Hope,  we  determined  in  the  first 
place  to  clear  the  cloister  walks  and  remove  the  soil  which 
had  accumulated  at  the  bases  of  the  walls  and  arches.  We 
felt  that  this  would  help  visitors  to  understand  the  plan  of 
the  conventual  buildings  which  surrounded  the  cloister  garth 
and  add  to  their   interest.      The    abbey   church,    with    the 

262  Transactions  for  the  Year  iSgg. 

exception  of  its  south  wall  which  forms  the  north  wall  of 
the  cloister,  has  entirely  disappeared,  and  what  little 
remains  of   the  foundations  lies  two  feet  below  the  turf. 

We  commenced  work  with  four  labourers  and  a  stone- 
mason on  July  20th,  and  soon  found  the  north-west  angle  of 
the  inner  wall  of  the  cloister.  The  masonry  is  Perpendicular, 
of  the  same  date  as  the  remaining  three  arches  of  the  west 
cloister  walk. 

We  found  traces  of  two  fires,  one  earlier  than  the  re- 
building of  the  cloister,  and  another  considerably  later  than 
the  Dissolution  for  the  stratum  of  ashes  lay  a  foot  above  the 
original  floor  line.  It  is  probable  that  Lord  Tracy's  house, 
which  stood  on  the  site  of  the  western  range  of  buildings, 
was  damaged  or  destroyed  about  1775  by  a  conflagration. 

The  cloister  walks  are  132  feet  long  and  12  feet  wide. 
The  garth  is  about  100  feet  square.  The  foundations  of  the 
inner  wall  have  for  the  most  part  been  destroyed.  The  base 
of  the  north-west  doorway  into  the  church  remains.  We 
found  it  blocked  with  Perpendicular  stonework. 

The  five  arcades  in  the  north  cloister  walk  are  not  carrels, 
as  suggested  by  the  late  Mr.  Loftus  Brock,  for  a  stone  bench 
which  he  did  not  see  runs  along  in  front  of  them.  Our  mason 
restored  the  level  of  their  floor  line  with  dry  walling,  and 
we  deposited  there  various  interesting  relics : — six  heraldic 
bosses  discovered  in  the  west  walk  ;  the  head  of  the  door- 
way leading  into  the  chapter-house,  found  where  it  had 
probably  fallen1 ;  some  window  mouldings,  which  we  found  in 
taking  the  dimensions  of  the  church  ;  and  a  vaulting  rib  of 
the  presbytery.  The  largest  piece  of  moulding,  which  we 
believe  to  be  the  central  portion  of  the  great  east  window  of 
the  presbytery,  we  found  buried  in  front  of  the  shrine  of  the 
Holy  Blood  of  Hayles.  The  curves,  when  produced,  give  us 
a  three  or  a  five  light  window,  with  trefoils,  cinquefoils,  and 
a  quatrefoil  in  its  head. 

We    found   part    of    a    carrel    filling    up    the    north-east 
doorway.     The  carrels  were  evidently  in  the  same  position 
1  These  are  now  in  the  Abbey  Museum. 

The  Abbey  of  St.  Mary,  Hayles.  263 

as  at  Gloucester,  in  the  inner  wall  of  the  cloister  walk. 
A  corbel  carved  as  an  angel  with  outspread  wings,  and  the 
termination  of  the  vaulting  ribs  resting  on  it,  in  the  N.E. 
corner  of  the  cloisters,  are,  we  believe,  the  work  of  Abbot 
Whytchurch,  about  1466  ;  but  Sir  Arthur  Blomfield,  whose 
death  has  been  a  sad  loss  to  us,  thought  they  might  be 
as  late  as  the  beginning  of  the  16th  century,  which  is 
certainly  the  date  of  the  vaulting  bosses  found  in  the  west 
walk.  All  the  arches  on  the  north,  east,  and  west  sides  of 
the  cloister  seem  to  be  the  work  of  the  Early  English  builders 
in  1246 — 1 25 1,  though  many  of  them  have  Perpendicular 
work  inserted  to  carry  the  vaulting  ribs. 

The  arch  leading  into  the  sacristy  seems  to  have  been 
fairly  perfect  in  1856  when  the  British  Association  visited 
Hayles.  Half  of  the  trefoiled  and  quatrefoiled  head  is  now 
irreparably  gone,  but  we  found  and  replaced  the  blue  lias 
base  and  part  of  the  shaft.  The  eastern  wall  of  this  room  is 
of  considerable  thickness.  The  vaulting  was  supported  by 
two  sets  of  shafts  in  a  line  with  those  of  the  chapter-house. 
The  northern  wall  is  completely  gone.  Ivy  of  long  growth 
has  been  destroying  and  at  the  same  time  supporting  the 
broken  arches.  We  pruned  the  long  branches,  and  have 
dealt  more  severely  with  it  this  year. 

Next  to  the  sacristy  is  the  chapter-house,  with  its  three 
arches.  The  sills  of  the  side  openings  have  been  restored 
with  dry  walling,  but  a  foot  of  soil  has  yet  to  be  cleared 
away  from  the  cloister  walk  before  the  original  level  will 
be  reached. 

We  thoroughly  cleared  the  chapter-house,  which  was 
35  feet  wide  and  48  feet  long,  and  found  the  four  Early 
English  bases  of  the  columns,  which  divided  it  into  three 
alleys  and  nine  compartments. 

Amongst  the  rubbisli  which  covered  the  floor  to  the  extent 
of  nearly  eight  feet  we  found  most  of  the  vaulting  ribs, 
many  fragments  of  blue  lias  bell-shaped  capitals,  painted  red 
as  a  ground  for  gold,  six  beautiful  bosses  almost  perfect,  and 
a  trefoil  shaft  lying  near  its  socket  in  the  stone  bench  at  the 

264  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

east  end,  part  of  one  of  the  responds  of  an  arch.  We  found 
also  some  mouldings  which  probably  formed  part  of  the  east 
window  inserted  after  the  fire  of  1270.  Many  fragments  of 
tiies  of  early  16th  century  date  were  also  found,  similar  in 
every  respect  to  the  Hayles  tiles  at  Southam-deda-Bere. 

The  original  position  of  the  bosses  in  the  vaulted  roof 
may  be  ascertained  from  the  number  of  vaulting  shafts 
which  sprang  from  them.  One  boss  represents  Samson 
rending  the  lion.  The  other  bosses  are  ornamented  with 
the  stiff-leaved  foliage  peculiar  to  the  thirteenth  century, 
and  are  deeply  undercut.  We  consider  them  to  be  the 
original  work  of   1250. 

The  doorway  of  the  monks'  parlour,  to  the  south  of  the 
chapter-house,  has  been  underpinned  with  Perpendicular 
work,  and  ruthlessly  cut  through  to  insert  the  corbel  from 
which  sprang  the  wall  ribs  of  the  groining.  This  room  was 
about  32  feet  long  by  12  feet  wide,  and  had  a  plain  barrel- 
vaulted  roof. 

The  doorway  leading  to  the  vaulted  undercroft  of  the 
dormitory  is  semi-circular  headed,  and  has  no  later  insertion. 
There  are  two  cupboards  in  the  wall  on  the  eastern  side. 

The  broken  arch  at  the  south-east  corner  of  the  cloister 
leads  to  a  flight  of  steps  which  were  covered  by  the  roots  of 
a  large  ash-tree.  This  tree  has  been  cut  down  and  the 
dormitory  staircase    exposed. 

The  doorway  of  the  warming-house  has  a  trefoil-shaped 

The  lavatory  was  set  in  a  deep  recess  with  a  flat 
15th  century  arch  and  panelled  soffit.  The  corbel  from 
which  sprang  the  wall  rib  remains.  It  is  not  in  the  centre 
of  the  arch.  Part  of  the  trough  may  be  seen  at  the  east 
end  of  the  lavatory. 

The   doorway  of    the    frater,    with    its    seven   orders   of 
mouldings,  its    clustered    shafts    and    conventional    foliage, 
must    have    been    a    splendid    example    of    Early    English 
architecture.       When    the    fifteenth     century    "  restorers  ' 
inserted  their  plain  arch  they  appear   to   have   hidden   the 

BOSS    FROM    ROOF    OF    CHAPTER    HOUSE,    IIAYI.IS    AI'.r.lY 

Kindly  lent  by  the  Society  o)  Architects. 


Kindly  lent  by  the  Si  ciety  of  Architects. 

The  Abbey  of  St.  Mary,   Hayles.  265 

earlier  work  with  plaster.  We  found  an  Early  English 
capital  in  a  drain  about  two  feet  below  the  floor  line  of  the 
frater.  West  of  the  doorway  inside  is  a  large  cupboard, 
with  two  arches  and  a  groove  for  wooden  shelves.  Adjoining 
it  are  remains  of  the  usual  hatch.  The  kitchen,  butteries, 
and  pantry  have  completely  disappeared.  On  the  east  of 
the  doorway  are  two  smaller  cupboards  and  traces  of  a  table. 
We  have  only  as  yet  excavated  the  frater  to  the  extent  of 
three  feet  south  of  the  wall. 

Three  only  of  the  inner  arches  of  the  cloister  remain,  on 
the  west  side.  In  clearing  the  floor  of  the  west  walk  we 
found  six  bosses  and  a  large  quantity  of  late  Perpendicular 
vaulting,  also  some  tracery  of  the  arches. 

The  heraldic  bearings  on  the  bosses  are  as  follows : — 

(1)  Fretty,    for   Huddleston    of   Melholme,    Cumberland. 

Sir  John  Huddleston,  second  son  of  the  Lord  of 
Melholme,  was  governor  of  Sudeley  Castle,  two 
miles  distant  from  Hayles,  and  also  of  Gloucester 
Castle,  during  the  reigns  of  Richard  HI.,  Henry  VII., 
and  Henry  VIII.  He  died  January  15th,  1513,  and 
was  buried,  as  was  his  widow,  Dame  Joan,  at  Hayles 

(2)  Quavierly,   1   and   4  fretty  (for  Huddleston),   2  and  3 

three  bars  gcmcllcs  (for  Fitz-Alan)  impaling  a  lion 
rampant  (for  Stapleton).  Sir  John  Huddleston's 
father,  John  Huddleston,  married  Joan,  co-heir  of 
Sir  Miles  Stapleton,  of  Ingham,  and  Joan,  his  wife. 
Sir  Miles  Stapleton  was  the  son  of  Gilbert  Stapleton 
and  Agnes,  his  wife,  daughter  and  heir  of  Brian 
Fitz-Alan  of  Bedale. 

(3)  Huddleston   impaling  Stapleton,  or,   if  this  boss  be 

proved  to  be  of  later  date  than  the  other  five  and 
to  have  been  inserted  in  the  vaulted  roof  after 
the  Dissolution,  Huddleston  impaling  Barrantyne. 
Anthony  Huddleston,  grandson  of  the  governor  of 
Sudeley    and    son    of    Sir    John    Huddleston    III., 

266  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

who  built  Southam-de-la-Bere,  married  in  1541 
Mary,  daughter  and  heir  of  Sir  William  Barran- 
tyne,  of  Great  Haseley,  Oxfordshire.  The  tail  of 
this  lion  is  queued. 

(4)  Quarterly,  1  and  4,  five  fusils  in  fess  (for  Percy),  2  and  3, 

three  bars  geinelles,  over  all  a  bend  (for  Poynings). 
Henry  Percy,  Earl  of  Northumberland,  was  the 
grandson  of  Eleanor,  sole  heiress  of  Robert,  Lord 
Poynings,  and  in  her  right  he  was  Lord  Poynings, 
Brian,  and  Fitzpaine.  It  was  probably  through 
the  influence  of  Christopher  Urswycke,  Almoner 
of  Henry  VII.,  that  the  Earl  of  Northumberland 
became  a  generous  patron  of  Hayles. 

(5)  Quarterly,   1   and  4,  a  lion  passant  gardant  between  three 

helms  (for  Compton),  3  and  4,  a  chevron  within  a  bordurc. 
This  was  the  ancient  bearing  of  the  Compton  family, 
and  commemorated  some  gift  to  Hayles  Abbey  by 
Sir  William  Compton,  ancestor  of  the  Marquises 
of  Northampton.  The  lion  was  an  augmentation 
granted  to  him  by  Henry  VIII.,  in  the  fourth  year 
of  his  reign.  Sir  William  Compton  succeeded 
Sir  John  Huddleston  in  1513  as  governor  of  Sudeley 
Castle,  and  by  his  will  he  left  20  marks  to  Hayles 
Abbey.     He  died  in  1529. 

(6)  A  chain  with  a  shack-bolt  at  either  end,  between  three  mitres. 

The  chain  and  shack-bolt  refer  to  a  legend  of  Egwin, 
third  bishop  of  Worcester,  the  founder  of  Evesham 
Abbey  in  702,  and  were  used  as  arms  by  that  Abbey. 

On  the  22nd  of  March,  1900,  I  laid  these  facts  and  many 
drawings  and  photographs  of  the  chapter-house  tiles  and 
the  ruins,  &c,  before  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  at  Bur- 
lington House.  On  the  following  day,  I  had  an  interview 
with  the  representatives  of  the  present  owners,  the  Directors 
of  the  Economic  Assurance  Society,  and  this  led  to  their 
very  generously  repairing  and  placing  at  our  disposal  an 
ancient  barn  as  a  Museum. 

The  Abbey  of  St.  Mary,  Hayles.  267 

This  year  (1900)  we  have  been  examining  the  site  of  the 
Abbey  Church  with  most  interesting  results.  Many  of  the 
facts  recorded  in  the  Chronicle  of  Hayles  (mentioned  above) 
have  been  verified  by  recent  discoveries.  The  church,  as 
shown  by  the  mouldings  of  the  stonework,  is  distinctly  of  two 
dates;  viz.,  Early  English  of  c.  1250,  and  Transitional  Early 
English  of  c.  1275.  The  older  church  ended  eastward  with  a 
straight  wall  behind  the  high  altar.  In  1271-7,  the  new  work, 
an  eastern  apse,  was  constructed  with  five  polygonal  chapels, 
two  semi-circular  ambulatories,  and  a  structure,  eight  feet 
by  ten,  from  a  point  in  which  radiated  all  the  rest.  This 
structure  is,  without  doubt,  the  base  of  the  shrine  where 
rested  for  260  years,  together  with  the  piece  of  the  true  Cross, 
the  Holy  Blood  of  Hayles.  This,  the  most  sacred  spot  at  one 
time  in  the  county  of  Gloucester,  was  visited  by  thousands 
of  pilgrims  annually  from  all  parts  of  England  and  Wales. 
We  can  picture  to  our  minds  a  shrine  like  Edward  the 
Confessor's  at  Westminster,  or  like  those  of  St.  Albans,  Ely, 
Durham,  and  Canterbury — an  ark-like  structure  with  gabled 
roof,  and  carved  with  canopied  figures  of  saints.  In  1533,  the 
last  Abbot,  Stephen  Sagar  or  Whalley,  begged  Thomas 
Cromwell  that  the  case  which  contained  "that  feigned  relic 
of  Christ's  Blood,  which  standeth  where  it  did  in  the 
nature  of  a  shrine,  may  be  put  down,  every  stick  and 
stone,  and  so  leave  no  remembrance  of  that  forged  relic." 
At  another  time  he  is  willing,  he  says,  to  suffer  the  most 
shameful  death  if  ever  the  Blood  were  trifled  with ;  and  he 
speaks  of  an  old  monk,  eighty  years  of  age,  who  has  had 
care  of  the  sacred  relic  for  forty  years,  and  will  certify  the 

Fortunately  the  matrix  of  a  beautiful  seal  was  found  some 
years  ago  in  Yorkshire  with  the  figure  of  a  monk,  perhaps 
this  very  monk  of  whom  Sagar  speaks,  holding  in  his  right 
hand  the  phial  containing  the  Holy  Blood,  and  in  the  other 
the  asperges  (Lat.  aspcrgillas)  with  which  he  sprinkled  with 
holy  water  the  pilgrims  kneeling  before  the  shrine.  It  bears 
the  following  inscription  :   "  Sigillum  fraternitatis  monasterii 

268  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

beatae  Mariae  de  Hayles."  Probably  Abbot  Sagar,  when  he 
went  some  years  later  to  his  brother  Otho  Sagar,  vicar  of 
Warmfield,  to  die  and  be  buried  in  his  church,  took  the  seal 
with  him,  and  it  was  subsequently  lost.  A  copy  of  this  seal, 
as  well  as  of  another  from  the  muniments  of  the  Corporation 
of  Gloucester,  is  in  the  Hayles  Museum. 

It  is  a  marvel,  when  we  consider  that  the  site  of  the 
church  has  been  twice  dug  over  for  material  to  build  a  home 
for  the  Tracys  at  Toddington,  and  again  and  again  to  build 
farmhouses,  cottages,  and  barns,  that  the  base  of  this  sacred 
shrine  should  remain  intact.  The  beautiful  apse  in  which  it 
stood  reminds  us  of  the  choir  of  Westminster  Abbey,  which 
was  completed  in  1269.  The  apse  at  Hayles  was  built  to  be, 
as  it  were,  a  crown  on  the  head  of  the  cruciform  church. 

We  found  several  yards  of  plinth,  bases  of  shafts,  and 
portions  of  the  inner  walling  in  situ,  and  many  vaulting 
ribs,  shafts,  caps,  mullions  of  windows,  and  one  boss  lying 
among  the  debris.  The  two  chapels  of  the  eastern  apse  on  the 
north  and  the  two  on  the  south  were  floored  with  late  13th 
century  encaustic  tiles  bearing  the  royal  arms  of  England 
(three  lions  passant),  King  of  the  Romans  (an  eagle  displayed), 
Queen  Sanchia  (a  paly  of  eight),  Earl  of  Cornwall  (a  lion 
rampant,  with  a  bordure  bezanty),  and  De  Clare  (three 
chevrons).  The  central  chapel  was  refloored  in  the  14th 
century  with  large,  thick  tiles  ornamented  with  natural 
foliage,  etc.  Examples  of  all  these  tiles  have  been  desposited 
in  the  Museum  at  Hayles. 

Westward  of  this  beautiful  apse  is  the  Presbytery,  with 
north  and  south  aisles,  ten  and  a  half  feet  wide.  On  the 
north  side  of  the  high  altar,  the  floor  of  which  remains,  or 
immediately  in  front  of  it,  was,  probably,  the  "pyramis" 
of  the  founder  and  his  wife,  Queen  Sanchia,  and,  perhaps, 
on  the  south  side,  the  tomb  of  Edmund,  Earl  of  Cornwall. 
Of  Richard's  tomb  we  found  a  few  fragments,  one  orna- 
mented with  a  human  head  of  the  Edwardian  type. 
Moreover,  we  found  parts  of  the  effigies  of  a  mailed  warrior 
and    his  lady,  as  well  as  the  heads  of  the  lions  which  lay 

The  Abbey  of  St.  Mary,  Hayles.  269 

at  their  feet.  The  lower  part  of  a  heater-shaped  shield 
bearing  the  foot  of  a  lion  and  a  bordure  bezanty  is  just  the 
evidence  we  could  have  desired  to  enable  us  to  assign  the 
tomb  to  the  founder  and  his  Queen.  Lying  in  situ  on  the 
floor  of  the  north  aisle  of  the  Presbytery,  we  found  many 
scores  of  late  13th  century  tiles,  bearing  the  arms  of  Ferrers, 
Peverell,  Badlesmere,  Warren,  Stafford,  &c.  The  floor  of 
the  central  gangway  of  the  Presbytery  was  relaid  with  tiles 
in  the  last  quarter  of  the  14th  century.  This  is  shown  by 
the  heraldic  bearings  on  some  of  them  :  — 

(1)  Fretty,  on  a  canton  a  cross  fleury,  for  Henry  Wakefield, 

Bishop  of  Worcester,  1375  to  1395. 

(2)  A  fess  between  six  crosslets,  for  Thomas  de  Beauchamp, 

Earl  of  Warwick,  impaling  seven  muscles  3.3  and  1.  for 
his  wife  Margaret,  daughter  of  William  de  Ferrers 
of  Groby.     He  died  in  1400. 

(3)  Barry  of  six,  an  escutcheon,  on  a  chief  three  pales  gyroncd, 

for   Mortimer. 

(4)  A  fesse  between  six  martlets,  for  Beauchamp. 

(5)  The  same  quartering  a  maiatch,  for  Hastings  or  Toney. 

(6)  Scmee  of  fleur  de  lys. 

(7)  A  chevron,  or  perhaps  two  chevrons,  between  three  wheels ; 

and  many  others. 

In  front  of  the  Presbytery  steps  we  found  a  beautiful  row 
of  early  14th  century  tiles: — (1)  the  Despencer  fret  alternate 
with  (2)  a  queer  bird  with  two  heads  and  a  long  neck,  and 
(3)  many  border  tiles  with  the  castle  of  Eleanor  of  Castille 
and  the  fleur  de  lys  of  Margaret  of  France,  Queens  of 
Edward  I.  Specimens  of  all  these  tiles  will  be  found  in  the 

Between  the  Presbytery  and  its  aisles  on  either  side 
were  four  arcades  and  a  connecting  wall  or  screen,  probably 
about  ten  feet  high,  as  at  Tintern.  This  arrangement  is 
always  found  in  the  naves  and  aisled  Presbyteries  of 
Cistercian  churches.  Immediately  in  front  of  the  high  altar 
we  found  a  round  stone  vessel,  three  feet  in  diameter  at  the 

270  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

top  and  one  foot  four  inches  at  the  base,  and  near  it  we 
found  masses  of  lead  intermixed  with  clay.  Mr.  St.  John 
Hope,  Secretary  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  London, 
believes  this  to  be  a  vessel  for  melting  the  lead  sold  at  the 
Dissolution.  Westward  of  the  Presbytery  is  the  monks* 
choir,  occupying  the  crossing  and  one  bay  of  the  nave. 
Beyond  the  choir  are  the  pulpitum  or  screen  and  the  retro- 
choir.  The  easternmost  bays  of  the  north  and  south  aisles 
of  the  nave  were  cut  off  by  stone  screens,  forming  them  into 
chapels.  In  the  chapels  of  the  south  aisle  we  found  traces 
of  two  tombs,  between  the  pillars  of  the  arcades,  and 
hundreds  of  fragments  of  two  15th  century  monuments. 
In  the  north  aisle  we  found  a  beautiful  13th  century  carved 
bracket  with  three  dragons  devouring  one  another.  To  the 
right  and  left  of  the  choir  are  transepts,  each  with  three 
eastern  chapels,  as  is  usual  in  Cistercian  churches.  There 
are  traces  of  a  central  tower  as  at  Tintern.  The  church, 
with  the  apse,  is  about  320  feet  in  length,  as  long  as 
Gloucester  Cathedral  without   the  Lady  Chapel. 

The  Church  has  now  been  covered  in  again.  Next 
summer  we  hope  to  examine  the  remains  of  the  abbot's 
lodgings,  the  frater,  the  warming  house  and  the  infirmary. 

Mr.  Harold  Brakspear,  Architect  of  Malmesbury  Abbey, 
a  well-known  expert  in  Cistercian  architecture,  has  made  a 
careful  ground  plan  of  all  that  has  been  uncovered.  This 
plan,  with  subsequent  additions,  will  be  reproduced  in  these 

While  searching  for  some  stained  glass  said  by  Rudder 
to  have  been  removed  from  the  Abbot's  lodgings  to  old 
Toddington  House  we  discovered,  in  a  box,  twenty-one 
mosaics  of  beautifully  painted  glass  with  the  following 
inscription  on  a  piece  of  white  glass : — "  This  window  was 
new  glazed  and  the  figures  from  Hailes  Abbey  placed  here 
by  Thos.  Chas.  Lord  Visct.  Tracy  in  1789." 

The  owners  having  courteously  given  us  permission  to 
place  this  glass  in  the  Museum  at  Hayles,  it  has  been  care- 
fully releaded  under  the  immediate  direction  of  one  of  the 

The  Abbey  of  St.  Mary,  Hayles.  271 

members  of  this  Society,  Mr.  C.  H.  Dancey.  Nine  mosaics 
represent  the  Apostles  SS.  Andrew,  James  the  Greater, 
John,  Philip,  James  the  Less,  Thomas,  Bartholomew, 
Matthew,  and  Simon.  SS.  Peter,  Matthias,  and  Thaddeus 
are  missing.  S.  Andrew  repeats  the  second  clause  of  the 
Apostles'  Creed,  "  Et  in  Jesum  Christum  Filiura  ejus 
unicum  Dominum  nostrum,"  and  the  rest  continue  it  as 
far  as  "Remissionem  peccatorum."  As  in  the  beautiful 
glass  at  Fairford,  the  Prince  of  Wales'  feather  appears  in 
nearly  all  these  nine  mosaics,  which  are  apparently  of 
15th  century  workmanship.  Seven  others  are  composed  of 
fragments  of  glass  of  similar  date.  The  remaining  five 
belong  to  the  Renaissance  period  ;  the  designs  of  these  last 
are — two  angels,  two  cupids,  and  the  arms  of  the  Founder 
as  well  as  of  the  Abbey. 

The  ruins  of  the  Abbey  and  the  contents  of  the  Museum 
have  been  vested  in  five  Trustees: — Sir  Michael  Hicks-Beach 
and  Mr.  C.  Wise,  appointed  by  the  owners ;  Mr.  St.  Clair 
Baddeley  and  the  Rev.  W.  Bazeley,  appointed  by  this 
Society;  and  the  Rev.  C.  H.  Stanton,  Vicar  of  Toddington, 
Didbrook,  and  Hayles,  appointed  by  the  owners  and  this 
Society  conjointly.  The  Trustees  held  their  first  meeting 
on  the  3rd  of  September,   1900. 

More  than  800  visitors  were  received  at  the  Abbey  last 
summer  and  autumn,  and  lectures  on  the  history  of  the 
Abbey  and  contents  of  the  Museum  were  given  by  Mr. 
Baddeley  and  myself  on  Thursday  afternoons. 

The  Excavation  Fund,  for  which  no  special  appeal  was 
made  in  1900,  is  well-nigh  exhausted  ;  but  the  work  is  of 
such  thrilling  interest,  that  we  feel  sure  fresh  subscriptions 
will  be  forthcoming  from  the  members  of  this  Society  and 
other  friends. 

G.  M.  Currie,  Esq.,  26  Lansdown  Place,  Cheltenham, 
is  Treasurer  of  the  Fund. 



By     J.      LATIMER. 

Amongst  many  remarkable  documents  entered  in  the  Great 
Red  Book  of  the  Corporation  of  Bristol,  at  present  almost 
unknown  to  the  public,  is  an  account  of  an  extraordinary 
occurrence  during  the  reign  of  Edward  IV.,  which  created 
great  excitement  at  the  time,  and  which  gives  modern 
readers  a  vivid  picture  of  city  life  in  the  middle  ages,  yet 
which  local  historians  have  thought  worthy  only  of  the 
baldest  record.  The  chief  actor  in  the  affair  was  one 
Thomas  Norton,  an  officer  in  the  Royal  Court  holding  the 
important  post  of  Customer  of  Bristol,  and  the  owner  and 
occupier  of  the  Great  House  in  St.  Peter's  Churchyard,  so 
well  known  to  archaeologists.  Before  narrating  his  outrageous 
proceedings,  it  is  requisite  to  give  a  short  account  of  that 
mansion  and  its  previous  owners. 

The  house,  or  an  earlier  one  on  the  same  site,  belonged 
in  1401  to  one  John  Corne,  and  it  was  sold  in  that  year  to 
Thomas  Norton,  the  ancestor  of  the  above  Thomas,  who  had 
come  into  a  great  fortune  bequeathed  to  him  by  Elias  Spelly, 
mayor  of  Bristol  in  1390-1,  and  who  himself  was  elected 
mayor  in  141 3.  (Corne's  charter,  given  at  length  in 
Gentleman's  Magazine  for  1852,  part  ii.,  p.  274,  disposes  of  the 
statement  in  some  local  works  that  the  Nortons  built  a 
dwelling  on  the  site  in  the  12th  century.)  In  1435  the  house 
was  in  possession  of  the  purchaser's  sons,  Thomas  and 
Walter,  who  divided  it  into  two  dwellings  for  their  inde- 
pendent residences  ;  but  the  double  ownership  had  come  to 
an  end  in  1458,  when  Walter  was  sole  proprietor.  That 
gentleman  had  two  sons,  both  named  Thomas,  and  two 
daughters,  married  to  wealthy  Bristolians,  Robert  Strange 
(thrice   mayor)    and   John    Shipward,   jun.    (mayor   1477-8). 

Some  Curious  Incidents  in  Bristol  History.      273 

For  some  unexplained  reason,  Mr.  Norton  determined  to 
convey  the  bulk  of  his  estates  to  his  younger  son,  then  a 
boy;  and  by  a  feoffment,  dated  October  12th,  1458,  he 
assigned  all  his  real  property  in  Worcestershire  and  Bristol 
to  his  two  sons-in-law  (Shipward  is  called  Sheppard  in  the 
deed,  but  the  same  misspelling  occurs  in  other  documents) 
and  to  Richard  Bartfield,  described  elsewhere  as  his  servant, 
directing  them  as  feoffees  to  reconvey  the  estate,  except  one 
moiety  of  the  Great  House,  to  his  younger  son,  "in  order 
that  lie  should  not  be  vexed  or  troubled  by  Thomas,  his 
elder  brother,"  who  appears  to  have  been  the  boy's  senior  by 
several  years.  The  delay  that  occurred  before  this  direction 
was  fully  carried  out  is  somewhat  surprising.  It  was  not 
until  three  years  later  that  the  feoffees  executed  two  deeds, 
one  of  which  demised  the  Worcestershire  estates  and  exten- 
sive house  property  in  Bristol  (all  acquired  from  Spelly), 
together  with  the  eastern  portion  of  the  Great  House  and 
its  garden,  to  Walter  Norton  and  Isabel  his  wife  for  life, 
with  remainder  to  their  younger  son,  Thomas,  and  his  heirs, 
remainder  to  their  elder  son  and  his  heirs,  and  further 
remainders  to  their  two  daughters  in  succession.  The  second 
instrument  demised  the  western  part  of  the  Great  House 
and  its  garden,  after  the  lives  of  Walter  and  his  wife,  to 
their  elder  son,  Thomas,  with  remainder,  failing  heirs,  to 
Thomas  the  younger  and  his  two  sisters,  as  in  the  former 
deed.  Another  delay  of  two  years  and  a  half  took  place 
before  these  feoffments  were  legally  completed  by  the 
appointment,  in  October,  1463,  of  an  attorney  to  take  seisin 
on  behalf  of  Walter  and  his  wife.  Finally,  two  years  and 
a  half  later  still,  in  June,  1466,  Walter,  whose  wife  was  then 
dead,  at  length  brought  all  the  above  documents  to  the 
Council  House,  and  requested  their  enrolment  according  to 
the  custom  of  the  city  in  order  to  assure  their  validity.  Not 
content    with    this    formality,    Mr.    Norton    requ  the 

mayor,  sheriff,  and  other  dignitaries  to  accompany  him  to 
St.  Peter's  Churchyard,  which  was  accordingly  done,  and 
there  the  old  gentleman  delivered  possession  of  the  eastern 

Vol.  XXII. 

274  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

end  of  the  mansion  to  his  younger  son  in  the  name  of  all  the 
estate,  declaring  that  he  relinquished  all  title  to  and  interest 
in  the  property  for  evermore,  and  adding  that  he  had  already 
given  up  his  jewels  and  household  stuff  to  his  youthful  son 
"to  make  him  sure  thereof  in  his  life."  (These  proceedings 
took  place  before  William  Spencer,  then  mayor,  a  fact  to  be 
borne  in  mind  in  connection  with  subsequent  events.)  Six 
days  before  this  singular  scene  took  place  Mr.  Norton 
executed  his  will,  by  which  he  left  his  eldest  son  only  a 
silver  cup,  some  hangings  and  cushions  in  the  hall  of  his 
dwelling,  and  "the  standing  bed  in  the  great  chamber  with 
its  tester  and  curtains  "  ;  whilst  he  bequeathed  to  the  boy 
several  pieces  of  plate  (amongst  which  was  a  standing  cup 
and  cover  called  "a  Grype  is  Eye"),  the  stained  bed  and 
hangings,  some  Arras  work,  cloth,  linen,  and  blankets,  "all 
the  steyned  cloth  of  the  life  of  King  Robert  of  Cecyle  which 
hangeth  in  my  parlour,"  saucers,  pottingers,  platters,  pewter 
chargers,  five  brass  pots,  "and  all  my  fee  simple  lands  in 
Bristol  and  elsewhere,"  the  last  bequest  being  probably 
made  in  apprehension  that  something  might  have  been 
omitted  in  the  feoffments.  The  remainder  of  his  household 
goods  and  chattels,  jewels,  &c,  was  also  bequeathed  to  the 
younger  son,  to  be  disposed  of  for  the  good  of  testator's 

As  in  that  age  men  rarely  made  their  wills  until  they 
were  in  dread  of  imminent  death,  it  may  be  surmised  that 
Walter  Norton  was  then  seriously  indisposed.  If  such  were 
the  case,  however,  he  recovered,  and  with  recovery  came 
regret  over  the  relinquishment  of  all  his  belongings  and  a 
desire  to  recover  them.  The  next  document  in  the  Great 
Red  Book  bearing  upon  the  case  is  of  ten  months  later 
date — April  2nd,  1467,— and  is  a  declaration  by  William 
Canynges,  mayor,  and  John  Gaywoode,  sheriff,  certifying 
that  Thomas  Norton,  junior,  who  was  still  a  minor,  had 
come  before  them  and  their  brethren  at  the  Tolzey,  "lament- 
ably declaring"  that  in  spite  of  the  feoffments  recited  above, 
under  which  the  complainant  had  taken  the  profits  of  the 

Some  Curious  Incidents  in  Bristol  History.      275 

estate,  his  father,  by  the  sinister  labour  of  ill-disposed 
persons,  had  published  and  noised  in  various  countries  that 
he  had  placed  his  younger  son  in  possession  only  for  his 
(Walter's)  own  use,  and  that  he  intended  to  make  a  re- 
feoffment  of  the  estate,  make  void  the  existing  deeds,  and 
disinherit  the  complainant,  "  against  all  right  and  con- 
science." The  applicant  therefore  prayed  the  civic  officials 
to  make  known  what  they  knew  respecting  the  matter. 
Thereupon  the  mayor,  the  sheriff,  with  John  Shipward, 
William  Spencer,  and  other  members  of  the  Common 
Council,  "inasmuch  as  it  is  one  of  the  highest  duties  of 
charity  to  bear  witness  to  the  truth  and  to  appease  contro- 
versies," solemnly  affirm  that  they  were  witnesses  to  Walter 
Norton's  demand  for  the  enrolment  of  the  deeds,  and  to  his 
delivery  of  seisin  to  his  son  in  the  manner  and  terms  related 
above.  This  declaration  was  then  formally  engrossed,  and 
the  seals  of  the  mayor  and  the  other  worshipful  witnesses 
were  duly  appended,  with  a  view  to  its  production  in  a 
judicial  court. 

There  is  no  evidence  that  Walter  Norton  persisted  in  his 
threatened  measures.  The  date  of  his  death  is  not  recorded, 
but  the  will  of  1466  was  enrolled  in  the  Great  Red  Book, 
and  does  not  appear  to  have  been  contested  ;  and  there  is  no 
mention  of  further  feoffments.  But  twelve  years  after  the 
declaration  made  by  Canynges  and  his  brethren,  in  the  third 
mayoralty  of  William  Spencer,  an  extraordinary  document 
was  entered  in  the  Great  Book  under  the  following  title :  — 

"  Here  followeth  a  Remembrance  never  to  be  put  in 
oblivion,  but  to  put  in  perpetual  memory  of  all  the  true: 
burgesses  and  lovers  of  the  town  of  Bristol  of  the  Innatural 
demeaning  and  the  inordinate  behaving  of  Thomas  Norton, 
of  Bristol,  gentleman,  against  the  noble,  famous,  and  true 
merchant,  William  Spencer,  being  the  third  time  mayor  of 
the  town  of  Bristol  aforesaid,  that  is  to  wit,  in  the  year 
beginning  at  the  feast  of  St.  Michael,  the  eighteenth  year  of 
the  reign  of  our   most   dread  sovereign   lord    King    I  Edward 

276  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

the  Fourth.  Gathered  and  compiled  by  John  Twynyho, 
the  recorder  of  the  said  town,  Which  in  the  same  advised, 
counselled  and  assisted  the  said  mayor  in  his  most  true  and 
hearty  manner." 

This  portentous  Remembrance  occupies  twenty-nine 
closely-written  folios,  and  if  copied  verbatim  would  extend 
over  about  as  many  pages  of  this  volume  ;  but  by  eliminating 
legal  tautology,  and  omitting  uninteresting  details,  all  the 
chief  facts  may  be  brought  within  a  reasonable  compass. 
As  far  as  possible,  the  language  of  the  document  has  been 
retained,  but  it  has  not  been  thought  necessary  to  reproduce 
the  eccentricities  in  orthography. 

On  Friday,  the  12th  March,  19  Edward  IV.  (1479),  when 
the  mayor  and  John  Skrevyn,  sheriff,  were  sitting  in  the 
Compter,  hearing  complaints  according  to  old  custom, 
Thomas  Norton,  gent,  and  water  holder,  appeared  at  five 
o'clock  in  the  afternoon  with  William  Banner,  yeoman, 
desiring  to  speak  with  them  secretly ;  but  the  mayor  stated 
that  the  inner  chamber  was  then  occupied  by  divers  brethren 
deliberating  on  great  matters,  and  desired  Norton  to  sit 
down  by  him  and  state  why  he  came.  Having  sate  down, 
Norton  said  secretly,  "  I  must  speak  heinous  words."  He 
then  stood  up  and  took  out  of  a  box  a  sealed  writing,  which 
he  read  in  as  low  a  voice  as  he  could.  The  writing  began  by 
asserting  that  he  (Norton),  one  of  the  King's  household, 
appealed  the  mayor  of  high  treason  for  reasons  he  would 
declare^  to  the  King,  protesting  that  this  was  not  done 
because  of  any  dispute  depending  between  him  and  the 
mayor,  but  because  of  the  latter's  rotten  and  traitorous  heart 
towards  the  King.  If  permitted  by  the  latter,  he  would 
make  this  good  upon  the  mayor's  wretched  person,  or  on 
that  of  any  co-burgess  who  would  offer  to  defend  him.  And 
this  to  perform,  he  cast  to  the  mayor  a  glove  attached  to  the 
writing,  sealed  with  his  arms.  To  which  the  mayor  answered 
that  the  charge  was  false,  as  he  should  prove  himself;  where- 
upon Norton  gave  the  appeal  to  the  sheriff,  charging  him  on 

Some  Curious  Incidents  in  Bristol  History.     277 

the  King's  behalf  with  the  person  of  the  mayor  on  pain  of 
24  marks,  and  so  departed. 

Next  day  the  mayor  summoned  the  sheriff,  recorder,  and 
Council  to  the  Council  House  to  state  the  above  facts,  and 
they,  knowing  the  loyalty  and  virtue  of  the  mayor,  marvelled, 
and  discussed  the  matter  long,  and  gave  him  much  counsel, 
for  which  he  thanked  them,  but  said  he  could  not  remain  in 
office  until  he  had  cleared  himself  of  the  charge.  He  then 
delivered  up  the  sword,  charged  the  sheriff  and  Council  to 
govern  the  town  well,  and  gave  himself  up  to  the  sheriff, 
requiring  him  to  convey  him  to  Newgate  until  the  King  was 
informed  ot  the  case.  The  Council,  approving  of  this  course 
with  weeping  eyes  and  sorrowing  hearts,  chose  eight  of  their 
body  to  be  coadjutors  in  governing  the  town,  which  they  did 
most  discreetly.  The  mayor  was  conveyed  by  all  his  brethren 
through  the  open  Saturday  market  to  gaol.  The  masters  of 
the  various  crafts  were  next  summoned,  informed  of  the 
facts,  and  enjoined  to  see  that  the  King's  peace  was  faith- 
fully kept.  Next  day  (Sunday)  the  sheriff  delivered  the 
appeal  and  glove  to  Thomas  Asshe,  yeoman  of  the  King's 
Chamber  and  Comptroller  of  the  Port,  to  be  given  to  the 
King,  which  he  did  at  Eltham  on  Tuesday,  accompanying 
them  with  a  letter  from  the  sheriff.  This  missive  stated  that 
Norton  had  retained  divers  riotous  and  idle  persons  by  oath 
and  otherwise  [the  hiring  of  retainers  was  then  a  high  mis- 
demeanour], and  that  five  of  these  retainers  on  the  previous 
Sunday  had  assaulted  the  bailiff  of  Temple  fee  and  left  him 
for  dead,  whereupon  the  mayor  had  ordered  the  arrest  of  the 
rioters,  and  three  of  them  were  committed  to  gaol.  Hearing 
of  this,  Norton  came  to  the  mayor  and  recorder,  and  praised 
them  for  their  action,  renouncing  the  prisoners  as  his 
servants  and  promising  to  assist  as  a  good  burgess  in  re- 
pressing riots.  On  the  Friday  following  the  prisoners  were 
indicted  at  the  sessions;  but  in  the  afternoon  Norton,  in 
spite  of  these  promises,  came  to  the  Compter  and  appealed 
the  mayor  of  treason.  The  sheriff,  in  conclusion,  asks  for 
the  King's  pleasure. 

278  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

On  Monday,  the  15th,  the  sheriff,  with  John  Druez  and 
Richard  Bond,  bailiffs,  and  the  rest  of  the  Common  Council, 
forwarded  an  account  of  Norton's  conduct,  sealed  with  the 
common  seal,  to  the  King  and  Privy  Council.     This  state- 
ment  is    more   lengthy   than   the  sheriff's,  but   to  the   same 
effect.     It   adds  that    Spencer  was    63    years  old,  and  that 
Norton  had  declared  before  witnesses  that  his  worship  was 
the  best  mayor  Bristol  had  ever  had  within  living  memory, 
excepting  perhaps  Canynges.     It  further  states  that  Spencer 
had  that  year  prevented  a  great  rise  in  the  price  of  wheat  by 
his  care  and  diligence;  had  cherished  the  suites  of  the  King, 
Queen,  and  Prince  when  resorting  to  the  town  ;   had  done 
many  charitable  deeds ;  had  new  made  the  quere  and  body 
of  the   Grey  Friars'  church,  and  repaired  their  house  and 
those  of  divers  chantries  ;  revived  an  almshouse  ;  given  large 
sums  weekly  to  prisoners,  bedridden  and  infirm,  and  much 
clothing  and  blankets;  spent  much  in  making  bridges  and 
highways,   and    in   fine  was   God's   servant  and   the   King's 
liege  man.     The  document   then  proceeds :    And   since  the 
Council    are    now    driven    to    open    Norton's   unlawful    and 
riotous  proceedings,  which  has  been  long  forborne  because 
he  is  one  of   the   King's  household,  they  now  declare  that 
he  has  retained    riotous    persons,  is   a  common   haunter  of 
taverns,  where  he  drinks  and  rails  with  his  followers  until 
midnight,  not  associating  with  honest  company ;  lies  in  bed 
till  nine  or  ten  daily,  avoiding  divine  service ;  spends  sermon 
time   in  the   afternoon   at  tennis  and  frivolous  sports,   and 
generally  promotes  mischief.     Moreover,  for  divers  years  he 
unnaturally  warred  with  and  trouble'd  his  father  and  mother, 
who  often  gave  him  Christ's  curse,  and  he  has  broken  their 
wills  since  their  death.     His  father  gave  divers  lands  and 
tenements  to  his  younger  brother  Thomas,  but  he  put  his 
brother   out  of   the   estate,  vexed   him   with  many  actions, 
kept  him  a  prisoner  in  the   Savoy,  and  at  last  drove  him 
out  of  the  country  to  Spain,  in  the  voyage  to  which  he  was 
drowned.     By  the  mediation  of  Sir  Richard  Chok,  justice, 
and   the    recorder,   he    agreed    to   pay  a    yearly  rent   to  his 

Some  Curious  Incidents  in  Bristol  History.     279 

brother's  widow,  and  to  provide  a  living  for  his  nephew 
Richard  ;  yet  by  his  might  and  strength  he  has  withdrawn 
from  this  undertaking  and  not  paid  the  rent.  He  has  one 
sister,  a  good  and  worshipful  gentlewoman,  but  he  un- 
naturally hates  her,  and  forbids  her  from  his  presence ;  and 
had,  moreover,  greatly  troubled  a  worthy  merchant,  John 
Shipward,  deceased,  who  was  father  unto  his  wife,1  inasmuch 
as,  when,  after  Tewkesbury  fight,  the  King  ordered  him  to  seize 
the  lands  of  the  Earl  of  Warwick  in  Somerset,  he,  by  colour 
thereof,  alleged  he  had  authority  to  smite  off  Shipward's 
head,  his  father-in-law,  and  threatened  so  to  do  unless 
Shipward  would  deliver  up  the  deeds  relating  to  his  younger 
brother's  lands  ;  in  dread  whereof  Shipward  consented,  and 
in  his  trouble  died  soon  after.  The  letter  concludes  by 
praying  the  King  that  directions  may  be  taken  so  that  the 
common  policy  and  sad  rule  of  the  town  be  not  overthrown 
by  the  malice  of  Norton  and  his  adherents.  The  town  is  not 
only  the  King's  own,  but  is  also  the  Chamber  of  the  Queen, 
and  the  inhabitants  are  most  faithful  subjects. 

The  record  goes  on  to  state  that  on  Sunday,  the  14th, 
Norton,  perceiving  the  mayor's  discreet  demeanour,  took 
horse  in  haste  to  lay  his  charges  before  the  King ;  yet  he  did 
not  reach  the  Court,  at  Sheen,  until  Thursday,  the  i8tb. 
Asshe,  with  the  town's  deputies,  had  preceded  him  there, 
and  had  laid  their  case  before  the  King  and  Privy  Council, 
and  when  Norton  appeared  the  King's  look  was  so  estranged 
from  him  that  he  at  once  departed  to  "  Braneford,"  the 
whole  Court  having  him  in  such  loathing  that  no  creature 
made  him  any  cheer. 

On  the   19th  the  sheriff  and  recorder  held  a   session   at 

1  The  relationship  between  the  two  families  was  somewhat  peculiar, 
and  will  be  best  explained  as  follows  : — 


Thomas  =  Joan,  dr  of  John  Agnes  —  John  Shipwai  . 

Shipward,  jun.  jun. 

280  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

Bristol  (the  mayor  being  still  in  ward),  and  eighty-six  of 
the  most  notable  burgesses  from  the  five  great  wards  being 
assembled,  four  several  juries  were  sworn,  and  Norton 
was  indicted  for  having  illegally  kept  thirty  retainers  for 
eighteen  months  and  more.  According  to  which  charge,  if 
Norton  were  found  guilty,  he  would  forfeit  £5  a  month 
for  each  retainer,  or  /"2,goo  in  all. 

And  although  Norton  appeared  before  the  King  on  the 
18th,  yet  he  did  not  on  the  19th  appear  again  to  maintain 
his  appeal.  Whereupon  the  town  deputies  prayed  the  King 
that  Norton  should  be  commanded  to  appear,  which  was 
done.  So  on  the  20th  Norton  came  before  the  King  and 
Privy  Council,  when  he  was  asked  to  show  the  speciality 
of  the  mayor's  treasons.  And  God,  the  searcher  of  hearts, 
made  him  so  feel  his  own  untruth  that  he  could  unnethe 
[neither]  look,  speak,  nor  keep  his  countenance,  but  deemed 
[demeaned  ?]  himself  as  a  person  ronne  in  to  fronsy,  as  the 
King  afterwards  said  to  the  recorder.  And  as  he  could 
allege  no  special  treason  against  the  mayor,  nor  yet  any 
offence,  the  King,  after  good  deliberation  with  the  Privy 
Council,  like  a  right  wise  sovereign,  dismissed  the  mayor  of 
all  accusations,  and  held  him  as  a  true  subject,  commanding 
the  sheriff  to  set  him  at  liberty.  The  royal  letters  to  that 
effect — one  to  the  sheriff,  another  to  the  mayor,  and  a  third 
to  the  sheriff  and  commonalty — were  brought  to  Bristol 
by  the  deputies  on  the  24th,  when  a  Common  Council  was 
at  once  held,  and  the  whole  municipal  body,  with  thousands 
of  people,  joyfully  went  to  the  gaol,  delivered  the  mayor, 
gave  him  the  sword,  and  with  great  gladness  brought  him  to 
the  Guildhall.  There  the  King's  comfortable  letters  were 
read  by  the  recorder  to  the  great  consolation  of  the 
multitude.  (The  documents  are  then  given  verbatim.  In 
that  directed  to  the  sheriff,  the  King  directs  that  officer 
to  send  up  to  Court  one  William  Wilkyns,  upon  whom 
Norton  "groundeth  the  matter  of  his  accusation.") 

On  the  27th  the  sheriff,  bailiffs,  and  Common  Council  drew 
up    a   paper  directed  to  the  Privy  Council,  which  was  sent 

Some  Curious  Incidents  in  Bristol  History.     281 

up  by  two  deputies,  to  whom  was  also  committed  the 
prisoner,  John  Wilkins,  butcher.  After  returning  thanks  for 
the  King's  gracious  treatment  of  the  mayor,  the  writers  state 
that  the  prisoner's  Christian  name  is  John,  not  William, 
and  that  he  is  the  terror  of  the  King's  subjects,  a  night 
walker,  a  breaker  of  the  peace,  always  ready  for  commotion 
and  rebellion,  and,  according  to  report,  a  man  queller 
(murderer)  in  Wales,  for  which  he  came  to  dwell  in  Bristol. 
Six  cases  are  cited  to  prove  his  riotous  and  murderous 
disposition,  a  man  being  slain  in  one  outrage,  and  twice  the 
bailiffs  were  in  danger  of  death.  In  the  previous  October, 
when  in  gaol  for  one  of  these  crimes,  he  had  threatened  to 
accuse  the  mayor  of  having  ^"400  of  the  goods  of  the  Duke 
of  Clarence  [attainted  in  1478,  when  he  held  the  Somerset 
estates  of  his  father-in-law,  the  King-maker]  and  ^"300  of 
the  goods  of  the  Earl  of  Warwick  [the  King-maker  himself, 
killed  in  1471].  Wilkins  afterwards  confessed  on  oath  that 
these  charges  were  false,  but  was  kept  in  goal  for  want  of 
sureties  to  keep  the  peace.  On  the  day  after  Norton  had 
appealed  the  mayor,  Norton  made  great  efforts  to  speak  with 
Wilkins,  sending  the  gaoler  his  signet,  and  desiring  that  the 
prisoner  be  brought  to  his  house  secretly  by  night.  The 
gaoler  refusing,  Norton  sent  divers  messages  by  Wilkins's 
wife.  Then,  as  though  he  were  capital  governor  of  the  town, 
having  authority  surmounting  the  justices,  Norton  ordered 
the  gaoler,  on  pain  of  500  marks,  to  take  off  Wilkins's  irons, 
though  in  fact  Wilkins  wore  no  irons  until  he  committed  an 
outrageous  assault  upon  another  prisoner  a  few  days  before. 
The  King's  consideration  of  these  facts  is  therefore  prayed. 
In  addition  to  the  above  letter,  the  sheriff  and  Common 
Council  addressed  others  to  the  Marquis  of  Dorset,  Lord 
Rivers,  my  Lord  Richard  the  Queen's  son,  the  Bishop  of 
Worcester,  and  Lord  Dacre,  praying  for  the  continuance 
of  their  favour.  Armed  with  these  documents  (and  probably 
furnished  with  pecuniary  means  to  gratify  the  cupidity  of 
underlings),  the  deputies  carried  up  Wilkins  to  Court,  and 
the   prisoner   was    no   sooner    brought    before    the    King   in 

282  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

Council  than  he  confessed  the  falseness  of  his  accusations. 
Norton  was  also  examined,  and  could  allege  nothing  against 
the  mayor,  whereupon  three  more  royal  letters  were  sent 
down  to  the  same  effect  as  the  previous  ones,  and  Wilkins 
was  sent  back  to  gaol. 

Norton,  however,  was  not  yet  silenced.  In  a  "Bill" 
presented  to  the  King,  in  which  he  styled  himself  Customer 
of  Bristol,  he  complained  that  the  mayor,  to  avenge  his  old 
malice  against  the  writer,  had  caused  him  and  other  lovers  of 
the  King  to  be  "  indicted  of  retainours,"  although  this  charge 
had  been  already  heard  and  •dismissed.  He  (Norton)  by 
virtue  of  his  office  had  appointed  two  men  to  search  all  cloths 
carried  by  land  out  of  the  town  uncustomed,  which  was 
never  done  before  his  time,  to  the  great  loss  of  the  Crown. 
These  searchers  seized  nine  cloths  belonging  to  the  mayor 
that  were  being  secretly  conveyed  away,  and  when  Norton 
refused  a  hogshead  of  wine  proffered  as  a  bribe  by  the 
mayor,  the  latter  took  a  malice  against  the  searchers,  and 
indicted  them  for  wearing  Norton's  livery,  though  he  had 
merely  given  them  two  gowns  for  their  wages.  Wherefore 
he  prayed  that  justice  should  be  done.  He  further  alleged 
that,  owing  to  the  tides  of  the  sea  at  Bristol,  ships  came  up 
every  hour  of  the  night  as  well  as  by  day,  taking  advantage 
of  which  the  merchants  craftily  shipped  off  much  goods 
uncustomed,  having  wild  and  unruly  seamen  to  help  them  ; 
that  Norton  had  sought  to  prevent  this  by  getting  other 
lovers  of  the  King  to  help  him  ;  and  that  thereupon  the 
subtle  mayor  had  indicted  him  and  the  said  King's  lovers 
for  illegal  night  watching.  Taking  advantage,  too,  of  a 
simple  night  affray  in  the  fee  of  St.  John  [Temple  Street], 
by  which  the  bailiff  there  and  another  man  got  broken  heads, 
the  mayor  had  gone  with  great  power  into  the  fee,  taken  the 
innocent  lovers  of  the  King  out  of  their  beds,  haled  them  to 
prison,  and  had  now  indicted  them  for  riot.  Their  discharge 
from  this  malice  is  also  prayed  for. 

Hearing    of    this    charge,    the     recorder    journeyed    to 
Windsor,    and    found    the    King    good    and    gracious,    and 

Some  Curious  Incidents  in  Bristol  History.      283 

taking  no  consideration  of  Norton,  but  ordered  that  the 
grudges  should  be  appeased.  On  May  21st  the  recorder 
returned  to  Bristol,  bearing  a  letter  from  the  King  to  the 
mayor,  stating  that,  by  the  advice  of  his  Council,  he  had 
dismissed  Norton's  accusations  and  retained  the  mayor  in 
his  good  will,  but  required  the  grudges  to  cease — all  which 
he  had  showed  at  length  to  the  recorder,  who  was  also 
"general  attorney  to  our  dear  son  the  Prince,"  and  whom 
he  appointed  to  sit  in  his  name  for  a  final  conclusion  of  the 
matter.  Norton,  it  was  added,  had  received  a  similar 
command,  and  if  he  or  any  other,  "  boldly  by  cover  of  our 
service,"  hereafter  offended  against  the  laudable  laws  of 
Bristol,  the  mayor  and  his  successors  were  directed  to 
proceed  to  their  lawful  punishment  without  delay. 

Nevertheless,  says  the  civic  record,  though  the  mayor 
was  ready  to  comply  with  the  King's  request,  and  the 
recorder  gave  due  attendance  to  carry  it  out,  Thomas 
Norton,  drowned  in  presumptuous  obstinacy,  set  aside 
the  King's  commandment,  and  came  not  to  Bristol  until 
the  following  Michaelmas,  of  which  the  recorder  informed 
the  King,  "  and  it  is  like  that  convenient  remedy  will 
thereupon   be  purveyed." 

The  "Remembrance"  thus  closes,  somewhat  abruptly, 
and  no  further  mention  of  Thomas  Norton  is  to  be  found  in 
the  city  records.  Possibly  some  reference  to  him  may  turn 
up  in  the  State  Papers  of  the  period,  but  they  are  still 
uncalendared.  It  may  be  surmised  that  he  retained  the 
valuable  office  of  Customer  and  his  place  at  Court,  as  his 
dismissal  would  scarcely  have  failed  to  be  noted  by  the 
civic  scribes.  William  Spencer  lived  in  high  honour  and 
respect  for  several  years  after  his  persecution,  and  one  of  his 
last  acts  of  liberality,  long  cherished  by  civic  dignitaries,  is 
also  recorded  in  the  Great  Red  Book.  At  a  meeting  of  the 
Common  Council  on  October  5th,  1492,  "  the  right  worshipful 
William  Spencer,  merchant,  remembering  the  great  charges 
borne   by  the  mayor  and  bailiffs  in  their  offices,"  gave  the 

284  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

Corporation  the  sum  of  ^87  6s.  8d.  (equivalent  to  about 
£1000  in  modern  currency),  £10  of  which  were  to  be 
delivered  to  every  mayor,  and  ^67  6s.  8d.  to  the  bailiffs 
upon  their  entering  office,  on  their  giving  good  security 
for  the  repayment  of  the  loan  on  the  following  Michaelmas 
Eve.  In  consideration  of  this  boon,  the  bailiffs  were 
required  to  pay  two  shillings  weekly  to  the  chaplain  of 
St.  George's  Chapel  in  the  Guildhall,  which  he  was  to 
distribute  amongst  the  poor. 

Almost  contemporary  with  the  proceedings  of  Thomas 
Norton,  another  event  occurred  in  the  city  of  a  sensational 
character.  Early  in  the  century,  a  youth,  named  William 
Bird  (often  spelt  Byrde  and  Brydd),  migrated  from  a  parish 
near  Gloucester  to  Bristol,  and  having  in  the  course  of  a  few 
years  become  a  prosperous  merchant,  he  was  elected  a 
member  of  the  Common  Council.  In  1463  he  was  chosen 
one  of  the  bailiffs,  a  post,  as  has  been  seen,  involving 
considerable  personal  outlay;  in  1469  he  was  appointed 
sheriff;  and  in  1475  he  was  elevated  to  the  chief  magistracy. 
But  in  the  closing  months  of  148 1,  whilst  living  in  the 
enjoyment  of  general  esteem  and  respect,  the  citizens  were 
astounded  by  the  announcement  that  he  had  been,  or  was 
about  to  be,  claimed  as  a  "villein"  by  Lord  de  la  Warre, 
who  threatened  to  recover  him  by  action,  like  a  runaway 
beast,  and  who,  if  the  claim  could  be  established,  would  be 
entitled  to  take  possession  of  his  property,  and  degrade  his 
wife  and  children  into  serfs.  Measures,  however,  were 
speedily  taken  by  the  worthy  merchant  and  his  friends  to 
disprove  the  allegations  of  the  great  landowner's  agents,  and 
on  the  18th  March,  22nd  Edward  IV.  (1482),  another  remark- 
able entry  was  made  in  the  Great  Red  Book.  In  substance, 
it  reads  as  follows  :  — 

A  Remembrance  never  to  be  put  in  oblivion,  but  to  be 
had  in  perpetual  memory  for  a  president  (sic)  to  all  slanderous 
persons  having  their  tongues  more  prompter  to  speak  wickedly 
than    to   say    truth.      Some   such    have    maliciously    of   late 

Some  Curious  Incidents  in  Bristol  History.      285 

slandered  the  worshipful  person  William  Byrde,  merchant, 
alleging  him  to  be  a  bondman  born,  and  of  bond  birth 
(extraction)  and  by  descent  a  natifis  (iiativus)  of  Lord  de  la 
Warre  as  of  one  of  his  manors  in  Gloucestershire,  to  the 
shameful  vilipendie  of  the  said  worshipful  man.  Howbeit 
the  contrary  is  evidently  proved  by  the  testimonial  sent  to 
Bristol  by  certain  kinsmen,  lovers,  and  friends  of  Byrde, 
which  was  read  this  day  in  the  Compter  before  the  mayor 
{John  Forster)  and  his  brethren. 

The  "testimonial"  referred  to  is  dated  December  16th, 
1481,  but  the  collection  of  the  signatures  doubtless  occupied 
several  subsequent  weeks.  It  bore  the  autographs  of  Sir 
Simon  Mountford,  William  Berkeley,  Esq.,  William  Byr- 
myngham,  Esq.,  lord  of  Byrmyngham,  twelve  other 
esquires,  five  yeomen  of  the  Crown,  the  master  of  the 
guild  of  Byrmyngham,  and  other  residents  there,  and  a 
number  of  persons  living  in  Worcester,  Coventry,  and  other 
places.  The  signatories  certify  that  Phelepott  Byrde, 
grandfather  of  William,  was  born  in  Birmingham,  and  had 
a  free  place  in  the  same  town  by  lineal  inheritance  of  his 
ancestors  ;  that  Phelepott  in  his  youth,  having  committed  a 
certain  offence,  fled  to  Bridleyp  (Birdlip),  Gloucestershire, 
in  the  days  of  Richard  II.,  and  there  wedded,  and  had 
divers  children  ;  but  that  the  other  Byrdes  remained  at 
Birmingham,  and  had  done  so  time  out  of  mind,  as  free 

The  threatened  action  was  never  raised.  Mr.  Bird  died 
in  1484,  and  was  interred  in  the  crypt  of  St.  Nicholas,  to 
which  church  he  bequeathed  a  rich  cloth  of  gold ;  and 
twenty-one  priests,  with  twenty-four  men  in  frieze  coats, 
bearing  torches,  attended  his  funeral.  He  left  a  considerable 
estate  to  his  family,  including  a  very  large  quantity  of  woad, 
then  a  valuable  article  of  commerce,  and  much  silver  plate. 


The  present  state  of  the  Transactions  of  the  Society 
cannot  be  considered  altogether  satisfactory.  The  volumes 
are  in  arrear,  members  complain  that  they  do  not  obtain 
the  volumes  to  which  they  are  entitled,  and  secretly 
or  openly  they  talk  about  the  Editor.  The  Editor,  on  the 
other  band,  finds  himself  in  the  position  of  the  Israelites 
under  the  Pharaoh  of  the  oppression,  desired  to  produce 
results  without  a  due  supply  of  the  necessary  material.  On 
the  one  side  is  the  impression — "  Ye  are  idle  "  ;  on  the  other, 
the  obvious  answer  lies  ready  to  hand — "  The  fault  is  in  thine 
own  people." 

And  the  evil  is  no  new  one.  When  the  present  Editor 
first  undertook  the  charge  of  the  Transactions  about  five 
years  ago,  the  volumes  were  in  arrear,  and  there  was  a  great 
lack  of  suitable  material  for  publication  ;  so  much  so,  that  it 
had  become  necessary  to  publish  large  extracts  from  the 
"Pedes  finium"  in  the  Record  Office.  But  this  again  was  far 
from  being  a  satisfactory  arrangement,  the  material  itself  was 
more  suited  for  a  Record  Series,  and  it  gave  a  very  dry  and 
uninteresting  appearance  to  the  Transactions. 

The  truth  is  that  our  Society  is  failing  to  accomplish  a 
very  important  part  of  the  office  which  it  was  formed  to  fulfil. 
The  number  of  members  who  are  so  far  interested  in  its 
work  as  to  help  practically  by  contributions  to  the  Trans- 
actions is  far  too  small.  Members  seem  to  fail  to  realise 
that  if  they  wish  for  volumes  of  Transactions  they  must 
themselves  contribute  the  necessary  material  for  publication. 
Ex  nihilo  nihil  fit.  It  is  not  enough  to  send  subscriptions 
to  the  Treasurer  without  also  sending  contributions  to  the 
Secretary  or  the  Editor. 

One  reason  for  this  condition  of  things  no  doubt  lies  in 

The  Transactions  of  the  Society.  287 

the  fact  that  the  Society  is  now  passing  through  one  of  the 
testing  points  of  its  history.  It  was  formed  at  a  meeting 
held  at  the  Bristol  Museum  on  April  22nd,  1876,  nearly  a 
quarter  of  a  century  ago  ;  and  though  some  of  those  present 
at  that  meeting  are  still  with  us,  such  as  the  Lord- Lieutenant, 
who  took  the  chair,  the  Venerable  Bishop  of  Gloucester,  Sir 
Brook  Kay,  and  the  Rev.  E.  A.  Fuller,  most  of  those  who 
took  an  active  part  in  local  Archaeology  at  that  time  have 
passed  away  :  such  as  Sir  W.  V.  Guise,  the  first  President 
of  the  Society  ;  Sir  John  Maclean,  whose  care  and  skill  as 
Editor  made  the  Transactions  what  they  were ;  Archdeacon 
Norris  ;  Bishop  Clifford ;  Messrs.  S.  H.  Gael,  John  Taylor, 
J.  H.  Nichols,  W.  George,  and  others.  The  old  men — the 
pioneers  and  founders — have  passed,  or  are  passing,  and 
there  seems  to  be  difficulty  in  finding  younger  people  to 
supply  their  places. 

Moreover,  it  may  seem  that  much  of  the  more  obvious 
work  of  the  Society  has  been  done.  Most  of  the  places  of 
chief  Antiquarian  interest  in  the  two  shires  which  form  the 
district  of  the  Society  have  been  visited,  not  a  few  more  than 
once.  A  reference  to  the  lists  of  contents  of  the  volumes  of 
the  Transactions  would  seem  to  show  that  much  interesting 
ground  has  already  been  covered,  not  a  little  of  it  by  writers 
who  would  leave  but  scant  gleanings  for  those  who  would 
follow  them.  But  there  are  periods  and  subjects  and  places 
which  are  almost  untouched. 

For  periods,  those  of  the  Wars  of  Stephen,  the  Black 
Death,  the  Wickliffite  Movement,  the  Wars  of  the  Roses, 
and  the  Reformation  would  well  repay  careful  study,  and 
not  one  of  them  has  as  yet  been  at  all  adequately  treated 
from  a  local  point  of  view. 

For  subjects,  little  has  yet  been  done  with  regard  to  the 
systematic  study  of  the  Architecture  of  the  two  shires.  Yet 
how  much  might  be  learned  and  recorded  in  a  district  where 
the  tenth-century  church  at  Deerhurst  is  still  in  use  ;  and 
which  is  so  rich,  not  only  in  remains  of  great  churches,  but 
also  in  small  churches  of  unusual  interest,  especially  on  the 

288  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

hills.  Though  Somerset  far  surpasses  Gloucestershire  in  the 
magnificence  of  its  village  churches,  this  very  magnificence 
has  been  dearly  purchased  at  the  cost  of  much  that  was 
ancient  and  must  have  been  beautiful  :  the  little  Cotswold 
church  possesses  in  its  lowly  Norman  doorway  a  thing  of 
beauty  which  its  greater  neighbour  to  the  south  has  too 
often  lost.  The  way  is  still  open  for  someone  to  do  for  the 
Gloucestershire  and  Bristol  churches  what  Mr.  Freeman  did 
for  the  churches  of  Somerset.  Gloucestershire  affords  at  any 
rate  far  greater  variety  of  style. 

So  with  the  castles  of  the  district ;  there  is  no  good 
account  in  the  Transactions  either  of  Bristol  or  Gloucester 
Castle,  though  the  former  was  one  of  the  mightiest  fortresses 
in  the  kingdom.  Berkeley  Castle  has  been  well  treated;  but 
there  is  still  room  for  good  work  with  regard  to  the  smaller 

There  is  no  really  good  paper  as  yet  on  the  speech  of  the 
Cotswolds.  Of  course,  the  subject  of  the  West  Saxon  tongue 
has  been  treated  generally  in  many  books  and  papers  ;  but 
there  is  room  for  a  paper  by  a  resident  of  the  hills  who 
knows  their  speech  as  his  mother  tongue.  The  northern 
boundary  of  this  speech  is  an  interesting  question.  My 
impression,  drawn  from  school  work,  is  that  it  did  not  cover 
the  extreme  north  of  the  shire.  Is  it  gaining  ground,  or  is  it 
receding  to  the  south  ?  Is  it  dying  out  altogether  before  the 
efforts  of  Her  Majesty's  Inspector,  or  do  the  children  only 
become  bi-lingual  ? 

For  centuries  the  growth  of  wool  was  the  mainstay  of  the 
population  of  the  hills,  and  the  cloth-trade  the  main  industry 
of  the  valleys.  When  and  under  what  circumstances  did 
these  industries  grow  up  ?  How  far  were  they  dependent  in 
the  first  instance  and  subsequently  on  the  immigration  of 
foreigners  ? 

Our  Society  has  existed  for  a  quarter  of  a  century  without 
any  clear  answer  being  returned  to  these  questions  ;  will  not 
some  member  from  the  wool  or  cloth  districts  work  out  the 
matter  and  supply  an  answer  ? 

The  Transactions  of  the  Society.  289 

Domesday  Gloucestershire  contained  a  larger  proportion 
of  serfs  than  any  other  English  shire;  and  as  late  as  1574 
Queen  Elizabeth  issued  a  commission  "to  enquire  into  the 
lands  and  goods  of  her  bondmen  and  bondwomen  in 
Gloucestershire  and  the  shires  to  the  south-west  of  it,  in 
order  to  compound  with  them  for  manumission."  1  Is  it 
possible  to  trace  the  process  of  emancipation  ? 

With  regard  to  places,  very  little  has  yet  been  done  to 
throw  light  on  the  history  of  the  smaller  towns  in  the  shire. 
Cirencester  is  a  notable  exception,  chiefly  owing  to  the  work 
of  the  Rev.  E.  A.  Fuller;  and  the  paper  by  Mr.  Russell  James 
Kerr  on  the  "Borough  and  Manor  of  Newnham"  shows  how 
very  much  may  be  learned  and  told  in  a  most  interesting 
and  helpful  way  about  these  small  towns,  if  only  people  will 
undertake  the  work. 

Tewkesbury  must  have  a  history  at  least  as  interesting  as 
that  of  Cirencester.  Will  no  one  arise  to  do  for  the  abbey 
and  town  of  Tewkesbury  what  Mr.  Fuller  has  done  for 
Cirencester  ?  Tetbury  and  Thornbury,  Chipping  Sodbury 
and  Winchcombe,  would  no  doubt  yield  as  interesting  a  story 
as  that  of  Newnham.  There  are  plenty  of  members  of  the 
Society  living  near  those  towns,  will  they  not  undertake 
the  Antiquarian  duty  that  lies  nearest  to  them  ?  Sparta  was 
but  a  mere  collection  of  villages,  yet  the  old  proverb  had  its 
force  :  "  Spavtam  sortitus  es,  hanc  oyna." 

It  is  no  excuse  for  members  of  the  Society  to  say  they 
are  too  busy  to  undertake  any  extra  work.  Mr.  Fuller  was 
Vicar  of  a  large  and  poor  Bristol  parish  when  he  wrote  his 
earlier  papers ;  and  Mr.  Russell  Kerr  was  Chairman  of  Quarter 
Sessions  when  he  wrote  his  paper  on  Newnham. 

The  truth  is  that  an  outside  interest  like  Archaeology 
instead  of  being  a  hindrance  to  a  man  in  his  life-work  is 
a  very  real  help  to  him.  It  is  well  known  that  Sir  John 
Maclean  took  up  the  study  of  Archooology  late  in  life  as  a 
relief  under  very  heavy  official  work.  He  was  advised  by 
his  doctor  that   the   best  relaxation   for   him  would   be,  not 

Vol.  XXII. 

1  Encyc.  Britt.,  Ed.  VIII.,  Vol    XX.,  p.  320. 

290  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

cessation  from  work,  but  change  of  work.  I  well  remember 
that  a  candidate  for  holy  orders,  twenty-seven  j'ears  ago, 
was  strongly  recommended  by  Dr.  Woodford,  then  Vicar  of 
Leeds,  afterwards  Bishop  of  Ely,  always  to  have  some 
regular  work  on  hand,  apart  from  his  ministerial  duties,  to 
keep  his  mind  fresh. 

But  if  the  men-contributors  to  the  Transactions  are  few, 
the  women-contributors  are  fewer  still.  Yet  the  Transactions 
have  been  enriched  during  many  years  past  by  a  series  of 
papers  written  by  the  hand  of  a  lady  in  the  Forest  of  Dean, 
which  for  accuracy  of  description  and  interest  of  style  are 
surpassed  by  none  in  our  volumes.  We  have  within  our 
district,  in  the  Ladies'  College  at  Cheltenham,  one  of  the 
very  best  girls'  schools  in  England,  and  there  are  other 
similar  schools  of  almost  equal  repute  which  must  be 
sending  forth  year  by  year  numbers  of  well-educated  women, 
some  of  whom  might  well  take  an  interest  in  the  history  of 
the  district  in  which  their  lot  is  cast.  Considering  the 
important  place  which  the  teaching  of  history  now  occupies 
in  women's  education,  it  is  not  too  much  to  hope  that  some 
of  this  teaching  will  in  the  future  bear  fruit  near  home. 

Another  point  in  which  the  Transactions  do  not  fulfil 
their  purpose  is  this,  that  they  do  not  supply  year  by  year  a 
record  of  discoveries  of  Antiquarian  interest  in  the  district. 
Things  are  found  and  are  lightly  examined,  or  are  not 
really  examined  by  any  competent  authority  at  all,  and 
are  forgotten. 

Or  excavations  are  made,  and  no  proper  record  is  pre- 
pared and  left  of  what  has  been  seen,  and  an  opportunity 
is  irrecoverably  lost.  Cases  in  point  are  afforded  by  Mr. 
Medland's  paper  on  the  remains  found  in  1893-4  on  *ne  s^e 
of  the  Wilts  and  Dorset  Bank  at  the  Cross  in  Gloucester, 
and  the  paper  by  Mr.  Wilfred  J.  Cripps  on  the  Roman 
Basilica  at  Cirencester.  In  each  case  the  digging  revealed 
objects  of  very  great  interest,  which  if  they  had  not  been 
seen  and  described  at  the  moment  by  a  competent  observer 
could  never  have  been  described   at   all.     There   are  local 

The  Transactions  of  the  Society.  291 

Secretaries  of  the  Society  at  Bristol  and  in  all  parts  of  the 
county,  and  it  would  be  well  if  members  and  others  who  may 
be  interested  in  antiquities  would  always  inform  the  local 
Secretary  of  the  district  of  any  discovery  of  antiquarian 
interest  which  may  be  made.  And  it  would  be  most  helpful 
also  if  the  local  Secretaries  would  regularly  send  reports  of 
discoveries  of  general  interest  to  the  General  Secretary  or  the 
Editor  for  insertion  in  the  Transactions.  It  is  to  be  feared 
that  at  present  not  a  few  things  which  ought  to  be  recorded 
escape  notice. 

Articles  relating  to  the  Archaeology  of  the  district  will 
always  be  welcome,  which  either  set  forth  new  facts  or  throw 
new  light  on  things  already  known  ;  the  one  thing  absolutely 
necessary  is  accuracy,  and  as  far  as  possible  clearness  of 
statement.  There  must  be  many  members  of  the  Society 
who  have  not  yet  contributed  to  the  pages  of  the  Transac- 
tions, but  who  are  quite  capable  of  doing  really  good  work. 
It  is  most  desirable,  from  every  point  of  view,  that  the 
number  of  working  members  of  the  Society  should  be 
increased ;  and  it  is  much  to  be  hoped  that  the  beginning  of 
a  new  century,  and  of  the  second  quarter-century  of  the  life 
of  the  Society,  will  be  marked  by  a  revival  of  interest  in  its 
work,  and  that  a  real  effort  will  be  made  to  secure  a  wider 
range  of  contributions  to  the  Transactions.  This,  however, 
can  only  be  done  by  the  efforts  of  the  members  generally  ; 
there  is  plenty  of  good  work  yet  to  be  done,  and  it  cannot  be 
doubted  that  there  are  people  quite  capable  of  doing  it,  if 
only  they  would  set  their  hands  to  the  task.  We  may  not 
claim  to  be  the  equals  of  our  Founders,  but  we  ought  at  least 
to  try  to  follow  in  their  steps. 

Hotkcs  of  publications. 


By  John  Latimer.     Bristol :  William  Georges'  Sons.     1900. 

Air.  Latimer  has  continued  his  most  useful  work  as  Centuriator  01  the 
Annals  of  Bristol,  and  has  now  reached  a  point  where  both  in  its  likeness 
and  its  unlikeness  the  story  affords  a  most  interesting  parallel  to  the  life  of 
the  city  of  to-day.     The  setting  of  the  picture  is  the  ancient  city  that  we 
know   so   well :    the   same   churches ;    the   same   streets ;    the   same   city 
officials  ;  for  the  most  part  also  the  same  branches  of  trade  and  commerce  ; 
but  with  just  enough  unlikeness  to  prevent  the  tale  from  being  dry  and 
monotonous.     It  is  quite  possible  for  one  who  has  known  the  city  well  to 
put  modern  names  on  the  ancient  characters,  and  to  see  them  fulfil  their 
parts  in  the  slightly  altered  scene  with  life-like  exactness.     With  regard  to 
the  points  of  difference,  the  first  thing  that  claims  attention  is  the  very 
great  power  and  influence  of  Master  Mayor  and  his  brethren.     Nothing 
was  too  high  for  their  control  and  nothing  too  small  for  their  interference. 
From  the  provision  of  sermons  in  the  parish  churches  to  the  removal  of 
dungheaps,   all    things   came    under   their    ken.       In    16S1    the   Council 
desired  that  their  chief  magistrate  should  develope  into  a  lord  mayor  : 
that  official  has  recently  had  that  high  honour  thrust  upon  him ;  but  it  is 
quite  certain  that,  though  he  may  have  gained  something  in  dignity,  he  is 
hardly  equal  in  practical  importance  to  his  predecessor  of  two  centuries 
ago.     That  ancient  mayor  was  clad  with  modified  magnificence:  a  hat  of 
crimson  velvet  trimmed  with  gold  lace  was  provided  for  him  in  1621,  and 
two  robes  of  scarlet  and  fur  were  provided  for  the  new  and  old  mayors  at 
a  cost  of  £25  14s.  and  /14  in  1633 ;  but  about  the  same  time  a  bequest  of 
£150  for  the  purchase  of  a  gold  chain  was  refused  by  the  Council,  and  it  was 
resolved  that  "  in  lieu  thereof  £100  for  the  poor  was  more  requisite."     His 
salary  varied  from  £40  in  the  early  part  of  the  century  to  nothing  in  1644, 
but  for  the  greater  part  of  the  century  the  salary  was  £104  and  double 
during  a  second  year  of  office. 

The  industries  of  the  city  were  under  the  direct  control  of  the  Council. 
"No  shopkeeper  could  deal  in  goods  made  by  men  of  other  trades.  No 
carpenter  could  work  as  a  joiner.  No  butcher  could  sell  cooked  meat.  No 
victualler  could  bake  bread  for  sale.  No  one  but  a  butcher  could  even 
slaughter  a  pig.  The  hours  of  work,  the  rate  of  wages,  and  the  number  of 
journeymen  employed  by  a  master  were  peremptorily  fixed."  A  "foreigner" 
was  a  person  to  be  promptly  suppressed  ;  if  he  traded  with  another  foreigner, 

Notices  of  Publications.  293 

the  goods  were  confiscated  ;   he  could  only  trade  with  citizens  at  Back 
Hall ;    if   he  opened  a  shop,  his  windows  were  nailed  down.      But  the 
freedom  was  given  on  easy  terms  to  strangers  exercising  arts  unknown  in 
the  city,  who  would  therefore  be  useful  to  the  community.     Towards  the 
end  of  the  century,  however,  it  evidently  became  difficult  to  enforce  this 
exclusiveness,  and  in  1676  the  Council  was  scandalised  by  the  conduct  of 
one  who  had  been  nominated  by  the  mayor  for  a  gift  of  the  freedom,  but 
who  afterwards  in  saucy  and  impertinent  language  contemned  and  despised 
the  same;  and  though  fines  for  admission  to  the  freedom  were  exacted  till 
quite  the  end  of  the  century,  in  1703  the  by-law  against  the  intrusion  of 
foreigners  was  omitted  from  the  city  code.     Mr.  Latimer  seems  to  under- 
rate the  average  standard  of  comfort  of  the  citizens  in  the  period  under 
review  ;  certainly  the  many  large  sums  raised  during  the  period  1640 — 1660 
would  seem  to  imply  a  considerable  diffusion  of  wealth,  and  the  rapidity 
with  which  prosperity  returned  and  luxury  arose  would  seem  to  show  that 
the  community  was  by  no  means  impoverished.     But  the  place  must  have 
been  inconceivably  filthy  :  the  advent  of  Queen  Anne  of  Denmark  was  the 
signal  for  a  general  removal  of  dunghills  from  the  streets ;  in  hard  times 
one   of    the   first   economies   was  the   suppression   of   the   salary  of   the 
scavenger,  never  a  highly  paid  official ;  it  became  so  frequently  necessary 
to  open  the  water-pipes  for  the  removal  of  dead  cats  which  stopped  the 
supply,  that  in   1679  the  springhead  of    the  Quay  pipe  was  covered  in. 
There  is  no  wonder  that  visitations  of  the  plague  were  frequent  and  sharp. 
The  most  notable  phases  of  ecclesiastical  life  were  the  poverty  of  the 
clergy  and  the  disputes  of  which  the  cathedral  was  the  centre.      These 
disputes  in  the  early  part  of  the  century  raged  around  a  gallery  which  had 
been  set  up  in  order  that  the  councillors  and  their  wives  might  hear  the 
sermons,    and   afterwards   on    the   question   whether    the   mayor's   sword 
should  go  in  procession  standing  up  or  lying  down.     An  attempt  by  the 
Chapter  to  withdraw  the  cathedral  precincts  from  the  jurisdiction  of  the 
city  was  no  doubt  a  result  of  these  squabbles.     Nearly  all  the  city  churches 
had  been  appropriated   to  religious  houses,  and  after  the  Reformation, 
when  masses  and  offerings  ceased,  there  was  no  sufficient  income  for  the 
ministers.     At  various  times  during  the  century  attempts  were  made  to 
obtain  an  Act  of  Parliament  to  rate  the  citizens  for  the  support  of  the 
clergy,  and  it  is  a  very  remarkable  thing  that  the  only  attempts  which 
were  successful  were  made  under  the  Commonwealth.    Acts  of  !  'arliami 
were  passed   for  the  purpose  in   1650  and   1657,   but   they  could  not  be 
worked.     Mr.  Latimer  thinks,  no  doubt  correctly,  that  the  Presbyterian 
ministers  were  not  illiterate  men  as  they  have  been  represented  by  some 
local    historians.      Indeed    the    Presbyterian  and    Independent    ministers 
numbered  many  learned  men  in  their  ranks,  and  apart  from  the  disturb- 
ance caused  by  the  Civil  Wars,  learning  at  the  Universities  docs  not  seem 

2g4  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

to  have  suffered.  On  June  3rd,  1679,  while  the  Baptist  congregation  meet- 
ing at  Broadmead  were  still  subject  to  interruptions  in  their  worship,  Mr. 
Edward  Terrell  gave  a  considerable  amount  of  property  in  lands  and 
houses,  the  income  to  be  applied,  /50  annually  to  ten  poor  persons,  the 
remainder  for  the  "  use  and  subsistence  of  a  holy  learned  man,  well  skilled 
in  the  tongues,  to  wit  Greek  and  Hebrew,  ...  as  a  pastor  and  teacher 
to  the  congregation  aforesaid,"  and  for  the  maintenance  of  poor  students 
for  the  Baptist  ministry.  And  he  thus  laid  the  foundation  of  the  endow- 
ments which  make  Broadmead  Chapel  one  of  the  wealthiest  places  of 
worship  in  the  city.  He  also  gave  a  "  study  of  books,"  200  in  number,  of 
Hebrew,  Greek,  Latin,  and  English  authors,  for  the  use  of  the  minister 
and  students.  It  is  a  very  great  mistake  to  suppose  that  the  founders  of 
Protestant  Nonconformity  despised  either  endowments  or  learning. 
Judging  from  the  Wardens'  accounts  of  St.  Thomas  the  Martyr  the  fabrics 
of  the  churches  were  kept  in  sound  repair,  though  such  things  as  "  tables," 
surplices,  and  organs  fared  badly.  Bristolians  of  to-day  will  find  this  a 
most  interesting  book.  And  perhaps  they  will  not  find  themselves  far  from 
home  as  they  read  of  the  good  old  muddly  Bristol  of  two  hundred  years 
ago;  with  its  wealth  and  its  untidiness;  its  comfort  indoors  and  its  dirt 
without ;  its  good  fellowship  and  its  squabbles  ;  its  party  spirit  and  its  real 
efforts  after  the  public  good.  At  any  rate,  they  will  find  clear  evidences 
of  the  vigour  and  industry  which  have  made  Bristol  for  the  last  eight 
hundred  years  ever  a  greater  city  at  the  end  of  the  century  than  it  was  at 
the  beginning,  and  which  we  trust  will  not  fail  to  maintain  the  same 
steady  growth  in  prosperity  for  the  time  to  come. 

J.  II.  Round,  M.A.  Westminster:  Archibald  Constable  and  Co. 

This  is  a  collection  of  fifteen  papers  on  various  subjects  ranging  from  the 
settlement  of  the  English  to  the  fourteenth  century,  and  as  Mr.  Round  is 
within  the  period  which  he  has  made  his  own  they  are  well  worth  careful 
study.  The  ghost  of  Mr.  Freeman  does  not  often  appear,  but  Mr.  Oman 
bids  fair  to  take  his  place.  The  two  papers  which  seem  to  be  of  most 
general  interest  are  the  first  on  the  "  Settlement  of  Sussex  and  Essex,"  and 
the  one  which  give  its  name  to  the  volume.  The  first  is  really  a  valuable 
contribution  to  the  study  of  place-names.  Mr.  Round  finds  that  the 
-hams  in  Sussex  follow  the  course  of  the  rivers,  while  the  -tons  are  on 
the  uplands,  and  he  draws  the  conclusion  that  the  district  was  settled  by 
people  who  ascended  the  streams  in  boats,  that  the  -hams  are  the  earlier 
settlements,  and  that  the  -tons  are  later  in  date  He  does  not,  however, 
mention  the  meaning  of  the  word  ham  in  such  forms  as  "  Keynsham  hams," 
where  it  is  applied  to  land  by  a  riverside,  and  of  which  Canon  Taylor 

Notices  of  Publications.  295 

writes  thus: — *  "  It  means  primarily  the  ham  or  knee  of  an  animal,  and 
seems  to  be  also  used  to  denote  the  bend  or  curve  of  a  river.  Where,  in 
the  bends  of  a  winding  river  like  the  Ouse  near  Bedford,  we  find  a  number 
of  villages  with  names  ending  in  -ham,  which  are  hemmed  in  by  successive 
curves  of  the  stream,  there  is  a  presumption  that  this  may  be  the  meaning." 
We  have  not  many  -hams  in  this  district,  but  Conham,  Hanham,  and 
Keynsham,  Newnham  and  Arlingham,  if  not  Tidenham,  Churcham, 
Highnam  and  Cheltenham,  would  fall  under  Canon  Taylor's  presumption  ; 
at  any  rate  they  are  all  riverside  places,  though  we  know  that  this  district 
was  not  settled  from  the  west,  but  by  invaders  from  the  east  after  the 
battle  of  Dyrham.  There  is  nothing  to  show  that  the  suffix  -ton  in 
Gloucestershire  denotes  a  late  settlement.  Rather  the  distribution  is  local. 
Such  names  occur,  on  the  west  of  Severn,  north  of  a  line  from  Gloucester 
to  Northleach,  along  the  Wiltshire  border  and  south  of  Thornbury  ;  there 
are  hardly  any  between  Gloucester  and  Thornbury.  The  district  west  of 
Severn  includes  the  Forest  of  Dean,  and  that  south  of  Thornbury  was 
occupied  by  the  forests  of  Kingswood  and  Horwood,  and  settlement  in 
these  parts  was  very  likely  late,  but  the  explanation  does  not  cover  the 
whole  of  the  shire.  No  doubt  there  was  some  reason,  but  it  is  not  apparent. 
Air.  Round  gives  two  very  useful  words  of  counsel  with  regard  to  the 
study  of  place-names.  First,  that  all  names  in  a  district  should  be  con 
sidered,  and  not  only  those  of  villages  and  parishes  ;  for  example,  Henbury, 
Shirehampton  and  Westbury  would  imply  a  purely  English  district,  but  a 
more  careful  study  would  discover  in  Penpole,  Penpark,  Coombe,  and  the 
"pills"  along  the  Severn  shore,  a  considerable  survival  of  British  names. 
Secondly,  that  the  existing  forms  of  the  names  must  be  critically  considered 
and  probably  corrected  before  they  can  be  used  for  purposes  of  comparison  ; 
for  example,  Calmsden  is  a  name  with  no  apparent  meaning,  but  the  form 
Calmundesden  shows  that  it  meant  Calmund's  valley :  Barnsley,  near 
Bibury,  is  shown  to  be  Bearmod's  lea,  while  the  form  Bituinacum,  "the 
place  between  the  eas  "  or  rivers  Severn  and  Avon,  is  now  Twining. 

The  paper  on  the  "  Commune  of  London  "  is  interesting,  as  possibly 
throwing  light  on  the  obscure  question  of  the  way  in  which  a  mayor  came 
to  Bristol.  Mr.  Round  could  find  no  mention  of  a  mayor  of  London 
before  the  spring  of  1193.  The  first  mayor  of  Bristol  appears  in  12 17. 
Henry  III.  was  crowned  at  Gloucester  on  October  28,  1216,  ami  held  a 
council  at  Bristol  on  November  11  ;  it  is  likely  enough  that  the  burgesses 
seized  the  opportunity  to  obtain  liberty  to  choose  a  mayor,  and  that  the 
constitution  of  the  City  of  London  was  followed  ;  at  any  rate,  in  lati  i 
days  Ricart,  Town  Clerk  of  Bristol,  wrote  thus:  •"  Forasmoche  as  this 
worshipfull  Toune  of  Bristowe  hath  alueis  used  comenly  to  execute  his 
iraunchisez  and  libertees  accordinge  in  semblable  wise  as  the  noble  Citee 

1  Nanus  and  their  Histories,  ed,  1  (96,  p.  370. 

296  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

of  London  hath  used,  and  a  grete  part  hath  take  his  president  of  the  said 
Citee  in  exercising  the  same,"  therefore  Ricart  made  copious  extracts  from 
the  constitutions  of  the  City  of  London,  which  are  contained  in  the 
Camden  Society's  edition  of  his  Calendar,  pp.  93 — 113.  In  the  article  on 
"  Bannockburn,"  Mr.  Round  gives  a  much  needed  caution  with  regard  to 
the  inflated  numbers  stated  by  Mediaeval  Chroniclers.  The  Index  is  full 
and  well  arranged. 

FIFTEENTH  CENTURIES.     W.  W.  Capes.     London:  Macmillan 

AND    Co.       igOO. 

This  is  the  third  volume  of  a  projected  history  of  the  Church  of 
England,  which  is  to  cover  the  whole  period  from  its  foundation  to  the 
beginning  of  the  nineteenth  century,  in  seven  volumes,  each  by  a  different 
writer.  The  first  volume,  covering  the  period  before  the  Norman  Conquest, 
appeared  some  time  ago,  the  second  has  not  yet  been  published,  and  the 
third  appears  before  it.  The  incident  marks  both  the  strength  and  weak- 
ness of  composite  work  of  this  kind  ;  there  may  be  more  special  knowledge 
of  each  period  on  the  part  of  the  writers,  but  there  cannot  be  the  same 
unity  of  design  and  purpose.  The  book  covers  the  period  from  the 
Accession  of  Edward  I.  to  that  of  Henry  VIII.,  and  the  failure  of  Volume 
II.  to  appear  becomes  a  great  and  lamentable  breach  of  continuity.  For 
instance,  we  very  soon  come  to  the  refusal  of  the  clergy,  under  the 
influence  of  Archbishop  Winchelsey  in  1296,  to  grant  an  aid  towards  the 
expense  of  the  King's  French  war.  The  reason  alleged  was  the  publication 
by  Pope  Boniface  VIII.  in  the  preceding  February  of  the  Bull—  "  Clericis 
Laicos,"  in  which  he  forbade  the  laity  to  exact  or  the  clergy  to  pay  secular 
charges  on  Church  property.  But  it  would  be  quile  safe  to  say  that  it 
would  never  have  entered  the  mind  of  an  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  before 
the  Conquest  to  refuse  aid  to  the  King  on  such  a  ground ;  there  is  a  whole 
world  of  difference  between  the  position  of  the  Pope  with  regard  to  the 
English  Church  at  the  earlier  and  the  later  period,  and  the  difference  is, 
so  far  as  the  present  work  is  concerned,  as  yet  quite  unexplained,  a  con- 
dition of  things  has  grown  up  which  is  quite  unaccountable.  Again,  the 
present  volume  covers  a  period  which  is  on  the  whole  one  of  moral  and 
spiritual  decay,  ending  in  the  generation  which  produced  in  the  statesmen 
who  ruled  under  Henry  VIII.  and  Edward  VI.  the  vilest  crew  to  whom 
the  destinies  of  the  English  people  have  ever  been  committed.  And  there 
is  nothing  to  show  how  the  English  Church  had  reached  the  position  which 
she  occupied  under  Edward  I.,  for  the  golden  period  of  Lanfranc  and 
S.  Anselm,  of  S.  Thomas  of  Canterbury  and  Stephen  Langton,  lies  in  the 
omitted  volume.  So  far  however  as  Mr.  Capes'  own  volume  is  concerned, 
it  can  honestly  be  said  that  he  has  done  his  work  thoroughly  well.     He 

Notices  of  Publications.  297 

does  not  deal  with  his  subject  in  chronological  order,  but  as  a  series  of 
subjects,  taking  one  after  another  various  incidents  and  aspects  of  Church 
life  and  work,  such  as  "The  Black  Death,"  "The  Mediaeval  Bishop  and 
his  Officials,"  "The  Cathedral  Chapters  and  their  Staff,"  "The  Clergy 
and  Parish  Life,"  "  Schools  and  Universities,"  and  so  forth.  So  that  a 
careful  reader  will  form  a  very  clear  idea  of  what  the  Church  said  and  did 
in  her  relations  with  the  people.  It  was  a  period  of  much  outward 
magnificence ;  all  that  is  beautiful  and  noble  in  Decorated  and  Perpen- 
dicular architecture  belongs  to  it,  and  the  bare  walls  as  we  now  see  them 
give  but  a  faint  idea  of  what  the  buildings  were  when  they  were  clothed 
with  the  most  beautiful  ornaments  which  English  wit  could  devise  or 
English  wealth  could  buy.  But  the  King's  daughter  was  not  all  glorious 
within,  though  her  clothing  was  literally  of  wrought  gold :  the  more 
carefully  the  period  is  studied,  the  worse,  morally  and  spiritually,  it  will 
appear;  it  was  a  time  of  decay.  The  book  docs  not  often  touch  on  local 
matters,  though  Bristol  is  mentioned  with  Oxford,  London,  and  Leicester 
as  one  of  the  chief  centres  of  Wyclifnte  influence  in  the  last  year  of  the 
Reformer's  life.  No  reason  is  given  for  the  power  of  the  movement  in 
this  district,  and  the  origin  and  nature  of  the  connection  of  Wycliffe's 
influence  with  Bristol  and  Gloucestershire  have  yet  to  be  worked  out.  He 
was  only  Canon  of  Westbury  College  for  a  fortnight.  The  book  is  care- 
fully written,  and  gives  a  life-like  picture  of  the  work  of  the  Church  in  all 
its  relations,  from  the  Church  ales  and  the  guild  meetings  of  the  parish- 
ioners, or  their  carving  of  the  rood  screen  as  at  Yatton,  or  as  we  know  the 
screen  at  Banwell  was  carved  by  a  parishioner,  to  the  life  of  the  monastery 
or  nunnery  or  Bishop's  household  ;  it  tells  of  the  rise  and  discipline  of  the 
Universities,  and  of  the  discipline  and  organisation  of  the  Mediaeval 
Diocese,  and  all  in  a  very  interesting  way.  There  is  a  satisfactory  Index, 
and  at  the  end  of  each  chapter  is  a  list  of  authorities  for  the  period  or 
subject  which  has  been  under  consideration. 

THE    RIGHT    TO    BEAR    ARMS.      London  :    Elliot   Stock.      1S90. 

This  book  is  really  the  case  for  the  Heralds'  College  put  shortly  from 
the  College  point  of  view ;  no  other  point  of  view  is  regarded  as  worth  a 
moment's  consideration.  But  as  giving  a  clear  and  concise  statement  of 
the  case  for  the  College,  it  is  of  great  value  from  a  popular  point  of  view, 
and  all  the  more  because  it  gives  a  series  of  documents,  with  transl 
for  the  benefit  no  doubt  of  the  ignoble  bearers  of  bogus  coats  of  arms- 
relating  to  the  foundation  and  prerogatives  and  methods  of  procedure  of 
the  College  and  its  officials.  From  an  historical  point  of  view  the  most 
interesting  fact  that  emerges  is  the  very  short-lived  existence  of  the 
Heralds'  Office  as  a  court  of  control  of  coat-armour.  The  earliest 
document  issued  by  a  king  of  England  regulating  the  general  use  of  arms 

298  Transactions  for  the  Year  1899. 

was  a  writ  of  Henry  V.,  dated  June  2nd,  1417  ;  it  isaddressed  to  the  sheriffs 
of  counties,  directing  them  to  compel  all  persons  who  bore  arms  to  justify 
their  use  before  officers,  to  be  appointed  by  the  King,  on  pain  of  having  the 
arms  and  coat-armours  stripped  off  and  broken  up. 

In  the  reign  of  Richard  III.  the  heralds,  of  whom  Norroy  is  mentioned 
as  far  back  as  the  time  of  Edward  I,,  were  incorporated  into  a  college, 
under  the  presidency  of  the  earl  marshal ;  the  first  regular  visitation  was 
held  in  1528,  the  last  in  the  reign  of  James  II.,  and  there  were  three 
principal  visitations  throughout  the  whole  of  England,  about  1580,  1620, 
and  1666.     After  the  Revolution,  the  coercive  powers  of  the  earl  marshal's 
court  fell  into  disuse,  and  the  period  during  which  visitations  were  held 
only  extended  over  about  160  years.     A  form  of  summons  is  given,  issued 
by  Thomas  May,  Esq.,  Chester  Herald,  and  Gregory  King,  Rouge  Dragon, 
to  the  Bailiffs  of  the  Hundred  of  Crowthorne  and  Minety,  commanding 
them  to  summon  certain  baronets,  knights,  esquires,  and  gentlemen,  who 
were  named,  and  any  others  of  like  degree,  to  appear  at  the  Swan  Inn  in 
Cirencester,  before  9.0  a.m.,  on  August  iSth,   1682.     If,  however,  any  of 
those    named    could    not   conveniently   bring   their    evidences,   the    earl 
marshal's  official  would  repair  to  his  house  as  soon  as  he  conveniently 
might.     There  seem  to  have  been  no  precise  rules  to  guide  the  heralds  in 
these   visitations,    and    nothing   except    the   omission    of    arms  from   the 
heralds'  register  happened  to  anyone  who  stayed  away.     He  was  excom- 
municated from  the  society  of  the  Heralds'  College,  but  excommunication 
had  begun  to  lose  its  power,  and  if  he  was  a  man  of  assured  position  in 
the  county  it  is  not  likely  that  anyone  thought  worse  of  him.     Certainly 
no  instance  can  be  produced  of  the  infliction  of  a  money  penalty.     Still 
there  is  no  doubt  that  the  evidence  of  the  heralds'  visitations  for  the 
period  which  they  cover  is  of  great  positive  value ;  if  a  man  is  entered  as 
entitled  to  bear  arms,  there  is  little  doubt  that  the  verdict  was  founded  on 
good  evidence.     But  many  people  would  think  that  the  converse  is  by  no 
means  equally   true,   and  that   it   is  likely  enough  that    the  lists  do  not 
exhaust  the  number  of    those   entitled  to   bear  arms.     Again,   the  main 
contention  of  the  book  is  without  doubt  correct,  that  a  coat  of  arms  is  an 
estate  of  inheritance  which  no  man  can  assume,  that  it  is  as  much  a  man's 
possession  as  a  field  or  a  house,  so  that  no  one  may  take  another  man's 
arms,  and  that  if  a  man  wants  a  coat  of  arms  he  can  only  get  it  from  the 
fountain  of  honour,  the  sovereign  acting  in  this  instance  through  the  earl 
marshal  and  his  subordinates.     It  is  a  purely  artificial  system  of  no  great 
antiquity,  and  the  book  will  by  no  means  convince  the  gainsayers.     The 
British  Philistine  will  continue  to  revert  to  the  original  type  of  seven 
centuries  ago,  and  assume  such  bearings  as  seem  to  him  good;  further,  if 
he  thinks  about  the  matter  at  all,  he  will  say  he  pays  the  Queen  for  them 
every  year  like  an  honest  man  on  his  tax-paper.     The  writer  of  the  book 

Notices  of  Publications.  299 

hints  only  too  delicately  that  the  Duke  of  Norfolk,  Clarencieux,  Rouge 
Dragon,  and  the  rest  are  willing  in  the  fulness  of  the  powers  committed  to 
them  to  confer  (for  a  consideration)  coat-armour,  nobility  and  gentility 
upon  all  and  several.  He  would  have  done  much  to  further  his  purpose  if 
he  had  stated  the  amount  of  the  consideration.  Many  of  the  Philistines 
are  not  poor,  and  only  need  clear  instruction  ;  they  would  do  the  right 
thing  in  the  matter  if  they  only  knew  the  way  to  do  it. 

MRS.     DENT,     OF    SUDELEY. 

Mrs.  Dent,  who  died  on  February  22nd,  1900,  at  the  age  of  77,  was 
a  daughter  of  Mr.  John  Brocklehurst,  of  Macclesfield,  and  she 
married,  in  September,  1847,  Mr.  John  Croucher  Dent,  of  Severn 
Bank,  Worcester.  She  found  a  beautiful  heritage  awaiting  her. 
Messrs.  John  and  William  Dent,  uncles  of  her  husband,  had  pur- 
chased the  Sudeley  Castle  estates  from  Lord  Rivers  and  the  Duke 
of  Buckingham,  and  restored  the  main  fabric  of  the  castle.  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  Dent  went  to  Sudeley  in  1857,  on  the  death  of  their  last 
uncle,  and  at  once  began  the  restoration  of  the  chapel,  under  the 
direction  of  Sir  Gilbert  Scott :  it  was  re-dedicated  to  the  service  of 
God  by  the  present  Bishop  of  Gloucester  in  August,  1863.  In  1877 
she  published  a  most  interesting  book,  Annals  of  Winchcombe  and 
Sudeley,  to  a  very  great  extent  an  outcome  of  the  loving  and  reverent 
care  with  which  she  had  watched  and  guided  the  work  of  the  com- 
pletion of  the  castle,  and  of  gathering  the  collection  of  treasures 
which  it  contains.  In  1S85  her  husband  died,  and  henceforward  the 
lady  of  Sudeley  lived  alone,  for  she  had  no  children.  But  hers  was 
not  a  life  that  could  be  self-contained.  In  1887  she  provided  at  her 
own  expense  a  water  supply  from  St.  Kenelm's  Well  for  the  town  of 
Winchcombe,  and  afterwards  a  swimming  bath.  She  was  a  thought- 
ful and  munificent  contributor  to  the  work  of  beautifying  the  parish 
church  of  Winchcombe,  of  which  she  was  patroness.  At  the  west 
end  she  placed  a  stone  screen  and  statues  of  Kings  Kenulf  and 
Henry  Vlth,  and  she  placed  a  new  clock  in  the  tower;  and  at  the 
east  end  she  placed  a  fine  oak  screen  within  the  choir.  She  gave 
also  a  new  pulpit  and  font  cover,  and  restored  the  churchyard 
cross.  At  her  expense  the  site  of  Winchcombe  Abbey  was  explored , 
and  the  position  of  the  church  was  ascertained ;  and  here  she 
erected  a  cross  in  the  centre  of  the  tower.  She  took  a  lease  of  the 
land  surrounding  the  barrow  at  Belas  Knap,  and  built  a  wall  so  as 
to  secure  the  barrow  against  dilapidation.  The  two  Roman  villas 
on  her  estate,  those  at  Spoonley  and  in  the  Wadfield,  were  excavated 
at  her  expense  ;  she  built  substantial  sheds  over  the  tesselated  pave- 
ments, and  surrounded   the   Wadfield   villa  with  a   wall.     Among 

In  Memoriam.  301 

other  good  works  for  the  town  of  Winchcombe,  she  preserved  from 
destruction  the  beautiful  Jacobean  house  which  is  one  of  the 
ornaments  of  the  place,  she  enlarged  the  almshouses  and  heated 
them  throughout,  and  built  a  large  class-room  for  the  girls'  school. 
The  closing  years  of  her  life  were  saddened  by  partial  failure  of 
sight ;  but  this  did  not  check  her  interest  in  her  beautiful  home,  or 
her  care  for  the  welfare  of  those  around  her.  Her  health  had  failed 
about  six  months  before  her  death,  which  followed  at  last  on  an 
attack  of  influenza. 

MR.    C.    J.    MONK. 

By  the  death  of  Mr.  Monk  another  of  the  founders  of  our  Society 
has  passed  away.  He  was  present  at  the  Inaugural  Meeting  at  the 
Bristol  Museum,  on  April  22nd,  1876,  as  M.P.  for  the  city  of 
Gloucester,  and  as  Chancellor  of  each  of  the  dioceses  of  Bristol 
and  Gloucester.  He  proposed  the  resolution  nominating  the 
various  officers  of  the  new  Society,  about  fifty  in  number,  and  after 
reading  the  names  he  observed  that  in  his  opinion  they  had  been 
chosen  with  great  judgment  and  care.  Mr.  Monk  was  best  known 
as  M.P.  for  the  city  of  Gloucester,  for  which  constituency  he  was 
first  elected  in  1859,  and  which  he  represented  also  in  the  last 
Parliament,  declining  re-election  when  that  Parliament  came  to  an 
end,  only  six  weeks  before  his  death.  He  was  born  at  Peterborough, 
of  which  cathedral  his  father  was  Dean  from  1822  to  1830,  and  he 
was  educated  at  the  College  School,  Gloucester,  at  Eton,  and  at 
Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  where  he  graduated  in  1S47,  after  a 
most  brilliant  University  career.  He  was  called  to  the  Bar  at 
Lincoln's  Inn  in  1S50.  During  the  whole  of  his  long  and  honour- 
able career,  Mr.  Monk  showed  the  greatest  interest  in  all  that 
concerned  the  welfare  of  the  city  of  Gloucester.  He  began  the 
movement  which  resulted  in  the  building  of  St.  Catherine's  Church. 
When  the  College  School  was  revived  he  gave  £1000  for  the 
endowment  of  Scholarships  in  his  old  school ;  and  he  was  a  most 
liberal  benefactor  to  the  Cathedral  Restoration  Fund,  the  School  of 
Art,  the  Infirmary,  and  to  other  local  charities.  Mr  Monk,  who 
was  a  life  member  of  our  Society,  died  of  heart  seizure  on  \'ovcml»  r 
9th,  1900,  in  his  76th  year. 

302  In  Memoriam. 


Mr.  William  George,  one  of  the  promoters  and  founders  of  this 
Society,  died  at  his  residence  in  Durdham  Park,  Bristol,  on  the  ioth 
January,  1900,  within  a  few  days  of  completing  his  70th  year.  He 
was  a  native  of  Dunster,  to  which  his  family  had  removed  from 
Hampshire  in  the  previous  century.  Having  lost  his  father  when  a 
boy,  he  was  sent  to  Bristol  by  Mr.  T.  Fownes  Luttrell,  of  Dunster 
Castle,  and  was  apprenticed  to  his  uncle,  Mr.  William  Strong,  of 
College  Green,  at  that  time  the  most  extensive  bookseller  in  the 
city.  Through  the  death  of  that  gentleman  before  his  term  of 
servitude  had  expired,  the  youth  was  thrown  upon  his  own  resources, 
and  forthwith  commenced  business  on  his  own  account  in  Bath 
Street,  where  he  soon  acquired  repute  amongst  book  collectors. 
He  subsequently  removed  to  more  extensive  premises  in  Park 
Street,  and  eventually  retired  from  an  active  career  about  twenty- 
five  years  ago,  owing  to  failing  health.  From  an  early  period  Mr. 
George  was  a  keen  and  indefatigable  student  of  the  history  and 
bibliography  of  Bristol  and  the  adjoining  counties,  in  which  pur- 
suits he  was  aided  by  a  memory  of  facts,  dates,  names,  and  family 
connections  that  was  often  the  marvel  of  his  friends,  and  he  left 
behind  him  a  vast  store  of  valuable  manuscript  material  and  many 
literary  and  artistic  rarities.  As  his  peculiar  talents  became  known, 
appeals  for  information  flowed  in  upon  him  from  inquirers  in  all 
parts  of  the  kingdom,  as  well  as  in  Canada  and  the  United  States, 
and  the  labour  he  ungrudgingly  bestowed  in  responding  to  such 
demands  made  inroads  on  his  time  that  seriously  interfered  with 
his  own  literary  projects.  A  devoted  admirer  of  Chatterton,  he  had 
planned  a  work  intended  to  deal  exhaustively  with  the  unhappy 
poet's  life  in  Bristol,  and  to  throw  much  light  on  his  local  contem- 
poraries ;  but  after  a  few  preliminary  sheets  had  passed  through  the 
press  the  design  was  abandoned.  Besides  his  contributions  to  the 
Transactions  of  this  Society,  Mr.  George  was  an  occasional  con- 
tributor to  the  Transactions  of  the  Somerset  Archaeological  Society, 
and  more  frequently  to  the  A  thenceum,  Notes  and  Queries,  Gloucestershire 
Notes  and  Queries,  and  the  Bristol  and  Somerset  newspapers,  and  the 
information   thus   afforded  was  always  novel  and   often  valuable. 

In  Memoriam.  303 

Some  of  these  essays  were  the  fruits  of  long  research,  and  were 
printed  in  a  pamphlet  form  for  distribution  amongst  his  friends. 
He  also  supplied  many  items,  directly  or  through  others,  to  the 
Dictionary  of  National  Biography.  His  best  known  production, 
"  Some  Account  of  the  Oldest  Plans  of  Bristol,"  originally  appeared 
as  a  contribution  to  the  fourth  volume  of  this  Society's  Transactions, 
and  was  subsequently  published  separately  in  an  extended  form, 
accompanied  by  three  rare  illustrations.  By  his  first  wife  Mr.  George 
left  three  sons  and  a  daughter.  His  second  vife,  who  survives  him, 
is  childless. 


Abbenes,  Richard  de,  202,  203 
Abbewei,  Land,  184 
Ablington,  Ancient  Name,  62 

Lands  at,  62 

Manor,  65 

Manor  House  (illus.),  62,  65,  66 
Arms  in,  147 

Built  by  Cornelius  Jansen,  66 
Inscription  at  65,  67 
Old  Oak  at,  brought  from   Bibury 

Church,  65 
Portraits  at,  65 

Old  Manor  House  (illus.),  67 

Visit  of  the  Society,  and  Notes  on,  65 
Abury,  Church  Windows,  65 
Acchecumbe,  Land  at,  226 
Acholte.    See  Kingswood 
Acre,  Crusaders  at,  m 
Acton,  John  de,  217,  219,  235 
Adee,  S within,  139 

Family,  Arms  of,  139 
Adrian,  Symon,  158,  176,  iyi 
Aelhun.     See  Alhwin 
Agodeshalve,  Geoffrey,  158 
Aguillon,  Margaret  d',  147 

Sir  Robeit  d',  117 

Family,  Arms  of,  147 
Ainge,  Family,  Arms  of,  143 
Aix-la-Chapelle,  Curia  ot   King  Richard 

at,  106 
Albini,  Philip  de,  87 
Alcester,  Robert,  Abbot  of  Hayles,  259 
Alcock,  John,  Bishop  of  Worcester,  281 
Alderley,  Manor,  27 

Aldred,  Subregulus  of  the  Iluiccians,  61 
Aldrinctun,  Grange,  232 
Aldwine,  Bishop  of  Lichfield,  61 
Alexander  IV.,  Pope,  105,  107 
Alexander,  Brother,  214 
Aleynghurst,  253 
Alfonso   of  Aragon,    Constance,    widow 

of,  III 
Algar,  19,38 

Alhwin,  Bishop  ot  Worcester,  61 
Alitor,   Osbern   d',  Parson  of  Hastleach 

Turville,  119 
Alkerton,  Lord  ot  the  Manor  of,  128,  130 

Manor  of,  130 
Almain,  Earl  of  Gloucester,  119 
Almaine,    Henry    of,    Richard,    Earl    of 
Cornwall,  and,  1209— 1272,  by  St. 
Ci-air  Baddeley,  86—114 
Almaine,  Henry  of,  102,  103,  107—113,258 

Anns  of,  113 

Burial  of,  112,  113,  258 

Constance,  wife  of,  in 

Funeral  Mass  for,   at  Norwich,    113 

Knighted,  106 

Made  Prisoner  in  France,  108 

Murder  of,  no,  112,  258 
Almeries— Bibury,  65 

Quenington,  60 

Southrop,  55 
Almundestre,  Roger  de,  184 

Vol.   XXII. 

Alphonse,  Count  of  Poitou,  93,  102 
Alwyn,  24 

Ameneye,  William  of,  171 
Ampney  Crucis,  Ancient  Name,  23 

Church,  Arms  in,  13S — 139 
Description  of,  24 
Window,  2j 

Cross,  Description  of  (illus.),  24 — 26 
Crucifix  on,  51 

Domesday  Extent  of,  23 

House,  Elizabethan    Chimney-piece 
at,  26 

Land  in,  23 

Manor,  24,  26 

Manors  in,  24 

Park,  Ceiling  and  Mantelpiece  at,  26 

Visit  of  the   Society,  and   Notes  on 
the  Church  and  Manor,  23 — 26 
Ampney  St.  Mary,  Church,  26 

Manor  of,  26 
Amyand,  Family,  Arms  of,  142 
An.ii<  \v,  198 
Anesleye,  John  de,  239 
Anford,  John  de,  161 

Juliana  de,  161 
Anguillara,  Count  of.    See  Rosso 
Anian  I.,  Bishop  of  St.  Asaph.  1    1 
Anjou,  Court  of.    See  Charles 
Anne,  Queen,  12,  129,  134 
Annesdene,  Land,  250 
Ap  Adam,  Thomas,  9 

Family,  9 
Ap  Gronow,  Lloyde,  Arms  of,  138 
Ap  Owen,  Evan,  1  }8 

Family.  Arms  of.  1 
Aperle,  Nicholas  of,  170 
Appleby,  Family,  62 
Aquitaine,  Deputation  ot   the  Nobli 

to  Henry  III.,  87 
Archci ,  Philip,  168 

Thomas  le,  236,  25  \ 
Ardarne,  Richard  and  Matilda  bis  wife, 

Grant  of  Land  to,  249—252 
Aries,  Potteries  at,  6p 
Arlingham,  Township  of,  153 
Armorial  Bi  ;  — 

Ablingti  'ii  House,  147 

Ampney  Crucis  Church,  138—139 

Bibury  Church,  146 

Bibui  y  Coui  t,  147 

Oh  H  1  26,  i  ( t 

Coin  St.  Aldwyn's  Church,  1 16 
Hou  e,  1 15,  146 

Cri]  1  '■  '  ■  '3<j 

1   ,i  1   b    rch.  40, 140, 

Fai  1  ingdon,  I  ittle,  (  nurch,  5<>,  mi 

Hatherop  1  hurch,  145 
House,  1 11 

Hayles  Abbey,  111, 148—149,265—266, 

I  angford  Church,  143—144 
Lechlade  Church,  45,  47,  142  —  143 
Meysey  Hampton  Church,  30,  139— 





Armorial  Bearings  in  (continued)— 

Quenington  Church,  145 

Southrop  Church,  53,  54,  144 

Winchcomb  Church,  148 
Armorial  Bearings  of — 

Adee,  139 

Aguillon,  147 

Aiuge,  143 

Almaine,  Henry  of,  113 

Amyand,  142 

Ap  Gronovv,  138 

Ap  Owen,  138 

Arnold,  138,  139 

Ashley,  141 

Atkyns,  142 

Austin,  140 

Baker,  145 

Barrantyne,  149,  265 

Bathurst,  142 

BayliSj  148 

Beach,  145 

Beale,  133 

Beauchamp,  40 

Beauchamp,    Thomas    de,    Earl    ot 
Warwick,  269 

Bessborough,  Earl  of,  144 

Blagrave,  139 

Blomer,  144,  145 

Bouchier,  63 

Bowen,  138 

Broderwick,  143 

Browne,  145 

Burgh,  de,  14C 

Chute,  142 

Clare,  de,  30,  268 

Clarke,  140 

Colston,  140 

Compton,  149,  266 

Conway,  144 
Sir  Thomas,  53 

Cooke,  142 

Cooper,  144 

Copley,  144 

Corbett,  141 

Cornwall,  147 
Earl  of,  268 

Courcy,  147, 

Courtenay,  147 

Coxeter,  142 

Coxwell,  146,  147 

Creswell,  146 

Creuikere,  144 

Dalingruge,  147 

Den,  de,  147 

Dennis,  141 

Despencer,  40,  269 

Driver,  17 

Eleanor  of  Castille,  269 

England,  268 

Estcourt,  146 

Evesham  Abbey,  149,  266 

Ferrers,  111 

Fettyplace,  143 

Fitz-Alan,  265 

Fowler,  10,  126 

Freeman,  138 

Gorges,  141 

Grevill,  141 

Grey,  149 

Hall,  146 

Hamersley,  143 

Hastings,  269 

Hauteville,  140 

Hawes,  148 

Hayles  Abbey,  100,  271 

Head,  146 

Herbert,  138 

Heton,  Bishop  of  Ely,  140 

Armorial  Bearings  or  (continued) — 
Heytesbury,  147 
Hicks,  145,  146 
Hick?-l'each,  146 
Hinson,  138 
Hobby,  146 
Hodges,  1  (3 
Horton,  140 
Huddleston,  149,  265 
Hungerford,  147 
Hussey,  147 
Hutchins,  149 
Ireton,  145 
Jenner,  139 
Keble,  54,  144 
Knox,  142 
Lloyd,  138,  139 
Loder,  143 
Lygon,  141, 
Lynde,  140,  147 
Lyttleton,  140 
Margaret  of  France,  2C9 
Margetson,  '44 
Marshall,  92 
Mauley,  145 
Meysey,  29,  30 
Milward,  142 
Mitchell,  146 
Moncaster,  14S 
More,  140 
Morgan,  141 
Mortimer,  269 
Murray,  148 
Neville,  147 
Oldisworth,  140 
Pennington,  148 
Percy,  148,  266 
Perrot,  68 
Peverel,  147 
Plantagenet,  143 

Richard,  Earl  of  Cornwall,  271 
Pleydell,  139,  143 
Ponsonby,  144 
Powle,  145 
Poynings,  149,  266 
Prunes,  143 
Reason,  139,  143 
Redy,  140 
Renshaw,  148 
Roche,  144 

Romans,  King  of  the,  26S 
Russell,  141 
Sackville,  146,  147 
St.  Maur,  29,  30 
Sanchia  of  Provence,  114,  268 
Saunders,  139 
Savory,  141 
Shirley,  149 
Simons,  142 
Stapleton,  265 
Stephens,  10,  123,  126,  1 1 1 
Symons,  142 
Tame,  40,  141 
Toney,  269 
Tracy,  140,  1  |S 
Trotman,  148 
Turner,  143 
Twinyhoe,  46,  47,  141 
Tyriugham,  141 
Uchdryd,  139 
Vaughan,  ijS 
Vaux,  140 

Wakefield,  Henry,  Bishop  of  Wor- 
cester, 269 
Warneford,  746,  147 
Warwick,  Earls  of,  40 
Watkins,  139 
Webb,  139,  144,  145 



Armorial  Bearings  of  (continued) 
Whittington,  140 
Williams,  148 
Winchcomb,  148 
Wotton,  146 
Yorkist,  40 
Zouche,  29 
See  also  Heraldry 
Arnald,  William,  249 
Arnold,  Family,  Arms  of,  138,  139 
Ashbrook.    See  Ainpney  St.  Mary 
Ashley,  Lady  Barbara,  57 
Family,  Arms  of,  144 
Ashley-Cooper,  Anthony,  Earl  of  Shaftes- 
bury, 57 
Ashton  Hall,  123 
Assart,  Meaning  of,  219 
Asschemerseye,  Land,  249 
Asscliemeslad,  Land,  249,  250 
Asshe,  Thomas,  Yeoman   of  the  King's 
Chamber  and  Comptroller  of  the 
Port  of  Bristol,  277,  279 
Asshel worth,  Robert  de,  242 
Aston,  John  de,  177 
Athold,  Manor,  256 
Atkyns,  Family,  Anns  of,  142 
Atte  Mere,  Walter,  247,  249,  250,  251 
Atte  Slype,  Margaret,  170 

Ralph,  170 
Aubeny,  Lord  d',  65 
Auckesbury.     See  Hawkesbury 
Aula,  Jordan  de,  218 
Austin,  Family,  Arms  of,  140 
Avene.    See  Avon 
Avening,  Barrow,  Long,  at,  20 
Church — 
Altar  of  the  Holy  Rood,  17 
Bells,  19 

Destroyed  by  Fire,  14 
Font,  Norman,  16 
Hagioscope,  17 
Lady  Chapel,  14 

Early  English,  14,  15,  18 
Norman  Doorway,  15,  16,  18 
l'arvise,  15,  18 
Piscina,  14,  17,  18 
Recluse's  Cell,  17 
Rectors,  19 
Rood  Screen,  16 

Visit  of  the  Society,  and  Descrip- 
tion of  (illus.),  12 — 20 
Windows,  13,  14,  15,  16,  17,  18 
Lord  of  the  Manor  of,  18 
Manor,  19,  20 

Nailswoi  th  Chapel  a  Chapelry  of,  21 
Prehistoric  Stone  Chambers  at,  20 
Avon,  River,  12,  13,  164,  166,  167,  170 
Aylward,  253 

Baa,  Leuina  de,  178 

Baddiilkv,  St.  Clair  ;  Richard,  Earl  of 
Cornwall,  and  Henry  of  Al- 
maine,  1209 — 1272,  h6  —  1 1  i 

Bagge,  Nicholas,  162 

1  la     rstone,  Grange,  232 

Bagpatb,  Land,  237,  238 

Baker,  George,  Anns  of,  115,  147 
Margery,  172 

Baldwin,  24 

Balle,  Richard,  181 

Bammeswet,  Ralph,  170 

Banc,  Baitholoinew  la,  182,  185,  186,  190, 
nil,  '96,  204,  206 

Bancs,  Gilbert  Cissor  de,  157 

Bank,  Ralph  le,  213 

Banni  byre,  Joan  de,  171,  172 

Banner,  William,  Yeoman,  27G 

Barbe,  William,  1-1 

Bardeney.Symonde,  Mayor  of  Bristol, 138 
Bareball,  T.,  199 
Baret,  Adam,  184 
Alured, 184, 191 

Roger,  182,  186,  191,  203,  204,  205,  216, 
Barker,  Mr.,  27 
Barker's  Brook,  Stream,  43 
Barlychhulle,  Land,  250 
Barlynghull,  Land,  247 
Barnewell,  John,  249 

Roger,  249,  250,  251 
Barnsley  Church,  Description  of,  68 
Font,  68 
Norman  Horseshoe  Chancel  Arch, 

Windows,  68 

Norman  light  at,  brought   from 
Daglinworth,  68 
Manor,  67,  68 
Notes   on  the    Manor   and    Church, 

Park,  Built  by  Henry  Perrot,  68 
Barrantyne,  Mary,  149,  266 
Sir  William,  266 
Family,  Arms  of,  149,  265 
Barre,  Humphrey  de  la,  214,  218 
Barrow,  Long — Avening,  20 

Rodmarton,  21 
Bartfield,  Richard,  273 
Barton,  Matthew  de,  165 
Baskerville,  William  de,  112 
Basset,  Fulk,  Bishop  of  London,  103 

Family,  65 
Bat,  Roger,  162 
Bath,  Henry  de,  178 

John  de,  178 
Bath  Abbey,  40 

and  Wells,  Bishop  of.      See  Bitton, 

William  de;  Saturn 
Altar    found    at,    dedicated    to    the 
Sulevae,  erected  by  Su  inus,6g,70 
Inscription  on,  70 
Bathurst,  Lawrence,  142 
Mary,  142 
Family,  44 
Arms  of,  142 
Battle  Abbey,  Dedication  of,  169 
Bazeley,  William  ;  The  Abbey  of  St. 
Mary,  Hayles;   Brief  Sketch   of 
its   History  and   Report  of   the 
Excavations   in   1899  and    ig    , 

Notes  on  the  Church  and  Manor  of 

Ampney  Crucis,  23 — 26 
Notes  on  Calcot  Barn,  2 
Notes  on  the  Manor  and  Church  ol 
Fairford,  37 — 42 
Bazley,    Garhnkk     S.  ;     Stained     and 

Painted  Glass  (illus.),  73—85 
Bayeux,  Bishop  of.    Sei  • 
Baylis,  Family,  Arms  ot 
Beach,  Family,  Arms  of,  145 
Beaga,  62 

Beale,  Catherine,  123,  136 
Arms  ol. 
Robert,  Clerk  to  Queen   Elizabeth, 
1  ii.  136 
l'.citi  11  <  ol   l'i  uvence,  9S. 
Beam  camp,  Mai   an  t,  .'69 

Thomas  de,  Fail  ol  Warwick,  Arms 
of,  269 

Willi. iin. 

Family,  38 
Arms,  1 0 
Bcauflur,  Ralph,  1    9 



Beaufort,  Edmund  II.,  Duke  of  Somerset 

and  Marquis  of  Dorset,  281 
Beaulieu  Abbey,  257 

Abbot,     See  Hugh 

Dedication  of,  99 

Estates  of,  47 

Founded  by  King  John,  88 

Grant  of  Land  to,  49,  53 

Isabella,  Countess  of  Gloucester  and 
Cornwall,  buried  at,  92 
Discovery  of  Tomb  of,  92 

Monks  of,  99 

Visit  of   Richard   Plantagenet,  Earl 
of  Cornwall,  99 
Beaumont,  Family,  65 
Bedwell,  Family,  27 
Beel,  John,  162 
Beettesest,  Land,  247 
Beidunesslade,  Land,  184 
Belasyse,  Barbara,  57 

John,  Lord,  57 
Belchere,  Hugh,  168 
Bell,  Richard,  175 
Benecumbe,  Robert  de,  226 
Bercham,  Richard  de,  158,  1C8,  178 
Bereman,  Alan,  159 
Berenger,  Raymond,  Count  of  Provence, 

Berewyke,  Henry  de,  175,  176 
Berkeley,  Adam  de,  216,  218,  220 

Elizabeth,  256 

Henry  de,  243 

John,  Lord  of  Dursley,  256 

John  de,  243 

Lords  of,  159 

Maurice  de,  224 

Lord  Maurice  de,  253 

Oliver  de,  185,  186,  190,  193,  202,  203, 

Philip  de,  206 

Robert  de,  224,  242,  2r3 

Roger  de,  Lord  of  Dursley,  9,  242,  256 

Thomas,  Lord,  3,  5,  9,  255 

Thomas  de,  162,  224,  225,  253 
Court  of,  at  Radeclyve,  170 

William,  285 

William,  Lord  of  Dursley,  256 

Family,  9 
Berkeley,  239,  240,  242 

Borough  of,  155 

Hundred,  153,  155, 157 

King's  Hundred  of,  9 

Vicar  of,  215,  217,  219,  221 
Berham,  Walter  de,  158 
Berkham,  Richard  de,  163 
Berkhampstead,  89,  114 
Berman,  Robert,  1O4 

Sely  le,  166 
Bernard,  Henry,  son  of,  191,  192 

Henry,  205 

John,  248,  249,  250 

Walter,  186,  203,  205,  231 
Bertun,  Walter  de,  190 
Berwick,  114 

Besill,  Thomas,  Clerk  of,  219 
Bess,  Sir  John,  no 
Bessborough,  Earl  of,  Arms  of,  144 
Best,  Adam,  170 
Bethlesdene,  Monks  of,  205 
Beumund,  Joan  178 
Beversalevelde,  Land,  183 
Beverston,  Castle,  4 

Barbican  (illus.),  8 

Barn  near,  9 

Besieged    by    the    Parliamentary 

Forces,  9 
Built  by   Maurice   de  Gaunt  and 
Thomas,  Lord  Berkeley,  5 

Beverston,  Castle  (continued)— 
Chapel,  7,  8 
Piscina,  7 
Sedilia,  7 
Window,  7 
Devastated  by  Fire,  7 
Colonel  Oglethorpe,  Governor  of,  9 
Possessors  of,  9 

Visit  of  the  Socieiy,  and  Descrip- 
tion of  (illus.),  5 — 9 
Church,  Berkeley  Chapel,  3 
Font,  4 
Hagioscope,  3 
Piscina,  4 

Picture  of  S.  Christopher,  4 
Rector  of,  228 

Rood  Screen,  Restoration  of,  4 
Sculpture,  3 

Visit  of  the  Society,  and  Descrip- 
tion of  (illus.),  2 — 5 
Wall  Paintings,  4 
Windows,  3,  4 
Earl  Godwin,  Harold  and  S weyn  at,  9 
Land,  183 
Manor,  9 
Bibury,  Ancient  Name,  62 
Church,  62 
Almeries,  65 
Arms  in,  146 
Jurisdiction  of,  62,  64 
Old  Oak  at  Ablington  Manor  House 

brought  from,  65 
Piscinas,  65 

Visit  of  the  Society,  and  Descrip- 
tion of,  64,  65 
Windows,  64,  65 
Court  (illus.),  62 
Arms  in,  147 

or     Manor    House,   built    by    Sir 
Thomas  Sackville,  64 
Lands  at,  62 
Manor,  64,  67 
Extent  of,  62 
Norman  Villa  at,  65 
Visit  of  the  Society,  and  Notes  on, 
(illus.),  62 — 65 
Bigoi  re,  Count  of.    See  Chabannois 
Bilesby,  Henry  de,  214,  215,  217,  218,  242, 

Bird,  Phelepott,  285 

William,  Bristol  Merchant,  claimed 

by  Lord  de  la  Warre  as  villein, 

Buried  in  the  Crypt  of  St.  Nicholas, 

Bristol,  285 
Birdlip,  2S5 
Birdwood,  157 

Birmingham,  William,  Lord  of,  285 
Birmingham,  Master  of  the  Guild  ot,  2^5 
Bisley,  Mathew  de,  219 

W.  de,  215,  219 
Bisley,  Parish  of,  202 
Bitton,  William  de,  Bishop  of  Bath  and 

Wells,  103 
Blackwell,  Samuel,  24 

Family,  59 
Blagrave,  Arms  of,  139 
Blakeford,  Alice  de,  171 
Blakenaker,  Land,  229 
Blakers,  Walter,  167 
Blakingrove,  Land,  184 
Blaye,  Henry  III.  and  English  Army  at, 

Bley,  Roger  de,  232 
Blomer,  John,  55 
Mary,  55,  144 
Family,  55, 119 
Arms  ol,  144,  145 



Blund,  John  le,  220 

Richard  le,  Bishop  of  Exeter,  99,  103 
Bohun,  de.  Family,  67,  iog 
Boilond,  Richard  de,  219 
Bollecote,  Land,  207,  208 
Bolre,  Richard,  165 
Boltere,  Robert  le,  166 
Bond,  Richard,  278 
Boniface,    Archbishop    of    Canterbury, 

98,  114 
Bonilace  VII.,  Pope,  112 
Bonsergiant,  John,  161 
Bordeaux,  Bishop  of,  87 

Convent  at,  97 

Wine-merchants  of,  107 
Bosworth  Field,  Battle  of,  27 
Boteler,  Adam  le,  164 

Hereward  le,  164 
Bottelavv  Hundred,  157 
Bouchier,  William,  68 

Family,  68 
Arms  of,  68 
Bowcot.     See  Bollecote 
Bower,,  Family,  Arms  of,  138 
Boxwell,  Rector  of,  131,  133,  134 
Boys,  William  de,  166 
Brachel,  John,  230 

Walter  de,  205 
Bradenstoke,     Priory    of,    founded    by 
Walter  d'Hvreux,    and   Sybilla 
de  Chaworth,  his  wife,  55 
Bradeston,  Robert  de,  208,  225 
Bradley,  Henry  de,  203 

William  de.  103,  203,  204 
Bradley,  Hundred  uf,  157 
Bradpen,  253 

Bradstonesforlang,  Land,  184 
Braneford,  279 
Brasses,  Monumental,  at — 

Coin  St.  Aldwyn's,  146 

Fairford  Church,  42,  141 

Inglesham  Church,  48 

Langford  Church,  143 

Lechlade  Church,  46 

Quinton,  17 
Bracks,  MONUMENTAL,  of — 

Clopton,  17 

Grevill,  hi 

Pleydell,  143 

Prunes,  143 

Reason,  143 

Tame,  Sir   Edmund,  and   Alice   his 
wile,  42,  141 

Townshend,  John,  46 

Twinyho,  46,  141 
Braybrok,  William,  165 
Brech,  La,  Land,  250 
Bredebrug',  Henry  de,  234 
Brerigarston,  Land,  184 
Bi  et,  Robert  le,  175 

Breteuil,  Roger  de,  Earl  of  Hereford,  59 
Brethe,  Land,  192 
Brctun,  William,  203 
Hi  ian,    .Sk  Poynings 
Brictric,  19,  38 
Brid,  John,  159 

Randolph,  167 

Robert,  159,  167 
i  ;  id  1    ,  Henry,  Monument  of,  18 
Bridleyp.    See  Birdlip 
Bi  inton,  Adam  de,  175 
Bristilton,  Robert  of,  171 
Bristol],  W.  de,  217 
Bristol,  Arras  Tower,  171 

Avene  Marsh,  175 

Castle,  166 
Champayne,  John,  Gatekeeper  of, 

Bristol  (continue!)  — 

CastJe,  Chapel,  Dedication  of,  169 
Churches — 

All  Saints',  159,  161,  165 

Brethren  of  Mount  Cai 

Brethren  of  the  Sack,  168,  ioj 

Friars'  Preachers,  1 

Grey  Friars,  278 

Holy  Trinity,  159,  i6j,  161 

St.  Augustine  the  Greater,  163 

St.  Augustine  the  Less,  165,  . 
William,  Vicar  of,  175 

St.  James,  163,  162,  167.  169 

St.  John  de  Bradeforde,  167 

St.  John  de  la  Redcclyve,  159,  168 

St.  Leonard,  173 

St.  Martin,  169 

St.  Mary  de  la  Redeclyve,  159,  16;,, 
167,  170,  171 

St.   Nicholas,   Crypt    of,    William 
Bird  buried  in,  285 

St.  Owens,  159,  162 

St.  Peter,  15  1,  163,  167 

St.  Philip  and  St.  Jacob,  166,  170 

St.  Thomas,  168,  171 

St.  Werburge,  165 
Compter,  276,  285 
Council  House,  273,  277 
Dean  of,  Christianity  of,  161,  178 
Englishry,    Charter    of    Exemption 

from,  171 
Fines  for,  151,  152 
Gaol  Delivery  of,  178 
Great  House  in  St.  Peter's  Church- 
yard, 272,  273 
Guildhall,  280 

St.  George's  Chapel  in,  2S4 
Hospitals  — 

St.  Bartholomew,  178 

St.  John,  Stephen,  Master  of,  174 

St    Mark's,  165 
Jordan  of  the  Malthouse,  173 
Kings'  Hundred  of,  177 
Lafiorde's  Gate,  177 
Lands  in,  274 
Market,  177 

fohn,  the  Clerk  of  the,  \f>z 
Marshal  of,  194 
Municipal  Records — 

Great   Red   Book  of  the  Corpor- 
ation of,  272,  2S3,  284 
Document   in,    relating    to 

Trial    of    Thomas    Norton, 

Remarkable    Entry   in,  relati  ig 
to  William  Bird,  2^4—21:5 
Pipe  Lane,  174 

nvn  at,  1  i  Bdward  I., 
by  E.  A.  Fuller,  150—178 
Pi  ison,  163 
Redclifl  Stn  et,  171 
Court  of  Thomas  de  Berkeli 

Prison  of  Thomas  de  Berkeley 
in,  159,  162 
St.  Augustine's  Abbey,  John,  the 

Cook  of  the  Abbut  of,  I 
St.  James's,  Pi  ioi  v  of.  1 1   rsi 

iald  de,  I  tiaplain  of ,  1   9 
Rob  1   "i  thi    ! 

ol,   166 

St.  Michael's  Hill,  157,  171 
St.  Petei  's  Cburcb 
Savoy,  ^78 

Sri  .    I   -| 

S0111  leuts  in  1 

History,     by    J.     Lati 

21   A 



Bristol  (continued) — 

Temple  Fee,  277,  282 
Trial  by  Combat  at,  173 
Tolzey,  274 
Brittany,  Expedition  of  Henry  III. 

to,  87 
Broadwell  Church,  Font,  68 
Broderick,  Francis,  143 

Saphina,  143 

Family,  Arms  of,  143 
Brodesierd,  Land,  113,  184 
Brokeleyesflad,  Land,  238 
Brome,  Agnes,  236 

Laurence  de,  236 
Grant  of  Land  to,  237,  238 
Bronderuppe.    See  Eastleach 
Browne,  Family,  Arms  of,  145 
Brucetus,  Sulinus,  son  of,  70 
Bruerne,  Abbey,  Monks  of,  119 
Bruges,  John  of,  and  Clarice  his  wife,  174 

William  de,  176 
Bruggeaunt,  William  de,  234 
Brun,  John,  176 

Thomas,  161 
Brunegrove,  Sampson  de,  214 
BruseJaunce,  John,  157 
Bruth,  John  le,  Lord  of  Weston,  230 
Bruton  Priory,  10,  122,  129 

Cell  of,  at  Horsley,  129 
Brydd.    See  Bird 
Brydewode.     Sec  Bridvvood 
Bryselaunce,  John,  175 
Buccleugh,  Duke  of,  47 
Buchine,  La,  Land,  204,  231 
Buckhurst,  Robert  of,  147 
Budeford,  Geoffrey  de,  235,  236 

Jordan  de,  235,  236 
Buledene,  Land,  183 
Bull,    George,    Rector    of   Avening   and 

Siddington,  19 
Bunz,  Henry,  235 
Burdon,  John,  248 
Burgh,  Hubert  de,  Justiciar,  Fall  of,  87 

Jane  Adeliza  Clementina  Hussey  de, 

Family,  Arms  of,  146 
Burgred,  King  of  the  Mercians,  38 
Burifeld,  Land,  241 
Burthorpe.    See  Eastleach  Martin 
Burton,  G.  de,  219 
Butevillain,  William,  184,  rgt,  192 
Butine,  La.    See  Buchine 
Buxvvell,  Robert  de,  220 
Byfloid,  Mill  of,  253 
Byndedevel,  Roger,  159 
Byrde.    See  Bird 

Caen,  Abbaye  aux  Dames,  Grant  to,  19 
Cairo,  Sultan  of,  94 
Cake,  Richard,  169 
Calchushull,  Land,  241,  242 
Calcot,  Hugh  de,  207,  209 

W.  de,  192 
Calcot  Barn,  Built  by  Henry,  Abbot  of 
Kingswood,  2 
Carved  Stone  at,  2 
Inscription  in,  2 
Partly  Destroyed  by  Fire,  2 
Visit  of  the  Society,  and  Description 
of,  2 
Caldicote  Grange,  206 
Abbot  of,  197 
Monks  of,  230 
Land,  227,  236 
Calfhage,  Roger  de,  203 

■  m    III.,  Popi 
Calne,  John  de,  160 
Richard  de,  176 

Cam,  Hamlet  of,  239,  240 
Camberlanus.    See  Chamberlain 
Cambridge,  Friars  of  the  Sac  at,  169 
Camerarius,  William,  184 
Camme,  Henry  de,  225 

Ralph  de,  208 
Cantilupe,  Walter  de,  Bishop  of  Worces- 
ter, 100,  103 
Canterbury,  Archbishops  of.     See  Boni- 
face ;  Langton ;  Rich 
S.  Thomas  of,  116 
Canynges,  William,    Mayor    of    Bristol, 

274.  275.  278 
Capel,  John,  240,  242 

William,  242 
Caperun,  Geoffrey,  226 

P.,  220 
Caposalvi,  Signor,  Architect,  113 
Cardiff,  John  de,  158 
Carpenter,  David  the,  172 
Philip  the,  217 
Robert  the,  173 
Silvester  the,  173 
Thomas,  235 
Walter  the,  169 
Wililam  the,  169 
Carter,  T.,  196,  198 
William  le,  247 
W.,  196 
Catherine  of  Arragon,  Queen,  44 
Cementarius.    See  Mason 
Chabinnois,  Agnes,  in 
Constance,  in 

Eskivat  de.  Count  of  Bigorre,  m 
Chalelege,  W.  de,  196 
Chamberlain,  William,  191 
Champayne,  John,  gatekeeper  of  Bristol 

Castle,  177 
Chandos,  Edmund  Lord,  27 

John,  Lord  of  Sudeley,  18 
Chaplin,  Major,  126 
Charles  I.,  40,  130 
Execution  of,  131 
and    Queen    Henrietta,    Traditional 

Visit  to  Hatherop  Castle,  57 
Trial  of,  published  in  a  book  called 
"England's  Black  Tribunall,"  132 
Charles  II.,  Restoration  of,  131 
Charles  of  Anjou,  King  of  Naples  and 
Sicily,  103,  no,  in,  113 
Taken  prisoner  by  the  Sultan,  102 
Charlton,  Adam  de,  182,  183,  185,  186,  191, 
Richard  de,  252 
Roger  de,  186 
Charlton,  Land,  183,  185,  186 
Charteshull,  Roger  de,  11,6,  198 
Charteshull,  Grange,  232 
Chausi,  Gi-:>tln  y  de,  1^1,  :  4,  207,  201 
Chavenage,  Notes  on  Chavenage  and  the 
Stephens     Family,     by    W.    H. 
Silvester  Davjes,  128—135 
Chavenaue     House,     by     W.     Howard 
Seth-Smith,  121— 127 
Manor  House,  128 
Arms  in,  123,  126,  133 
Bedstead,  Carved,  129 
Chapel  at,  17 
Chimney-piece,  I2fi 
Distinguished   persons    connected 

wiih,  129 
Fin  place  iillus.),  12 
Flemish  Glass,  12 
Gothic  Work  in,  122 
Jacobean  Screens,  125 
Knocker  at,  123 
Legend  of,  131 — 132 
Minstrel  Gallery,  125,  126 



Chavenage,  Manor  House  (continued) — 
Picture  of  Oliver  Cromwell  at,  129 
Priest's  cell  at,  126 
Robert  Harley's  Room  at,  134 
Sale  of  Antiquities  at,  135 
Sir  Philip  Sydney's  Room  at,  127 
Tapestry,  12,  125 
Tapestry  Room,  129 
Visit  of  the  Society  and   Descrip- 
tion of  (illus.),  9—12 
Windows  at,  10,  122,  123,  124,  125 
Manor  of,  129 
Chavenage,  Poem  called,  by  Rev.  R.  W. 

Huntley,  131,  133 
Chavvorth,  Sybilla  de,  55 
Cheddre,  John  le,  176 
Chelder,  Richard,  256 
Cherington,   Adam    de,   Grant  oi    Land 
to,  190,  191 
Henry  de,  190 
Lord  and  Lady  of,  239 
Luke  de,  2:15,  206 
Cherington,  17 

Church     Bell     sto'en     by     Avening 

Ringers,  19 
Land  in,  190,  205 
Cherleton.     See  Charlton 
Chesterfield,  Battle  at,  no 
Chichester.  Bishop  of.    See  YVich 
Chippenham,  Bailiff  of,  215 
Chirechesdun.    See  Churchdown 
Chirintun.     See  Cherington 
Chiryeinedon,  Land,  250 
Chok,  Sir  Richard,  Justice,  278 
Cholmondeley,  Anne,  133,  134,  136 

Sir  Hugh,  Governor  of  Scarborough, 

12,  132,  133,  134,  136 
Lord,  133 
Mary,  136 
Chuich  Plate,  Chalice,  Pre-Reformation, 

at  Langford  Church,  53 
Churchdown,  R.  de,  222 
Chute  Family,  Arms  of,  142 
Cirencester,  Walter,  Clerk  of,  216 
Cirencester   Abbey,    Abbots.    See    Rod- 
Lamp  of  St.  Mary,  230 
Altar  and  Reliefs  found  at,  Descrip- 
tion of  (illus.),  69 — 72 
Inscription  on,  70 
Church,  153 
Cripps'  Mead,  Arms  in,  139 

Museum   at,  Visit  ol    the  Society, 
and  Notes  on,  68 — 72 
Finds  in  Ashcroft,  63 
Hundred  of,  157 
S.  John's  Church  (illus.),  72 
Cistercian     Order,    Abbots    of,    at    the 
Lateran,  187 
Attempt  of  Henry   III.    to    Extract 

Money  from,  98 
Endowment  of  Schools  by,  102 
Possessions  of,  101 
Citeaux,  Abbey,  Nun  of,  88 
Clappe,  Gilbert,  227 

Clare,  Alicia  de,  Countess  of  Gloucester, 
Gilbert  de,  Earl  of  Gloucester  and 
Hertford,  87,  no,  258 
Isabel,  his  wife,  87 
Margaret  de,  258 
Richard  de,  Earl  of  Gloucester,  53, 

88,  90,  107 
Richard    de    (Strongbow),    Earl    of 

Pembroke,  130 
Family,    Earls    of    Gloucester    and 
Hertford,   38,  53 
Arms,  30,  268 

Clarence,  Duke  of.    Sec  Plantagenet 
Clarke,  Simon  the,  175 
Clarke  Family,  Arms  of,  140 
Cleihulle,  Land,  183 
Clement  IV.,  Pope,  in 
Clencham,  Stephen,  248 
Clergy,  Requisiiion  upon  the,  87 
Clerk,  Hugh,  198 

John  le,  175,  176,  178 

John  the,  of  the  Market  of  Bristol, 

Nicholas,  235 

Richard  de,  1  =  8 

Symon  the.    Sec  Bardeney 

Walter,  235 

William  le,  178,  198 
Clermont,  Alice  de,  53 
Clifford,  Roger  de,  108 

Rosamond,  55 

Walter  de,  118 
Clifton,  Seward  of,  162 
Clitheroe,  John,  Abbot  of  Haylcs.  26  1 
Clyvare,  John  le,  175 
Cnigt.     See  Knight  " 
Cobbler,  John,  178 
Cokhil,  Henry,  235 
Colewiche,  Richard  de,  236 
Colkerton.    See  Culkerton 
Cclle,  Adam,  172 
Coin,  River,  37,  43,  61,  65 

Ancient  Name,  62 
Coin  St.  Aldwyn's,  Church,  Advowson, 
Arms,  146 
Brass,  146 

Derivation  of  Name,  61 

Manor,  given  by  Aldred  to  St.  Peter's 
Abbey,  Gloucester,  61,  bz 

Manor  House  (illus.),  61,  62 
Arms  in,  145—146 

Visit  of  the  Society,  and  Notes  on, 

and  Williamstrip,  Lands  in.  >>.: 

Williamstrip  House,  62 
Cologne,  Archbishop  of.     See  Conrad 
Colston,  Alexander,  Arms  ol,  140 
Comare,  Adam  le,  160 

Mai  gery,  160 
Compton,    Sir     William,     Governor     of 
Sudeley  Castle,  266 

Gift  to  Hayles  Abbey,  266 

Family,  Arms  of,  149,  266 
Conrad,  Archbishop  of  Cologne,  106,  114 

Conradin,  Nephew  of  Manfred,  105 
Constance.     See  Gd 
Constaunce,  Henry,  231,  248 

William,  249,  250,  251,  252 
Conway,  Sir  Thomas,  Arms  of,  53 

and     his      Lady,      I  1:.   1.        of,      in 
Southrop    Church,    53,   54 

Family,  Arms  of,  114 
Cook,  Alice,  178 


Richard  le,  161,  164 

Susanna,  142 

W.iliii  ■  ( 1 

Cooke,  Family,  Arms  of,  1  1  : 
Cooper,  Family,  Anns  of,  1  1 1 
Copley,  Family,  Ai  ms  of,  1 1 1 
Corbeti,  Mai  garet,  1 1 1 

I    iniily,  Al  HIS  ol,  I4I 
Corfe  c 

Corne,  John,  272 
Cornishman,  Thomas  the,  167 
Conin  Waltei  le, 

Corowaleis.  Ci  1 

Rich. Lid  le,  17.3 



Cornwall,  Earl  of.  Arms  of,  268 
See  Plantagenet 

Family,  of  Burford,  114 

Family,  Arms  of,  147 
Cornwall — Cornish  Mines,  88 
Coscombe  House,  260 
Cosyn.     See  Cook 
Coteland.     See  Eastleach 
Cotiler,  Walter  le,  161 
Cottenhulle,  227 
Courcy,  Alice  de,  117 

Family,  Arms  of,  147 
Courtenay,  Family,  Arms  of,  147 
Coverturwrythe,  John  le,  178 
Coxeter,  George,  142 

Family,  Arms  of,  142 
Coxwell,  Charles,  146 

John,  62,65 

Portrait  of,   at    Ablington    Manor 
House,  65 

Family,  Arms  of,  146,  147 
Crawlegh,  Thomas  de,  242 
Credewel!,  Richard  de,  160 
Cremona,  95 
Crennel,  John,  253 
Cresswell,  Richard,  146 

Thomas  Estcourt,  146 

Family,  Arms  of,  146 
Crests.    See  Armorial  Bearings 
Creuikere,  Family,  Arms  of,  144 
Cringley,  Manor,  in 
Ci'ipps,  W.,  Museum  of,  at  Cirencester, 
Visit  of  the  Society,  and  Notes 
on,  63 — 72 

Potteiy  in,  68 
Crisp,  John,  214 

Cromweli,  Oliver,  Lord  Protector,  12,  30 
Picture  of,   in   Chavenage    Manor 
House,  129 

Thomas,  267 

Family,  131 
Crossbowman,  Alice,  159 

Peter  the,  159 

William,  159 
Crosses — Ampney  Crucis,  24 — 26,  51 

Eastleach  Martin,  118 

Eastleach  Turville,  119 

Inglesham,  49 

Runic  or  Saxon,  15 
Croxden,  Abbey,  101 
Crusade,  Money  co:lected  for,  100 
Crusaders,  Vows  of,  93 
Cu.     See  Cook 
Cudake,  Stephen,  162 
Cuif,  William,  iSj,  184 
Culkerbrugge,  Land,  248 
Culkertun,  Colin  de,  190,  113,  198 

Henry  de,  184,  185,  1S6,  191,  192 

Nicholas  de,  182, 185, 186, 203, 205, 214, 


W.  de,  218 
Culkerton,  Land  in,  181,  1S2,  189,  191, 192, 
203,204,  231,  247,  219 

Vill  of,  248 
Culling,  John,  214 

lllver     Llk-uone,  19 
Cumb,  Cristina  de,  2H 

Elias  of,  219,  226,  236 

Henry  de,  216,  217 

Richard  de,  215,  217,  219,  221 

Willi  1111  de,  232—234 

Vvo  de,  236 
Curteneci  undle,  Land,  183 
1    1  In.    See  Cook 
Custance.    See  Geoffrey 

1     Lord,  281 
Dagan,  Hugh,  197 

Daglingworth   Church,   Early   Sculpture 

at,  51 
Norman    light    in   Barnsley   Church 

brought  from,  68 
Dale,  William,  158,  176 
Dalingruge,  Sir  John,  147 

Margaret,  147 
Family,  Arms  of,  147 
Damascus,  Sultan  of,  94 
Dainietta,   Louis   IX.,  and   French  Cru- 
saders at,  102 
Dante,    Alighieri,    his     description     of 

Simon  de  Montfort,  113 
Davies,  W.    H.   Silvester;    Notes  on 
Chavenage    and    the    Stephens' 
Family,  128 — 135 
Deae  Matres.     See  Sulevae 
Deerhurst  Priory,  Expulsion  of   Monks 
from,  102 
Rights  over,  purchased  by  Richard 
Plantagenet,  Earl  of  Cornwall,  102 
Del  West,  Land,  192 
Den,  Hela  de,  147 
Ralph  de,  147 
Robert  de,  147 
Family,  Arms  of,  147 
Dene,  John  de,  178 

William  de,  Lord  of  Lassebrewe,  226 , 
237,  238 
Dennis,  Eleanor,  141 
Sir  Gilbert,  141 
Richard,  10,  129 
Sir  Walter,  io,  122,  129 
William,  141 
Family,  Arms  of,  141 
Dent,  Mrs.,    of   Sudeley,  In  Memoiiam, 

Deodand,  Forfeit  called,  154 
Derby,  Earl  of.     See  Ferrers 
Derwentwater.     See  Radcliffe 
Despencer,  Family,  38,  43,  67 

Arms,  40,  269 
Devereux,  Robert,  Earl  of  Essex,  Colonel 
of    the     Parliamentary    Forces, 
12,  128,  129 
Dichforlang,  Land,  183,  184 
Didbiook   Church,    Rebuilt  by    William 
Whytchurch,  Vicar,  260 
Inscription  in,  260 
Reconciliation  of,  260 
Dikere,  William,  162 
Dilston,  57 
Dimmok,  W.,  217 
Di  Vico.     See  Vico 
Dode,  John,  162 
Dodington,  Benedict  de,  235 
Dollyng,  Agnes,  163 

John,  163 
Dominicans,  Sent  by  Pope   to   Procure 

Funds  for  Crusade,  93 
Donhurst,  Matilda  de,  169 
Dorset,  Marquis  of.    See  Beaufort 
Doughton,  John  de,  213 
Richard  de,  183 
Robert  de,  184,  191 
Roger  de,  185,  186,  190,  196,  206 
Doughton,  184 

1  lover,  Port  of  Departure  for  Felons,  152 
Dowdeswell,  Robert   Alccster,  Abbot  of 

Hayles,  buried  at,  259 
Down,  Thomas,  230,  251 
Downe,  Jo!m,  Viscount,  24 
Draicote,  John,  240 
Draper,  Richard  le,  158,  175,  176 
Driver,  John,  17 

Family,  of  Aston,  17 
Anns,  17 
Pedigree,  17 



Droys,  Adam  le,  246 
Druez,  John,  278 
Duck,  Richard  le,  2c6 

William  le,  248 
Ductune.     See  Doughton 
Dudley,    John,     Duke    of    Northumber- 
land, 64 
Dunning,  55 
Dunning,  Ralph,  176 

William,  164 
Durand,  26,  67 
Diirer,  Albert,  Fairford   Windows   said 

to  have  been  designed  by,  40 
Durobrivte,  Pottery  from,  68 
Dursley,  Henry  de,  217 
DyrnDck,  157 

Karstfield,  Family,  9 
Eastington,  Church,  134 
Rector  of,  134 
Lord  of  the  Manor  of,  128,  130 
Manor  of,  130 

Manor    House,     Fire    at,    in     1778, 
Family  Papers  destroyed  in,  128 
View  of,  128 
Eastleach  Martin,  Notes  on  the  Parishes 
and     Churches     of     Eastleach 
Martin  and   Eastleach  Turville, 
by  W.  H.  T.  Wright,  115—  120 
At  time  of  Survey,  53 
Church,  116 
Bellcote,  118 
Building  of,  115 
Cross,  118 

Dedication  of,  116,  117 
Description  of,  118 
Norman  Doorway  at,  118 
Windows,  118 
Cote  Farm  at,  118 
Cruel  Hill,  117 

Flint  arrowheads  found  at,  118 
Manor  of,  115 
Monks'  Cellar  near,  '18 
Rectory,  120 
Eastleach  Turville,  Notes  on  the  Parishes 
and      Churches     of     Eastleach 
Martin  and   Eastleach  Turville, 
by  W.  H.  T.  Wkight,  115 — 120 
At  time  of  Survey,  53 
Blomer's  Mead,  119 
Church  of  St.  Andrew,  Description 
of,  118,  IIQ 
Early  English  Chancel,  119 
Norman  Doorway  at,  118 
Parson  of,  119 
Windows,  119 
Cross,  1 19 

Grant  of  land  at,  119 
Joined  with  Eastleach  Martin,  119 
Land  at,  119 
Manor,  ■)■;,  119,  120 
Edgeworth,  Peter  de,  182,  202,  203 
Edmund  Crouchback,  King  of  Sicily,  101 
Edward  the  Confessor,  King,  43 

Shrine  of,   in    Westminister  Abbey, 

Edward  I.,  91,  97 

At  Hayles,  259 
Edward    IV'.,    Badge    of,    in    Lecblade 

Clmrch,  46 
Edward  VI.,  55 
Effigies  of — 

Conway,    Sir    Thomas,     and    his 

lady,   53,  34 
Tame,  John,  and  Aliri.  his  wife,  12 
Vaulx,  James,  his  wives  and  chil- 
dren, 29,  30 

Effigies  at— 

Fairford  Church,  42 

Meysey  Hampton  Church,  29,  30 

Soutlmp  Church,  53,  54 
Egeton.  John  de,  242 
Egge,  Gilbert  del,  2  1,  202 

John  del,  201,  202 
Egge,  Grange  del',  253 

,  La,  Land,  202,  207,  208,  224 

W(  ie,  Peter  d( 
Eggewurth.     See  Edgeworth 
Eghammore,  Land  in,  241,  242 
Egwin,  Bishop  of  Worcester,  Founder  of 

Evesham  Abbey,  266 
Eleanor  of  Castille,  Queen,  Arms  of,  269 
Eleanor  of  Provence,  Queen,  89,  98,  107, 

108,  257 
Elias,  William  son  o' 
Elizabeth,  Queen,  43,  128,  129,  133,  261 
Elkstone     Church,    Culver    or    pigeon- 
house,  18 

Parvise  at,  iS 
Elwy,  24 

Ely,  Bishops  of.    See  Heton  ;  Norwold 
Englisliry   in   Gloucestershire,    155,    1   I 

.    J57 

Lincolnshire,  156 

Warwickshire,  156 

Yorkshire,  156 
Ennyse,  Hugh  le,  165 
Ergleys,  Coroner  of  Bristol,  158 
Erlingham.    See  At  lingham 
Ernald,  Brother,  198 
Ernisius,  Monk  of  Malvern,  117 
Esbroc.    See  Ampney  St.  Mary 
Especar,  Gilbert  le,  1-1 
Essex,  Earl  of.    See  Devereux 
Estcourt,  Elizabeth,  146 

Thomas,  2 

Sir  Thomas,  146 

Family,  Arms  of,  146 
Estfelde,  Land,  204 
Eston,  William  de,  176 
Estoria,  Henry  de,  182 
Estrange,  Hamon  1', 
Eudo,  67 
Everard,  183 
Everard,  Thomas,  213 
Eversone,  John,  173 

Richard,  173 
Evesham  Abbey,  Arms  of,  149,  266 

Founded     by     Egwin,     Bishop     of 
Worcester,  266 
Evesham,  Battle  of,  no,  112 
Evesque,  Hake  le,  168 
Evreux,  Ela,  55 

Patrick  d',  (1)  Earl  of  Salisbury,  55 

Walter  d',  55 

Sybilla  de  Chaworth,  his  wife,  55 

William  'i',  12)  Earl  of  Salisbury,  55 
Excommunication  ot    England  bj 

Innocent  IV.,  99 
Exeter,  Bishop  of.    See  Blund 

Fairford  Church,  38 
All. 11  Comb  .  \2 
Arms,  i'>,  140 — 142 
Br.iss,  \z,  141 
1  description  of,  38 — 42 
Effigii  -,  t2 

Founded  bj  |ohn  Tame,  37 

Lady  Chapel,  1: 
Monument,  \a 

PI. in  of, 

Windows,   it,  ;;-, 
84.  8; 



Fairford  Church,  Windows  (continued) — 
Age  of,  76 

Glass  ot,  preserved  by  Sir  John 
Oldisworth,  42 
Croft's  Hall,  140 
Derivation  of  Name,  37 
Earliest  Mention  of,  38 
Grant  of  Land  at,  38 
Graves,  Discoveries  at,  38 
In  Saxon  Times,  38 
Manor,  38 

Visit  of  the   Society,  and  Notes  on 
the  Manor  and  Church,  37 — 42 
Falkenstein,  Beatrice  von,  114,  258 

Dietrich,  von,  114 
Farley,  Prior  of,  177 
Farley,  Robert  de,  165 

William  de,  175 
Farringdon,  Little,  Church,  Almery,  50 
Arms,  50,  143 
Clerestory,  49 
Glass,  Early  English  and  Flemish, 

Piscina,  50 

Visit  of  the  Society,  and  Descrip- 
tion of  (illus.),  49 — 50 
Window,  49,  50 
Formerly  in  Berks,  now  in  Oxford- 
shire, 49 
Granted  by  King  John  to   Beaulieu 
Abbey,  49 
Fatte,  John  the,  160 

Margaret  the,  173 
Fauconner,  John  le,  165 
Fernhamthorne,  Land,  247 
Ferrars,  Henry  de,  43 
Isabel  de,  44 
Margaret,  269 

Robert  de,  Earl  of  Derby,  no 
William  de,  269 
Family,  Arms  of,  in 
Fettyplace,  Sophia,  143 

Family,  Arms  of,  143 
Fiennes,  Ingelram  de, French  Knight,  ic8 
Fieschi.Sinibaldo.  See  Innocent  IV.,  Pope 
Filhida,  Land  in,  117 
Fiscleshole,  Land  at,  229 
l-'itz  Alan,  Agnes,  265 
Brian,  265 
John,  109 

Family,  Arms  of,  265 
Fitz  Hamon,  Robert,  26,  38 
Fitzbardinge,  Robert,  9 

Robert,  surnamed  Weare,  9 
Fitz  Herbert,  Peter,  44 

Family,  67 
Fitzpaine.     See  Poynings 
Fitzpons,  Drogo,  53,  115,  118 
Osbert,  53 
Osborn,  115 

Richard,  53,  115,  116,  117 
Deed  of  gift  of,  115 
Mathildis,  wile  of,  116 
Simon,  53,  115 
Walter,  53 
Family,  54 
Fitz  Rolf,  Turstin,  24 
Fitz  Stephen,  Captain,  129 

Ralph,   High  Sheriff  of  Gloucester- 
shire, 129 
Robert,  130 

William,  High  Sheriff  of  Gloucester- 
shire, 129 
Fitzwarin,  Fulco,  177 
Fitzwilliam,    William,    Earl   of    South- 
ampton, 47 
Flambard,  Adam,  196 
William,  168 

Flaxley,  Abbey,  101 

Abbot  of,  193,  215 
Fleetwood,  Family,  9 
Flint  Implements — Eastleach,  118 
Florenz  V.,   Lord  of  Holland,  Zeeland, 

and  Vriesland,  106 
Foix,  Agnes  de,  in 

Count  de,  m 
Foliot,  Gilbert,  Abbot  of  Gloucester  and 
Bishop  of  London,  116,  117 

James,  231,  232 
Fonts  at — 

Avening,  16 


Beverston,  4 

Broadwell,  68 

Inglesham,  48 

South!  op,  54,  55 

See  Crosses,  &c. 
Ford,  Hugh  de  la,  214 

John  le,  167 
Fordham,  John,  Prior  of  Worcester,  254, 

Forester,  John  le,  176 

Juliana  de  la,  178 

Family,  59 
Fornere,  Eva  la,  167 
Forshew,  Family,  27 
Forster,  John,  Mayor  of  Bristol,  285 
Fountains,  Abbey,  101 
Fowler,  Joan,  10,  136 

Richard,  10,  136 

Family,  Arms  of,  10,  126 
Fox,  Richard,  171 
Fragnum,  Land,  238 
Frampton,  John  de,  217 

Robert,    Bishop   ot   Gloucester    and 
Rector  of  Avening,  19 

Walter  de,  203 

William  de,  235 
France,  Invasion  ot,  by  Henry  III.,  96,  97 

Potteries  in,  69 
Franceis,  Edward  le,  174,  175 

Everard  le,  Mayor  of  Bristol,  158, 176 

Peter  le,  176 

Richard  le,  176 

R.  le,  199 

Walter  le,  158 
Franciscans,  Sent  by   Pope   to  procure 

funds  for  crusade,  93 
Frankeleyn,  John  the,  153 

Richard, 168 
Frederick    II  ,    Emperor    of   Germany, 
and  King  of  the  Romans,  86,  89, 

94,  95 

Excommunication  of,  102 
Freeman,  Henry  le,  231 

Roger  le,  231 

Thomas  le,  248 
Freeman,  Bakeley,  Family,  Arms  of,  138 
Fretherne,  Lord  of  the  Manor  of,  130 
Frocester,  Vicar  of,  214 
Froggaputtesfurlang,  Land,  183 
Frome,  River,  158, 159,  160,  162,  163, 165 
Fromund,  Robert,  163 
Froude,  Huirell,  120 
Fuller,  E.  A.;  Pleas  of  the  Crown  at 

Bristol,  15  Edward  I.,  150—178 
Fuimer,  Le,  Widow,  214 
Fuiness  Abhey,  101 
Furnival,  William  de,  in 
Fyfield,  Hamlet  of,  115 

Manor,  118 

Manor  House,  Windows  at,  119 
Fynet,  Henry  de,  174 

Galgano,  Cistercian  Abbey  of,  112 
Gange,  Nicholas,  176 



Garston,  or  Gaerstun,  Meaning  of,  183 
Garstona,  Land,  183,  250 
Gascony,  Rights  over,  97 

Deputation    of    the    Nobles    of,    to 

Henry  III.,  87 
Governed  by  Simon  de  Montfort,  104 
Gaudy,  Robert,  196 
Gaunt,  Maurice  de,  5 

Family,  9 
Gaywoode,  John,  Sheriff  of  Bristol,  274 
Gaza,  French  Crusaders  deieated  near,  94 
Geg,  Walter  le,  249,  251 
Gendlac,  Richard,  169 
Geoffrey,  son  of  Constance,  186,  190,  191, 

192,  203,  205,  206,  216 
George,  William,  In  Memoriatn,  302—303 
Germany,  102,  108 

Revenues   of    Richard    Plantagenet, 

Earl  of  Cornwall,  in,  106 
War  with  the  Frisians,  105 
Giffard,   Godfrey,  Bishop  of  Worcester, 
*77,  258 
John,  Lord  of  Brimpsfield,  109,  177, 
220,  221 
Girston.    See  Garstona 
Glass,  Stained  and  Painted,  by  Gardner 
S.  Bazley  (iMws.)i  73—85 
Age  of,  Tests  for  determining,  81 
Aventurine,  74 

Colouring,  Methods  of,  76—80 
Modern  Methods  of,  81 — 83 
Discovery  of,  74 

Painted,  at  Hayles  Abb  -y,  270,  271 
Difference  of,  from  Pictures,  83 
Renaissance,  76 
Glastonbury,  William  of,  175 
Gloucester,  Earl  of.   See  Clare;  Montfort 
Gloucester,  Milo  de,  Earl  of  Hereford,  67 
Richard  de,  214 
Walter,  the  Baker  of,  168 
Gloucester,  Abbey,  55,  119 

Abbot  of.     See  Foliot;  Serlo 
Richard,  Archdeacon  of,  117 
Grants  to,  38,  59 
Lands  and  Possessions  of,  61 
S.   Peter's  Abbey,   Monks   of,    59, 
117,  118 
Gloucester  Cathedral — 
Bishops  of,  64 
Chapter    House,   Walter   de  Laci 

buried  in,  59 
Dean  and  Chapter  of,  118 
Lady  Chapel,  40 
Early  English,  65 
Church    of    St.    Oswald,    Grant    of 
Land  to,  1S1-2 
William,  Prior  ot,  182 
Castle,  Sir  John  Huddleston,  Gover- 
nor of,  265 
Honour  of,  26,  38 

Hospital  ot  St.  Bartholomew,  Brother 
Adam,  Prior  of,  226,  227,  228 
Grant  of  Land  to,  226,  227 
-Gloucestershire,    Englishry  in,   155,  156, 

.    15l 
Fines  ior,  151 

Sheriff  of,  103,  19*) 

W.  Clerk  ot  the,  198 

See  Meysey  ;  Puti  't 
High   Sheriff  of.     See  Fit/.  Stephen  ; 

Godchild,  John,  162 
Godescroft,  Land,  237 
Godeshalve,  Geoffrey,  176 
Godfrey,  Brother,  198 
Godwin,  Earl,  9 
Gorbrodelond,  Land.  237 
Gores,  Le,  Land,  249,  251 

Gorges,  Eleanor,  141 

Family,  Arms  of,  141 
Gourde,  John,  161 
Gournay.    See  Gurney 
Grant,  John  le,  167 
Gray,  Lord  Walter,  Archbishop  of  York, 

Primate  of  England,  1S2,  [87 
Gregory  the  Great,  Pope,  4 
Gregory  IX.,  Pope.  88,  t88 
Gregory  X.,  Pope,  112 
Gretethorn,  Land,  183 
Grevill,  Agnes,  141 
Sir  Edward,  141 
Isabel,  149 
Jane,  141,  149 
Family,  Arms  of,  141 
Brass  of,  141 
Grey,  Peter  le,  172,  173 
Sir  Ralph,  149 
Robert  le,  213 
Sir  Thomas,  149 
Family,  Ai  ins  of,  149 
Griswald,  Margaret,  Memorial  Stone  to, 
in  Meysey  Hampton  Church,  29 
Grosseteste,  Robert,  Bishop  of  Lincoln, 
86,  100,  103,  104,  107,  257 
Tomb  of,  105 
Grove  Myle,  257 

Grumbold's  Ash,  Beadles  of,  217 
Guager,  Simon,  162 
Gurnard,  Robert,  171 
Gurney,  Thomas,  170 

Family,  9 
Gyleinyre,  William,  242 

Iladdon  Hall,  121 
Hadenhulle,  Land,  183 
Hagioscope — Avening,  17 

Beverston.  3 

Meysey  Hampton,  30 

Southrop,  54 
Hagley,  103 

Hagoday.    See  Knocker 
Hailes.    See  Hayles 
Hale,  Isabella,  170 

Sir  Matthew,  27 

William,  170 
Haleweye,  Agnes  de,  162 

Sampson,  162 
Hall,  Family,  Arms  of,  146 
Ham,  Hamlet  of,  239,  240 
Hamekyntone,  John  de,  232 
Hameldene,    Tfiomas    de,    Mayor    of 

Bristol,  158 
Hamersloy,  family,  Arms  of,  143 
Hampton,  William  de,  175 
Handelo,  Family,  62 
Hannes,  Sir  Edward,  Physician  to  1 
Anne,  129,  131,  137 

Temperance,  137 
Elopement  oi,  131 
llapulf,  John,  21;,  219,  221 
1  [ardewme,  1  leni  y,  206 
Hauling,  Robert,  213 
Hare.  John  le, 
Harebui  ne,  I  .and,  183 
Haresfield,  John  di 
Hail...  Ibi    iil.133 

Sn  Edward   133   1  6 

Robert,  Earl  "t  I  ixford,  12,  131 
Harold,  King,  9 
Haselcote,  Ni  ;el  di 

Richard  de,  ^1 1,  228 

S\  -1111111  de,     G 

Thomas  de,  238 

111  o(    I  and   io,  ia8 

Haselcote,  Hamlei  of, 

Haseld,  John  do.  21 



Haselgrovethornes,  Land,  237 
Hastings,  Family,  Arms  of,  269 
Hatherop  Castle,  57 

Traditional  Visit  of  Charles  I.  and 

Queen  Henrietta,  57 
Yew  Tree  Avenue,  57 
Church,  Advovvson,  55 

Arms,  45 
House,  Arms  in,  144 
Manors,  55 

Visit  of  the  Society,  and  Notes  on, 
Hauteville,  Family,  Arms  of,  140 
Haive  Park,  180,  253 

Conduit  at,  221,  225 
Hawes.  Family,  Arms  of,  148 
Hawkesbury,  Land  in,  235 
Haybstabularius,  John,  210 
Haye,  Walter  de  la,  163 
Hayles,  106 

Hayles  Abbey.    The  Abbey  of  St.  Mary, 
Hayles;     Brief     Sketch    of    its 
History,    and     Report    of     the 
Excavations   in   1899    and    1900, 
by  W.  Bazei.f.y,  257 — 271 
Hayles,  Abbey  of  S.  Mary,  87 
Abbot  of,  104 
See  Alcester ;  Clitheroe ;  Hendley 
Hugh  ;  John  ;  Jordan  ;  Melton 
Richard  ;     Sagar  ;    Stafford 
Apse,  114,  268 
Arms  of,  100,  271 

Arms  in,  in,  148 — 149,265 — 266,269 
At  the  Dissolution,  260,  261 
"Blood    of   Hayles,"    Relic  of   the 
Holy  Blood,  possessed  by,  104, 
114,  258 
Shrine  of,  262 

and  Cross,  Shrine  of,  Visited  by 
Pilgrims,  267 
Bones  of  Henry  of  Almaine,  buried 

at,  113,  258 
Bosses,  Carved,  found  at,  263,  264 
Bracket,  Carved,  270 
Burial  of  Edmund  Plantagenet  at, 

Burial  of  Richard  Plantagenet  and 

Sanchia  his  Wife  at,  114 
Chapels,  268,  270 
Chapter  House,  163 

Tiles  found  in,  260 
Chronicle  of  Hayles,  257,  267 
Cloister,  262,  263 
Rebuilt   by  Abbot   Whytchurch, 
Confused  with  Hales  Owen  Abbey, 


Cost  of  Building,  103 

Cross,  Fragment  oi  the,  possessed 
by,  104 

Cross,  Golden,  of,  259 

Dedication  of,  100,  103—104 
Henry  III.  at,  103 

Doorways,  262,  264 

Erection  of,  101 

Exhortation    from     the    Pope    to 
Repair,  260 

Fires  at,  262 

Flood  at,  259 

Foundation  of,   by  Richard   Plan- 
tagenet, 43,  86,  99,  257 

Gift  of  Sir  William  Compton  to, 

Glass,  Painted,  270,  271 

Infirmary,  Building  of,  259 

New  Work,  Dedication  of,  258 

Partial  Destruction  of,  113 

Hayles,  Abbey  of  S.  Mary  {continued)— 
Plague  at,  259 
Plan  of,  270 
Presbytery,  26S,  269 
Re-built  and  extended,  114 
Re-dedication  of,  114 
Robbery  at,  259 
Roof   of    Bisley    Church    said    to 

have  come  from,  43 
Seal  of,  267,  263 

Inscription  on,  267,  268 
Stone  Vessel,  269,  270 
Tiles,  264,  268,  269 
Tomb    of    Edmund    Plantagenet, 

Earl  of  Cornwall,  268 
Tomb    of     Richard     Plantagenet. 
Earl    of    Cornwall,  and    Queen 
Sanchia,  268,  269 
Views  of,  261 

Vow  of    Richard    Plantagenet    to- 
Build  an  Abbey  at,  98 
Castle,  87,  88,  89,  103 

Built  by  Ralph  de  Worcester,  258- 
Norman  Church,  103 
Parish  Church  of,  87,  88 
Built  by  Ralph  de  Worcester,  25S 
Cost  of  Building,  257 
Dedication  of,  257 
Restored  by  William  Hobby,  261 
Manor,  261 
Hayrun  William,  214,  220 
Hayward,  Richard  the,  170 
Head,  Eleanor,  146 

Family,  Arms  of,  146 
Hebed,  234 

Hedacre,  Le,  Land,  249,  250,  251 
Heilmundestre,  Land,  184 
Henbury,  Bailiff  of,  177 
Hendley,  William,  Abbot  of  Hayles,  259 
Henrietta,  Queen,  57 
Henry,  Prince,  son  of  James  I.,  130 
Henry  I.,  24,  26,  256 

Children  of,  drowned  in  White  Ship. 
Henry  II.,  9,  55 

Henry  III.,  86,  87, 88, 92,  93,  95,  96, 109,  257 
and   his   Queen  at  Winchcomb  and 

Hayles,  103 
Attempt    to    extract     money    from 

Cistercian  Order,  98 
Committee    formed   to   regulate   the 

Royal  Expenditure,  100 
Edmund  Crouchback,  son  of,  ior,  1  ig 
Edward,  son  of,  107,  108,  in,  112 
Invasion  of  France  by,  96,  97 
Married  to  Eleanor  of  Provence,  83 
Money  lent  to,  105 
Offer  of  Pope  Alexander  IV.  to,  105 
Quarrel    with    Richard    Plantagenet 

over  Gascony,  97 
Rising     of      Richard      Plantagenet 
against,  90,  91 
Henry  IV.,  254,  255 
Henry  VII.,  38,  68 
Henry,  Abbot  of  Kingswood,  2 
Henry,  Master,  196 
Henry,  son  of  Bernard,  igi,  192 
Henry,  Walter  son  of,  181 
Heraldry  of  the  different  Churches,  etc., 
visited    by   the  Gloucestershire 
Archaeological     Society     during 
their  visit    to    Fairford,   August 
9th   to  nth,   1899,  by  F.  Wei  1 

I3S— I(r, 

Herbert,  Family,  Arms  of.  138 
Hereford,   Earl  of.    See  Brcteuil ;  Glou- 
Hereford,  See  of,  116 



Hereward  the  Wake,  Rebellion  of,  43 

Hereward,  Ralph,  191 

Hertford,  Earl  of.    See  Gloucester 

Hesding,  Ernulph  de,  55 

Heton,  Bishop  of  Ely,  140 

Heued,  Richard,  1G2 

Hevedlond,  Land,  1S3 

Heytesbury,  Family,  Arms  of.  147 

Hibrdun,  232 

Hicks,  Family,  9 

Arms  of,  145,  146 
Hicks-Beach,  Family,  59 

Arms  of,  146 
Hillesley,  Walter,  clerk  of,  204 
Hinson,  Family,  Arms  of,  138 
Hinton,  Manor  of,  224 
Hiwoldesdene,  Land,  184 
Hobby,  William,  261 

Family,  Arms  of,  146 
Hodelston.     See  Huddleston 
Hodges,  Family,  Arms  of,  143 
Hodgkins,  Henry,  261 
Holacra,  H.  de,  198 
Holand,  Thomas  de,  Earl  of  Kent,  68 
Holcroft,  Gilbert,  227 
Holford,  Family,  9 
Holland   and    Vriesland,    Earl    of.    See 

Holland,  Zeeland  and   Vriesland,   Lord 

of.    See  Florenz 
Holte,  Matilda  le,  178 
Home,  Adamde  la,  206 

William  de  la,  243 
Home,  La,  Land,  243 
Homelonde,  Le,  Land,  237 
Honorius  III.,  Pope,  1S7 
Hook,  Roger,  213 

Simon,  168 
Hope,  Richard,  214 
Hordeston,  Land,  251 
Hore,  Geoffrey  le,  169,  178 

William  le,  178 
Horncastel,  Henry,  151,  158 
Horsefeld,  Reginald  de,  Chaplain,  173 
Horsley,  9 

Church,  10 

Church,   Cell   of    Bruton   Priory   at, 

Lord  of  the  Manor  of,  130 
Manor,  10,  129,  130 
Priory,  10,  122.  123,  124,  126,  127 
Horton,  H.  de,  217 

"  Philip,"  wife  of  James  Yaulx,  29 
Family,  Arms  of,  140 
Hosmareleyeclive,  Land,  238 
Howille,  Adam  de,  168 
Howman,  Canon,  Rector  of  Barnsley,  6S 
Huddleston,  Sir  Anthony,  149,  265 
Ferdinand,  149 
Joan,  265 
John,  265 
Sir  John,  Governor  of  Sudeley  and 

Gloucester  Castles,  265 
Mary,  2C6 
Sir  W.,  149 

Family,  Arms  of,  149,  265 
Hugh,  Abbot  of  Beaulieu,  88,  99 
Hugh,  Abbot  of  Hayles,  258,  259 
Hugh,  Monk  of  Malvern,  117 
Hugh,  son  of  Nigel,  191 
Hull,  Philip  de  la,  231 
Hull,  Grange,  232 
Humphrey,  195 

Humphry,  the  Chamberlain,  24,  26 
Hunyerford,  Barbara,  147 
Sir  John,  27 
Family,  Arms  of,  1 17 
Hungersforlong,  Land,  237,  238 

Hunte,  Hugh  le,  176 

Nicholas  le,  160 
Huntley,  Ann,  1 ;  1,  137 

Rev.   Richard,    Rector  of   Box  well, 

i3t,  137 
his   Poem  called    Chavcnage,   131, 

Hursley,  John  Keble,  Curate  of,  120 
Hussey,  Family,  Arms  of,  117 
Hutchins,  Family.  Aims  of,  149 
Hyldebrondesslad,  Lan.d,  237 
Hyne,  Richard,  158 
Hyneton.    See  Hinton 

Ingelby,  Maurice  de,  167 
Inglesham,  Church,  Brass,  48 
Font,  48 
Hour-glass,  48 
Interior  (illtts.),  47,  48 
Jacobean  Pulpit,  48 
Rood  Screen,  48 
Sculpture,  44,  48 
Sundial,  48 

Visit  of  the  Society,  and  descrip- 
tion of,  47 — 49 
Window,  48 
Cross,  49 

Manor   and  Church,  given   by  King 
John    to    the   Cistercian   Abbey 
of  Beaulieu,  47 
Inhokum,  Meaning  of,  204 
Innocent  III.,  Pope.  187 
Innocent  IV.,  Pope,  103 
Death  of,  105 
Excommunication    of    England    by, 

Inscriptions.— In   Ablington   Manor 
House,  65,  67 

At  Bath,  Altar  to  the  Sulevae,  70 

In  Calcot  Barn,  2 

At  Cirencester,  Altar  to  the  Sul' 

In  Didbrook  Church,  260 

On  Hayles  Abbey  Seal,  267,  268 
Ireland,  David  of,  167 
Ireland,  Invasion  of,  130 
Ireton,  General  Henry,  12,  129,  130,  133 

Henry,  62,  145 

Family,  59,  131 

Arms  of,  145 

Ireys,  John  le,  164 

Nicholas  Iggelbei  t  le,  164 

Roger  le,  166 
Isabella,  Empress  of  Italy,  94 

Death  of,  95 
Islevvorth,  Manor  of,  plundered,  109 
Italy,  105 


acketts,  Christian,  28 
acob,  Thomas,  220 

Walter,  21 1 
affa,  Crusaders  at,  gt 
ames  I.,  26,  29 
ansen,  Cornelius,  Buildei  ot  Ablin 

Manor  House,  65 
<  nnei .  Edit! 
i     nily,  "i  M 
Family  Ai  ms  of,  1 
in,  Ci  usadei  s 
civ.  An  on  the,  160 
ews,  1  >  ovei .  given  t"  Rii  hard 

Plantagenet,   Earl  o(    Cornwa  1 
by  1  ii  in  v  1 1 1 
Requisition  from  1I1 
ofne,  Bai  tholomew  le,  15N,  163 

OglUT,  llunili  y  I' 



John, King,  Beaulieu  Abbey  founded  by,88 
English  predominance  in  Aquitaine 

lost  by,  87 
Grants  to  Beaulieu  Abbey,  47,  49,  53 
John,  Abbot  of  Hayles,  259 
John,  the  Clerk  of  the  Market  of  Bristol, 

John,    the    Cook    of   the    Abbot    of    St. 

Augustine,  173 
Johnson,  Ralph,  68 
Jordan,  Abbot  of  Hayles,  257 
Jordan  of  the  Malthouse  of  Bristol,  173 
Julin,  John  de,  87 

Karat,  Emir  of,  94 
Katherine,  Dame,  215,  218 
Keble,    Sir    Henry,    Lord    Mayor    of 
London,  55 
John,  43,  120 

Born  at  Fairford,  38 
Thomas,  144 
Family  Arms,  54,  144 
Monument  of,  54 
Kele,  232 

Kemeys,  Philip  le,  161 
Kempley,  Robert,  Dean  of,  193 
Kenepel.    See  Kempley 
Kenilworth  Castle,  gr,  no 
Kent,  Earls  of,  43,  67 

Sic  Holand 
Kent,  Mossy  of,  168 
Kerdif,  John  de,  175 
Kermai  dyn,  David  of,  165 
Keu.     See  Cu 
Keveran,  S.,  Rector  of,  88 
Kibbel,  Richard,  185 
Kilmaynam,  Robert  de,  176 
Kingscote,  Amice.  228 
John  Richer  de,  227 
Nigel  de,  225,  229,  238  , 

Petronella,  225 
Richard,  228 
Richard,  Lord  of,  229 
William,  228 
Kingscote,  Hamlet  of,  239 

Land  in,  228,  242 
Kingston,  Sir  Anthony,  59 
Kingswood,  Nicholas  de,  184,  191,  192 
Kingswood    A^jbey.     Documents   relating 
to   the   Cistercian    Monastery   of 
St.  Mary,    Kingswood,  by  V.  R. 
Perkins,  179 — 256 
Kingswood   Abbey,   Abbots  of,   177,    188, 
196,  197,   198,  200,   215,  216,    217, 
218,  219,  221,  222,  254,  255 
Abbot    of.     See    Henry;   Richard; 

Accounts   of    Brother  William   de 
Climb,    Warden   of   the   Grange 
of  Charteshull,  &c,  for  1288—9, 
232  —  234 
Account  of  the  Cellarer  of  Bagg, 

131 1,  244—246 
Account  of  the  Cellarer,  1315,  246— 

Account  of  BrotherWalter, Granger 

del'Egge,  252—253 

Arrears  ol    the   Bursars  of,   1241, 
199 — 201 

An  ears  of  \V.,   Cellarer  ot,  1240, 

Enquiry    into    Lands    and    Tene- 
ments held  by,  251 

Foundation  of,  by  William  Berke- 
ley, 256 
Sold  bj  Elizabeth  Berkeley,  256 

Grant  of  Alms  to,  235,  236 

Kingswood  Abbey  (continued) — 

Grant  of  Land  to,  183 — 4,  185,  186, 
189,  191.   192,  201,  202,   203,  204, 
205,   2c6,  207,  208,  225,  226,  227, 
228,  231,  23+,  235,  236,  237,  243, 
244,  256 
Grant  of  Liberty  to,  192,  193 
Grant  of  Ren.ts  to,  224 
Land   Granted   by,   205,   206,   226, 

227,  228,  229,  230,  247,  249 — 252 
Monks  of,  188,  189,  190 
Petition  to  the  King  and   Council 

from,  239 
Prior,  221,  247 
Receipts  and  Expenses,  1262 — 1263, 

213 — 223 
Sale  of  Lands  to,  182 
Tumbrell  of,  237 
Wages  of,  1255 — I25°\  209 — 213 
Wynch  of,  229 
Ancient  Name  of,  256 
Parish  Church,  254 
Manor,  256 
Kirby,  Ann,  136 
William,  4.1 
Knewton,    Mr.,     Notes    on     Kingswood 

Abbey,  256 
Knight,  William,  193,  214,  220,  230,  234 
Knights  Hospitallers,  53 

Preceptory  of,  at  Quenington,  59 
Prior   of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem    in 

England,  163 
Quenington  Manor  held  by,  59 
Stephen,  Master  of  the  Hospital  of 
St.  John,  at  Bristol,  174 
Knights  Templars,  ico,  165 

Meysey  Hampton  Manor  farmed  by, 

Quarrel  of,  with  French  Crusaders, 


Knocker,  Chavenage  House,  123 

Knox,  Earl  ot  Ranfurly,  Arms  ol,  142 

Koke,  John,  176 

Kokerel,  Elias,  232 

Ku.    Sec  Cook 

Kuttede,  Nicholas  le,  178 

Kyllecote.    See  Calcot 

Kyneltre,  Stephen,  240 

Kyngeswood.    See  Kingswood 

Kyngton,  Agnes  de,  220 

Labanc.    See  Banc 
Laceby,  Alice,  160 

Margery,  160 
Lacheford,  Adam  de,  197,  198 
Lacock  Abbey,  Grant  ot  Land  to,  55 
Lacy,  Felicia  de,  172 
Hugh  de,  59 

John  de,  Earl  of  Lincoln,  90,  91 
Matilda,  90 
Roger  de,  55 

Possessions  of,  59 
Waiter  de,  59 

Buried   in   the  Chapter   House  at 
Gloucester,  59 
William  de,  166 
Family,  59,  119 
Lambard,  Jacob  de,  249 
Lancyng,  Richard,  231,  246,  249 
Lane,  Richai  d  In  la,  230 
Lanfford,  Hugh,  Grant  of  Land  to,  247, 

Langel',  Geoffrey  de,  182 
Langford,  Church,  Almery,  53 
Arms,  143 — 144 
Brasses,  143 

Buttresses,  Elizabethan  (illus.),  52 
Chalice,  pre-Reioi  niation,  53 



Langford  Church  (continual) — 

Crucifix,  pre-Norman  (illus.),  51 
Early  English  Doorway,  52,  53 
Parvise,  53 
Piscina,  53 
Porch  (illus.),  50 
Pulpit,  Jacobean,  53 
Rood,  50 

Staircase  Turret,  52 
Stone,  Carved,  53 
Sundial,  53 

Visit  of  the  Society,  and  Descrip- 
tion of  (illus.),  50 — 53 
Property    in,    granted     to    Beaulieu 
Abbey  by  King  John,  53 
Langfurlnng,  Land,  184 
Langthol,  Milo  de,  208 
Langton,  Stephen,  Archbishop  of  Can- 
terbury,  Cardinal    of   the   Holy 
Church  of  Koine,  187 
Lanthony,  Prior  of,  194,  214,  218 
Lasceles,  Laurence  de,  18; .  ;^6,  191,  197, 

Lateran,  1215,  187 
Lat'mer,  J. ;  Some  Curious  Incidents  in 

Bristol  History,  272 — 285 
La  Trappe,  Monastery  of,  135 
Launsyngeslond,  Land,  250 
Lecce,  Manors  called,  53 
Lechlade,  119 
Chapel  at,  44 
Church,  Almery,  (6 
Anns,  45,  47,  142—143 
Badges  ot  Edward  IV.  and  Duchess 

of  York  in,  46 
Brasses,  46 

Candelabra,  Georgian,  47 
Chantry,  44,  46 
Clerestory, 46 

Description  of  (illus.),  44 — 47 
Piscina,  46 
Pulpit,  4G 

Sculptured  Stone,  46 
Vicar,  44 

Windows,  Tudor,  45 
Derivation  of  Name,  43 
Hospital   founded   at,   by   Isabel    de 
Ferrars  and  her  husband   Peter 
I-'itz  Herbert,  44 
Leland's  mention  of,  44 
Manor,  .1 1,  4  [ 

Priory  of  Augustinian  Canons,  Dis- 
solution of,  by  Duchess  Cecily,  44 
St.  John's  Bridge  built,  44 
Statue  in  Rectory  Garden,  47 
Visit  of  the  Society,  and  Notes  on  the 
Manor  and  Church  (illus.),  43 — 47 
Leicester,  Earl  of.    See  Montfort 
Leicester,  Lord,  12,  129 
Leicester,  Roger  de,  176 
Leicester,  Friars  of  the  Sac  at,  iGj 
Leland,  John,  at  Lechlade,  44 
Lench,  Letitia,  153 
William  de,  53 
Leppa,  Earl,  62 

Beaga,  his  daughter,  62 
Leppegete,  Nicholas  de,  206 
Lesingnan,  Aymer   de,  Bishop   of  Win- 
chester, 106 
Leueric,  26 
Leverych,  Henry,  167 
Levy,  Abraham,  164 
Lewes,  Battle  of,  108,  109,  no 

Song  of,  1 10 
Ley,  John  le,  175 
Robert  de,  166 
Family,  59 
Leycestre.    See  Leicester 

Leygrave,  John  of,  177 
Leyhtonacre,  La,  Land,  237 
Lichfield,  Bishop  of.    Set  Aldwine 
Ligon,  Roger,  and  wife,   Altar-tomb  of, 

in  Fairford  Church,  12 
Lincoln,  Bishop  of.    See  Grosteste 
Lincoln,  Earl  of.     See  Lacy 
Lincoln,  Friars  of  the  Sac  at,  169 
Lincolnshire,  Famous  for  its  Sheep,  180 

Englishry  in,  156 
Lindsey,  180 

Linez,  Henry  de,  204,  207,  209 
Lippiette,  La,  Land,  igo 
Litegrom,  William,  163 
Little  F.trringdon.    See  Farringdon 
Llewelin,  Brother,  217 
Lloyd,  George,  24 

George  Looyde,  139 

Family,  Arms  of,  [38,  139 
Lloyde  ap  Gronow,  Family,  Arms  of,  138 
Loder,  Family,  Arms  of,  1  ( ; 
Lof,  William,  162 
Lokere,  John  le,  161 
Lokforlong,  Le,  Land,  250 
London,  John  de,  178 

Ralph  the  Cook  of,  170 
London,  Bishop  of.     Sec  Basset ;  Foliot 
London,  90,  95 

Aldersgate,  169 

City  of,  Requisition  from,  87 

Mai  y  de  la  Stronde,  Parish  of,  255 

St.  Paul's  Cathedral,  100 

V,  estminster    Abbey,    Holy     Blood 
at,  100 
Longemed,  Le,  Land,  240 
Longespee,  William,  Earl  of  Salisbury, 

55.  87.  89 
Long  Turville,  ng 
Lonwesmere,  Roger  de,  232 
Longe,  William  le,  240 
Longemede,  Land,  241,  242 
Longinus,  26 

Longocampo,  Isabele  de,  181,  i8z 
Loo,  Ela,  27 

Sir  John  de,  27 
Looyde.    See  Lloyd 
Loria,  Ruggiero  di,  Aragonese  Admiral, 

Loriner,  214 
Lotcsgareshale,  Prior  and   Brethren  of, 

Louis  IX.,  King  of  Fiance,  93,  96,  97,  102, 
103,  109,  no,  in 

and     his     brother    Tristan,     Burial 
of,  112 

Taken  prisoner  by  the  Sultan,  102 
Love),  Lord,  of  Kari,  27 

Muriel,  27 
Lower  Haycroft,  Land,  237 
Lubbock,  Jane,  134 

Richai  d,  134 
Lugg,  Alice,  130,  136 

Edward,  130,  136 

Jane,  137 

Richard, 137 
Lung,  Geoffrey  de,  174 

Jordan  le,  175 
Lydechei  t,  fohn  de,  1C3 
Lydherd,  [ohn,  May 01  of  Bristol,  158 
1        11,  William,  1 1 1 

I    unily,  Ai  mis  of,  1  1 1 
Lyme,  Port  "t,  168 
I      in  h,  I  .an. I,  1  LQ. 

Lynchefoi  lane,  1  and,  247 

Lynde,  Juan  de  la,  147 

Waltei  de  la,  1 1  < 

Family,  Ai  ma  "t.  1  1 o,  147 
Lynn,  li  iai  i  "t  the  Sai  at,  169 



Lyons,  Council  of,  169 

Roman  Court  at,  102 
Lypiatt,  Manor,  130 
Lyttleton,  Family,  Arms  of,  140 
Lyuns,  Thomas  de,  164 
Lyveden,  Lord,  137 

Mabilia,  185 

Macherlyng,  William,  252 

Mackworth  Praed,  Family,  59 

Macy,  John,  161 

Magna  Charta,  86,  107 

Mahel,  Walter,  220 

Malmesbury  Abbey,  Abbot  of,  216 

Malmesbury,  Richard  of,  170 

Malmesbury,  Seneschal  of,  196 

Malmesbury,  9 

Malvern,  Great,  120 

Priory  of,  115,  116 

Dedication  of,  116 

Monks  of,  117 

Prior  of.    StYThomas;'Walcher  ; 

Seal,  116,  117 
Manfred,  King  of  Naples  and  Sicily,  105 
Mangodesfeld,    Richard    de,    Mayor    of 

Bristol,  158 
William  de,  159 
Maniword,  Margaret,  163 
Manley,  Peter  de,  86 
Mansel,  John,  97,  108 

Roger,  178 
Mara,  de,  Family,  59 
March,  Earls  of,  43,  68 
Marche,  Isabella,  Countess  de  la,  96 
Mare,  Peter  de  la,  158,  166,  167,  198 
Margan,  W.  de,  221 

Margaret  of  France,  Queen's  Arms  of,  269 
Margaret  of  Provence, Queen  of  France,9S 
Margetson,  Family,  Arms  of,  144 
Marine,  William  de  la,  172 
Mariotathe  Water-carrier,  164 
Marlow,  114 
Marshal,  Gilbert,  Earl  of  Pembroke,  89, 

Isabel, wife  of  Richard  Plantagenet, 

Earl  of  Cornwall,  107 
William,    Earl   of    Pembroke,    86, 

87,  100 
Family,  Arms  of,  92 
Martyn,  John,  176 

Robert  de  Combe,  163 
Maryot,  Richard,  178 
Mason,    Frater   Johannis,    Architect    of 

Beaulieu  Abbey,  99,  100 
Massey,  Colonel,  Governor  of  Glouces- 
ter, 9 
Mathcurnbe,  Henry  de,  229 
Matilda,  Queen,  19,  38 
Maude,  Empress,  256 
Mauley,  Family,  Arms  of,  145 
Maunsel,  William,  188,  189,  190,  219,  220, 

May,  William  le,  221 
Mayn,  Margery,  169 
Meddene,  Land,  183 
Mei,  Richard,  181 
Melemuth,  John  le,  172,  173 
Melrose,  Abbey,  101 
Melton,  Anthony,  Abbot  of  Hayles,  260 
Mendip,  163 
Mercator,  Ralph,  234 
Merton,  Thomas,  68 

Dorothy,  his  granddaughter,  68 
Messor,  Richard  le,  216 
Metingham,  Justice,  150,  151 
Meysey,  Eva,  29 

Eva  or  Eleanour,  27 

Meysey  (continued)  — 

John,  27 

John  de,  217 

Robert  de,  Sheriff  of  Gloucester,  27- 

William,  27 

Family,  27 
Arms  of,  29 
Meysey    Hampton   Church,  Altar-tomb, 

Arms,  30,  139-140 
Built  by  Knights  Templars  or  de 

Clares,  27 
Description  of  (i;lus.),  27  —  31 
Hagioscope,  30 
Lectern,  (illus.),  29 

Jacobean,  28 
Monument,  Jacobean,  with  Effigies 
of  James  Vaulx,  his  Wives,  and 
Children,  29,  30 
Piscina,  31 
Sedilia,  31 
Windows,  27,  28 
Lord  of  the  Manor  of,  27 
Manor,  26,  27 

Farmed  by  Knights  Templars,  26 
Visit  of  the  Society,  and   Notes  on 
the  Manor  and  Church,  26 — 31 
Middleforlong,  Land,  249 
Midelton,  Richard  de,  Justice,  155 
Miller,  Andrew,  227 
Milo,  Earl  of  Hereford,  67 

Margery  and  Lucy,  his  daughters,  67 
Milward,  Family,  Arms  of,  142 
Mineriis,  Henry  de,  181 

William  de,  190 
Mingnot,  Nicholas,  193 
Minsterworth,  157 
Mire,  Leo  le,  164 

Mossy,  164 
Missenden,  Monks  of,  92 
Mitchell,  Family,  Arms  of,  146 
Mixenhulle,  Land,  251 
Moncaster,  Family,  Arms  of,  148 
Monk,  C.  J.,  In  Memoriam,  301 
Monmouth,  Robert  de,  157 
Montague,  Ralph,  Lord,  47 
Monte,  W.  de,  215 

Montfort,  Amaury  de,  Earl  of  Gloucester, 
Guy  de,  no,  112,  113,  258 
Henry  de,  107 

Simon  de,  Earl  of  Leicester,  86,  89, 
91,  92,  97,  98,  100,  104,  107,  108, 
109,  no,  112,  113,  258 
Dante's  description  of,  113 
Death  of,  no 
Marriage  of,  90 
Family,  108 
Downiall  of,  no 
Montgomerie,  Hugh,  26 

Roger  de,  26 
More,  Family,  Arms  of,  140 
Morgan,  Family,  Arms  of,  142 
Mortimer,  Family,  Arms  of,  269 
M01  tone,  Walter  de,  225 
Moslem,  Truce  with,  in 
Mountford,  Sir  Simon,  285 
Mucator,     See  Mercator 
Mulecot,  Robert  de,  202,  203 
Muller,  Andrew,  229 
Mulvain,  Lady,  193 
Munday,  Maj.-Gen.  Pierrepont,  137 
Murray,  Family,  Arms  of,  148 
Musard,  Ralph,  182 
Musardere,  Clement  de,  182 
Muscegros,  John  de,  158,  162 
Musgrave,  James,  68 
Muschet,  Robert,  191 



Mydewinter,  17S 
Myndep.    See  Mendip 
Myre,  Ralph  le,  164 
Samuel,  le,  168 

Nailsworth,  Walter  de,  207,  209 
Nailsworth,  Chapel   and   priest's   house 
is.),  20,  21 
A  Chapelry  of  Averring,  21 
Naples,  94 
Neel,  John,  232 

Thomas,  249,  250,  251 
Nereford,  E.,  232,  ^34 
Netley,  Abbey,  101 
Netterstone,  Lands  in,  240 
Neville,  Hugh  de,  147 

Joan  de,  147 

Pnilip,  1 17 

Richard,  Earl  of  Warwick,  281 

Family,  38 
Aims  of,  147 
Nevouz,  Richard  le,  214,  218,  220 

Robert  le,  215,  216,  219,  221 
New,  John  le,  204 

R.  de,  215 
Newcastle,  Friars  of  the  Sac  at,  169 
Newent,  Robert  de,  161 
Newington,  Lady  of,  237 

Lord  of,  227 

Nicholas  de,  207 

Roger  de,  206,  207,  208 
Newington  Church,  Rector  of,  227 

Land  in,  206,  226,  229,  244 

Manor  of,  207,  208 
Nevvinnton  Bagpath,  2 
Ney,  Conrad,  Vicar  of  Lechlade,  44 
Neylesworth.    See  Nailsworth 
Nicholas,  son  of  Ralph,  225 
Niddrewelleslade,  Land,  185 
Nigel,  Hugh  son  of,  191 
Noble,  Philip  le,  169 
Northampton,  Marquis  of.     See  Parre 
Northampton,   Oath    taken   by   Richard 
Plantagenet  and  Crusaders  at,  93 
Northfield,  Land,  237 
Northleach.  at  time  of  Survey,  53 
Northumberland,  Duke  of.    See  Dudley 
Northumberland,  Earl  of.    See  Percy 
Norton,  Agnes,  279 

Isabel,  273 

Richard, 279 

Thomas,  Customer  of  Bristol,  272 

Thomas,  273,  279,  284 

Document  relating  to  the  Trial  of, 

275— 2S3 
Walter,  272,  273,  279 
Will  of,  .74,  275 
Norwich,  iOj 

Bi  hi <]>  "i      See  Suthfeld 
Funeral  Mass,  for  Henry  of  Almaine, 
at,  113 
Norwold,  Hugh  de,  Bishop  of  Ely,  103 
Noyait,  Mabilia  la,  16S 

Ochoure,  Land,  183 
Odo,  Bishop  of  Bayeux,  169 
Odo,  Brother,  193 
Oily,  Robert  d',  62 
Oldehulle,  Land,  247,  251 
Oldisworth,  sir  Willi, mi,  Monument  ot, 
in  Fairford  Church,  42 

Family,  Arms  of,  140 
Olepenne,  Bartholomew  de,  208,  217 

John  de,  208 
Olepenne,  Land,  226 

Lord  of,  226,  227 

Olledene,  Land,  183,  184 

Olverstone,  Lands  in,  240 

Olyver,  Adam,  160 

Omenie.    See  Ampney  Crucis 

Osbert,  1N3 

Osleworth.    Sec  Ozleworth 

Osmund,  Ralph,  165 

Richard,  176 
Osney,  Monastery,  62 
Otry,  Peter,  176 
Otto,     the     Legate,     Cardinal     of     San 

Niccolo,  90,  91,  187 
Oxford,  Earl  of.    See  Harley 
Oxford,  Friars  of  the  Sac  at,  iGj 

Henry  III.  at,  87 

Provisions  of,  107 
Ozleworth,  Lady  of,  199 

Xi^el  de,  190,  198,  204 

Thomas  de,  194 
Ozleworth,  180, 

Lands  in,  204 

Manor  of,  21 2,  243 

Packer,  Anne,  134,  137 

Elizabeth,  134 

John,  134,  136 

Matthew  le,  176 
Page,  William,  164 

m,  John,  Bishop  of  Worcester,  62 
I  akkere.     See  Packer 
Panes,  Reginald  de,  Mayor  of  Bristol,  158 
Parchment-maker,  William  the,  170 
Paris,   Endowment    of    Schools    at,    by 
Cistercian  Order,  102 

S.  Denis,  Abbot  ot. 
Pane,  William,  Marquis  of  Northampton, 

Parsons,  Dr.,  Chancellor  of  Oxford,  40 
Parvise — Ave  ring,  15,  18 

Elkstone,  18 

Langford  Church,  53 
Passelewe,  Henry,  231,  249,  250,  251,252 
Grant  of  Land  to,  230 

Robert,  191,  203,  205,  24S 
Passemir,  John,  239 

William,  239 
Paternoster,  William,  161 
Patrick,  Monk  of  Gloucester,  117 
Pedigrees— Stephens,  130,  136-7 
Pelliparius.    See  Skinner 
PemDerti  n,  Elizabeth,  134,  136 

Sir  Francis,    Lord   Chiul   Justice   of 
England,  134,  136 
Pembroke,  E, ul  ot.     Set  M.11    I1.1l 
Pende,  William,  170 

Pennington,  1  U  idget,  149 
Family,  Arms  of,  148 
Percy,  1  teni  y,  109 

Henry,  Eai  I  of  NorthuinU  1  land,  266 
Family,  Arms  of,  148,  20G 
Peris,  Hem  y,  n;! 

Perkins,  V.  R. ;  Documents  relating  to 
Cisten  1  in   Monastei  j  of  St. 
Mary,  Kingswood,  179 — 256 
Pi    rol  Cassandra,  1 
1  lent  v.  68 
Family,  Arms,  68 

I i|,  250,  251 
1    hi  le,  178 
Mai  lin  le,  178 

Pet ilia,  l  'an"  ■ 

el,  ]  imily,  Arras  of,  147 
i         ell,  Thon        Bishop  ol  Won 




Peyner,  Mary,  27 

Thomas,  27 
Philip  III.,  King  of  France,  in 
Philip  the  Carpenter,  217 
Pigeon-house.    See  Culver 
Pilewyne,  W.,214 
Pill,  John,  2 
Pipereman,  Simon,  160 
Piscinae— Avening,  14.,  17,  iS 

Beverston  Castle,  7 

Beverston  Church,  4 

Bibury,  65 

Farringdon,  Lktle,  50 

Langford,  53 

Lechlade,  46 

Meysey  Hampton,  31 

Southrop,  54 
Pistor,  Adam,  235 

Gilbert,  160 
Planke,  Thomas  de  la,  203 
Plantagenet,  Edmund,  Earl  of  Cornwall, 
101,  104,  iog,  no,  114,  258,  259 
Tomb  of,  at  Hayles  Abbey,  26S 

George,  Duke  of  Clarence,  281 

Richard,  Duke  of  York,  and  Cecily, 
Duchess,  43,  44,  68 

Richard,  Earl  of  Cornwall,  43,  86,  92, 

257      r 
Arms  of,  271 

Beatrice,  Wife  of,  114 

Burial  of,  at  Hayles,  114 

At  the  Crusade,  94 

Curia  of,  at  Aix-la-Chapelle,  106 

Death  of,  113,  259 

Departure  for  the  Holy  Land,  92, 

Elected  Emperor  of  Germany  and 

King  of  the  Romans,  106,  257 
Founder  of  Hayles  Abbey,  86,  99, 

Illness  of,  101 
Imprisonment  of,  no 
In  France,  96.  97 
Income  of,  106 
Isabel  Marshall,  wife  of,  87,  107 

Death  of,  92 

Buried  at  Beaulieu  Abbey,  92 

Discovery  of  tomb,  92 
Isabella,  daughter  of,  114 
John,  son  of,  114 
Marriage  of,  100 
Nicholas,  son  of,  92 
Oath  taken  by,  93 
Philip,  son  of,  114 
Quarrel     with     Henry     III.    over 

Gascony,  97 
Return  to  England,  95 
Richard,  son  of,  114 
Rights  over  Deerhurst  Priory  pur- 
chased by,  102 
Rising    of,    against     Henry     III., 

90,  91 
Countess  Sancbia,  wife  of,  44,  98, 

100,  101,  102,  104 
Tomb   of,   at   Hayles   Abbey,   268, 

Travels  of,  in  Europe,  94,  95 
Visit  to  Beaulieu  Abbey,  99 
Visit  to  Pontigny,  101 
Vows  to  build  an  abbey  at  Hayles, 

98,  99 
Family,  Arms  of,  143 
Pleydell,  Robert,  26,  139 
William,  139 
Family,  24 

Arms  of,  139,  143 
Brass  of,  143 
Plumer,  Gilbert  le,  175 

Poitou,  97 

Deputation    of    the    Nobles    of,    to- 

Henry  III.,  87 
Earldom  of,  93,  96 
Pockelchurch.    See  Pucklechurch 
Pokhampton,  Ville  of,  224 
Pole,  Robert  de  la,  165 
Pons,  Reginald,  Lord  of,  96 
Pons,  Henry  III.  and  the  English  Army 

at,  96 
Ponsonby,    William    Francis    Spencer, 
Baron  de  Mauley,  57 
Family,  120 
Arms  of,  144 
Pontigny,  Cistercian  Abbey  of,  101 
Popethorne,  Land,  229,  237 
Portesheved,  John  de,  175 

Sarra  de,  178 
Portsmouth,  Port  of,  171 
Pottery,    Anglo-Roman,   in    W.    Cripps' 
Museum,  Cirencester,  68 
Samian      Ware,      in     W.     Cripps' 
Museum,  Cirencester,  68 
Powell,  William  de,  175 

Family,  59 
Powle,  Catherine,  145 

Henry,  Rt.  Hon.,  Master  of  the  Rolls, 
and   Speaker   in    the   House   of 
Commons,  62,  145 
Family,  Arms  of,  145 
Poynings,  Eleanor,  266 

Brian  and  Fitzpaine,   Robert   Lord, 

Family,  Arms  of,  149.  266 
Poyntze,  Family,  9 
Prepositus.     See  Steward 
Pretender,  The.    See  Stuart 
Prior's  Cotes.     See  Eastleach 
Prude,  Ralph  le,  175 
Prunes,  Walter,  143 

Family,  Arms  of,  143 
Brass  of,  143 
Prusteland,  Land,  184 
Publilond,  Le,  Land,  251 
Pucklechurch,  Elias  of,  162 
Puncius,  115,  116 

Richard,  son  of,  117 
Purlewent,  John,  240 
Puseforlang,  Land,  184 
Putot,  William  de,  Sheriff  of  Gloucester, 

Pye,  Sir  Charles,  136 
Pype,  Walter,  175 

Quarer',  Le,  Land,  250 
Quenington  Church  (itlus.),  59 

Almery,  60 

Arms,  145 

Carved  Doorways,  60 — 61 

Earliest  mention  of,  59 

Foundation  of,  59 

Given  to  Gloucester  Abbey,  59 

"  Treasure-stone,"  61 

Visit  of  the  Society,  and  Descrip- 
tion of,  60 — 61 
Court  Farm,  6  1 
Derivation  of  Name,  58 
Manor,  59 

Granted  to  Sir  Anthony  Kingston, 


Held  by  Knights  Templars  and 
Knights  of  S.  John  or  Hospi- 
tallers, 59 

Possessors  of,  59 
Preceptory   of  Knights   Hospitallers 
at,  59,  60 



Quenington  (continued)— 

Visit  of  the  Society,  and  Notes  on  the 
Manor  and  Church,  58 — 61 
Quinton,  Clopton  Brass  at,  17 

Radcliffe,  James,  Earl  of  Derwentwater, 
and  Anna  Maria,  his  wife,  57 
Execution  of,  57 
Ragenilda,  185 

Ralph,  Monk  of  Gloucester,  117 
Ralph,  Nicholas  son  of,  225 
Ralph  the  Cook  of  London,  170 
Ranfurly,  Earl  of.    See  Knox 
Ras,  Nicholas  de,  162 
Reading,  92 

Abbey,  114 
Reason,  Agnes,  139 
John,  139 

Family,  Arms  of,  139,  143 
Brass  of,  143 
Redy,  Alexander,  140 

Family,  Arms  of,  140 
Reeve,  Edith  la,  249 
Edmund  le,  250 
John  le,  250 
Roger  le,  247 
Reginald,  Lord  of  Pons,  96 
Reinbald,  26 
Reiner,  Brother,  196 
Renshaw,  Family,  Arms  of,  148 
Reveward,  Sanekyn,  158 
Reynolds,    Sir    Joshua,    Stained    Glass 

Window  d'  signed  by,  80 
Ribbeford,  Henry  de,  184,  1S6 

Tristram  de,  185 
Ricardescroft,  Land,  241,  242 
Riccherweye,  Le,  Land,  250,  251 
Rich,   Edmund,   Archbishop  of  Canter- 
bury, 92,  93,  100 
Richard  III.,  27,  281 
Richard,  Abbot  of  Hayles,  259 
Richard,  Abbot  of  Kingswood,  247 
Richard,  Brother,  196 
Richard,  of  St.  Augustine's,  216 
Richard  the  beater,  198 
Richard,  John,  229 
Rievaulx,  Abbey,  101 
Riforlang,  Land,  184 
Ripariis,  Richard  <le,  172 
Rivers,  Earl  of.     See  Wydeville 
Rixwell,  Land,  184 
Robert,  Duke  of  Normandy,  59 
Robert,   the    Mower  of  the  Prior  of  St. 

James,  Bristol,  166 
Rocdecroftes,  Le,  Land,  239 
Roche,  Family,  Anns  of,  144 
Rocheiord,  Cecile  de,  214,  216,  218,  220 
Robert  de,  190,  192 
Thomas  de,  226,  242,  243 
William  de,  215,  216,  217,  218  219,  221, 
222,  243, 
Roches,  Peter  de,   Bishop  of  Winches- 
ter, 91 
Rochester,  Bishop  of.    See  St.  Martin 
Rocwood,  Land,  202,  203 
Rodborough,  Thomas  de,  206 
Roddyng,  John,  171 
Rodeneye,  Richard  de,  247 
Rodmarton,  Henry,  parson  of,  191 
William,  Lord  of,  231 
William   de,    iSj,   185,   186,    IOI, 
205,  206,  2j2 

Rodmarton,  Land  at,  -1 
Rodmarton,  Roger  de,  Abbot  of  Ciren- 
cester, 214,  218 
Roger,  Brother,  215 
Roger  the  beater,  19c 

Roman  Remains— Cirencester,  Altar  and 
Reliefs  found  at,  Description  of 
(illus.),  69 — 72 

In    W,    Cripps1   Museum,   at  Ciren- 
cester, 6S — 72 
Romans,  King  of  the,  Arms  of,  268 
Rome,  95 

Church  of  S.  Francesco,  m 

Church  of  San  Sylvestro,  in 
Picture  at,  113 
Romeneye,  Ralph,  158 
Rondoune,  Land,  250 
Rood — Langtord  Church,  50 
Rop,  W.,  217 
Roper,  Richard  le,  176 
Ros,  Le,  Land,  207,  208 
Rosamond,  Fair.     See  Clifford 
Roscelyn,  Juliana,  164 

William,  164 
Rosso,  Aldebrandino,  Count  of   Anguil- 

lai a,  112 
Rotherewey,  Land,  247 
Rous,  Reginald  le,  164 
Rubel,  John,  250 
Ruccadene,  Land,  1S4 
Rucherweye.    See  Richerweye 
Rudhall,  Abraham,  Bellfouml. 
Ruffus,  Nicholas,  193,  204 
Rugweye,  Le,  Land,  206,  237 
Rupe,  Ralph  de,  235 
Rus,  Ro^er  le,  164 

William  le,  158 
Russell,  Margaret,  141 

Roger,  214 

Sir  Theobald,  141 

Family,  Arms  ol,  141 
Rylond,  La,  Land,  251 
Rythie,  La,  Land,  250 

Sac,  Friars  of  the.  169, 
Sackville,  Elizabeth,  14O 

Henry,  146 

Henry,  High  Sheriff,  Gj 

Sir  Jordan,  147 

Thomas,  147 

Sir  Thomas,  64,  1  r 

Family,  Anns  of,  146 
S.igar,  Oiho,   Vicar   of  Warmfield,   260, 

Stephen,    Abbot     of     Hayles,    and 
King's  Chaplain,  :'■ 
Saham,  Justice,  150,  151 
St.  Asaph,  Bishop  of.     See  Ani.m 
St.  David's,  Sic  of,  to 

Bishop  of.    See  Welch  a 
St.  Loe.  Edward,  1  (< 

St.  Maur,  Alice,  27 

Lawrence  de,  27 

N  tch     is,  l.oi  d,  2: 

Richard,  27 

Thomas,  27 

Family,  27,  31 

Anns,  29,    0 

Saint.  ill.  and  En  li  b 

.a,  91 
Salford,  Nichola 
Salisbury,  Bishop  fork 

1      euz;  Longi 
Saltl  I  1   1 


Arms  of,  1 1 1 

Bui  ial  of,  at  Hayl  .  1 1 1,  257 

M.11 1  ii  d  to  Rii  hai 
Sancto  Laudo,  John 
Sandputti    .  Land, 



Sarum,   Roger  of,  Bishop  of   Bath  and 

Wells,  99 
Saunders,  Edward,  139 

Susan,  139 

William,  27 

Family  Arms  of,  139 
Savory.  Family,  Arms  of,  142 
Savoy,  Peter  of,  114 
Scai,  Adam,  184 

William,  184 
Scarborough,  Governor  of,  133 
Scilly  Islands,  97 
Sclat,  Roger,  197 
Sebentone,  Robert  de,  165 
Selyman,  Robert,  167 
Senlac,  Battle  of,  163 
Senyse,  Peter  Cof  de,  165 
Seppestall,  Land,  183 
Sepulture,  Tripartite,  112 
Serjeaunt,  Joan,  239,  240,  241,  242 

John  le,  240,  241,  242 
Serlo,  Abbot  of  Gloucester,  55,  59 
Seth-Smith,  W.  Howard;   Chavenage 

House,  i2i — 127 
Severn,  River,  102 

Fishery  in,  239 
Seymour,  Edward,  Duke  ot  Somerset,  65 

Sir  Thomas,  Admiral,  10,  129,  261 
Seynt,  John  de,  157,  175 
Seyorthforlong,  La,  Land,  230 
Shaftesbury,  Earl  of.    See  Ashley-Cooper 
Sheen,  279 

Sherington,  Sir  W.,  55 
Shelley,   P.  B.,   Poem   written  at  Lech- 
lade,  47 
Sheppard,  Joan,  279 

John,  Mayor  of  Bristol,  272,  273,  275, 

Philip,  19 

Samuel,  18 

Family,  20 
Shipton,  Clerk  of,  222 
Shipward.    See  Sheppard 
Shirley,  Family,  Arms  of,  149 
Shute,  Alice  Elizabeth,  135,  137 

Henry  Richmond,  135,  137 

Richmomd,  137 

Mrs.  Richmond,  135 
Sicily,  113 

Sidney,  Sir  Philip,  12,  129 
Simon,  193 

Simon,  Bishop  of  Worcester,  116,  117 
Simons,  Family,  Arms  of,  142 
Simundeshale.    See  Symondshall 
Siptune.    See  Shipton 
Siston,  Adam  de,  157 
Sitheston,  Henry  de,  175,  17G,  178 

Mabel,  servant  of,  178 
Siward  liar,  43 
Skay,  Robert  le,  216,  218,  220 
Skay,  La,  Land,  213 
Skey,  John  de,  253 
Skinner,  Reginald,  21 1 
Skrevyn,  John,   Sheriff   of   Bristol,   276, 

277,  278 
Slauhterslade,  Land,  237 
Slepareshulle,  Land,  237 
Sley,  Peter  de,  178 
Smallcumbe,  Mill  of,  190 
Smalthorn,  Land,  231,  249,  250 
Smetheleyc,  Walter  de,  170 
Smith,  N.  the,  198 
Smith,  Simon  the,  162 
Smythesweye,  Land,  2.19 
Soana,  Castle  of,  112 

Ibury,  Land  in,  235 
Sodbury  Little,  Rector  of,  131 
Somerset,  Duke  of.    See  Seymour 

Sorstan,  John  de,  217 
South,  John,  169 
Southfield,  Land,  237 
Southam-de-la-Bere,   Built  by   Sir  John 
Huddleston,  266 
Hayles  Tiles  at,  264 
Southampton,  Earl  of.    See  Fitzwilliam 
Southende,  La,  Land,  253 
Southrop,  120 

At  time  of  Survey,  53 
Church,  Almeries,  55 
Altar-tomb,  54 
Norman  Apse,  54 
Arms,  144 

Description  of,  54,  55 
Early  English  Doorway,  54 
Effigies   of    Sir  Thomas    Conway 

and  his  lady,  53,  54 
Font,  Description  of,  55 
Font  (il'.us.),  54 
Hagioscope,  54 
Norman  Doorway,  54 
Piscina,  54 
Windows,  54 
Land  in,  53,  118 
Lords  of  the  Manor.  53 
Manor,   held    by   Wadham   College, 

Oxford,  53 
Manor    House,  Remains  of   a   very 
Early  Dwelling  in,  53 
Norman  Doorway,  54 
Visit  of  the  Society,  and  Notes  on 
the  Manor  and  Church,  53 — 55 
Southurne,  Walter  le,  227 
Southwyk,  John  de,  168 
Spelly,  Elias,  Mayor  of  Bristol,  272,  273 
Spencer,  William,  Mayor  of  Bristol,  274, 
275,  278,  283 
Accused  of  Treason,  276 
Imprisonment  of,  277 
Release  from  Prison,  280 
Spicer,  Gilbert  le,  158 
Spilemon,  William,  214 
Squint.    See  Hagioscope 
Stabler,  Peter  le,  221 

Robert  le,  193 
Stafford,  Anthony,  Abbot  of  Hayles,  260 

Robert  de,  164 
Stamford,  Covesleye,  164 
Lys  de,  184 
Ryke,  164 
Stanhulle,  Land,  204 
Stanmere,  Land,  250 
Stanmereswei,  Land,  192 
Stanmerlies,  Land,  250 
Stanton  Fitzwarren,  Font,  55 
Stapleton,  Agnes,  265 
Gilbert,  265 
Joan,  2C5 
Sir  Miles,  265 
Family,  Arms  of,  265 
Stapleton,  Township  of,  178 
Stenethulle,  Land,  183 
Stepenhulle,  Land,  251 
Stepforlong,  Land,  237 
Stephen,  King,  9 
Stephens,  Abigail,  133,  136 
Anne,  136 

Colonel,  12,  125,  131 
Catherine,  136,  137 

Arms  of,  123 
Cholmondeley,  136 
Edith,  136 
Edward,  1 ),  122,  128,  130,  136 

Joan,  his  wile,  128 
Elizabeth,  136, 137 
Hanua,  136 
Henry,  130,  133,  134,  135.  136.  137 



Stephens  (continued)— 
Colonel  Henry,  g 
Hester,  131 
James,  130,  136 
Margaret,  136 
Mary,  137 
Nathaniel,  137 
High   Sheriff   of  Gloucestershire 

134, 136 
Colonel,  M.P.  for  Gloucestershire, 

12,  125,  131,  133,  i34>  136 
Legend  of,  131-2 
Richard,  i?i,  122,  123,  124,  125,  126, 

127,  130,  133,  134,  136,  137 
Robert,  131,  133,  136 

Rector  of  Eastington,  134,  137 
Sarah,  136 
Thomas,  130,  136 
Stephens,  Family,  Notes  on  Chavenage 
and    the    Stephens    Family,  by 
W.      H.     Silvester     Davies, 


Family  of  Eastington,  10 

Family,  129 
Arms,  10,  123,  126,  [4  1 
Pedigree  of,  130,  136-7 
Steward,  William  the,  ibi 
Stinchcomh,  Hamlet  of,  239,  24  1 
Stok,  John,  166 
Stoker,  Edith,  167 
Stondingeston,  227 
Stone,  Ann,  136 

Elizabeth,  130 

Elyanora  de,  242 

John,  130,  136 

Robert  de,  208 

Robert  de  la,  170 

Thomas  de,  240,  241 
Stone,  Lands  in,  241 
Stonhull,  Land,  231,  250 
Strange,  Robert,  Mayor  of  Bristol,  272 
Strode,  Henry  de  la,  202,  203 
Strongbovv,  Earl.    See  Clare 
Stroud,  Parish  Church,  130 
Stuart,  James  Edward,  the  "Pretender," 

Sub  bosco.    See  Underwood 
Sudeley   Castle,   Sir   John   Huddleston, 
Governor  of,  265 
Sir   William  Compton,   Governor 
of,  266 
Suffield.    See  Suthfeld 
Sulevas,  at  Cirencester  (Ulus.),  69 
Altar  dedicated  to,  at  Bath,  70 
Altar  dedicated  to,  at  Cirencester, 

Dedication  to,  at  Bath,  72 
At  Colchester,  69 — 72 
In  Europe,  72 
At  Rome,  72 
Sulinus,  son  of  Brucetus,  Altar  at  Bath, 
erected  by,  70 
Altar   at    Cirencester,    erected    by, 

Son  of  Maturus,  Altar  dedicated  by, 
to  Sul-Minerva,  72 
Sul-Minerva,  god  at  Bath,  71 

Altar  to,  dedicated  by  Sulinus,  son 
of  Maturus,  72 
Sultan,     Prisoners    taken     by,     during 
Crusade,   i"2 

Snmeri,  William,  196 
Stindon,  Beds.,  b8 
Suth,  John,  231 
Walter,  231 
Suthfeld,  Walter  de,  Bishop  of  Norwich, 

100,  103 
Sweltenhulleshide,  Land,  250 

Swetenhullested,  Land,  249 
Sweyn,  9 

Swinheye,  Land  at,  253 
Swonhunger,  Alice,  240,  241,  242 

John  de,  240,  241,  242 

Thomas  de,  225,  239 

William  de,  239,  241 
Symons,  Family,  Arms  of,  142 
Symondshall,  Church,  226,  227 

Manor,  202,  224 

Taillcburg,  French  and  English  Armies 

at,  96 
Tame,  Sir  Edmund,  38,  141 

and  wife  Alice,  Brass  of,  in  Fair- 
ford  Church,  42 
John,  38,  40 
and    wite    Alice,    Effigies    of,     in 

Fairford  Church,  42 
Founder  of  Fairford  Church,  37 
Thomas,  141 
Family,  Arms  of,  141 
Brass  of,  141 
Tanur  John  le,  159 

Ralph  le,  158 
Taunton,  William  de,  213 
Taverner,  Robert  le,  176 

Roger  le,  158,  164,  175 
Taylur,  Richard  the,  174 
Tedepenne.    See  Tettepenne 
Templersquarer,  Land,  250 
Tenterne.    See  Tintern 
Tetbury,  H.  de,  219 
John  de,  1S4 
Philip  de,  185,  186,  190 
Tetbury,  Parson  of,  214 

William,  Parson  of,  191 
Tetes,  Lady  of,  200 
Tettepenne,  Adam  de,  227 

William  de,  226,  227 
Tewkesbury  Abbey,  Grant  of  Lands  to,  24 
Geraldus,  Abbot  of,  26 
Heart    of     Isabella,     Countess     of 
Gloucester  and  Cornwall,  buried 
at,  92 
Tewkesbury,  Battle  of,  260,  279 
Thames,  River,  43,  ng 
Thomas,  Abbot  of  Kingswood,  190,  191 
Thomas,  Brother,  215 
Thomas,  Prior  of  Malvern,  116,  117 
Thomas,  Wiiliam,  239 
Thornbui  y,  Vicar  of,  135 
Throckmorton,  John 

Elizabeth,  his  wife,  130 
Thunnack,  Manor  of,  114 
Thurid,  1S5 
Thurkild,  Widow,  213 
Tickhill,  Manor  of,  108 
1  iene,  R  ilph  de,  182 

I  mill  11  Abbey,  101,  180 

Abbot  of,  194,  256 

eh  1 1  iter  House,  256 

<   rant  1  if  Land  to,  256 

Pi  ior  of,  215 
Toddington  House,  270 
To.v  1  I.   VI. 1111,  172 

Elena,  172 
Toki,  Alice, 
Tolsude,  John  de,  162 

I I  ima    e,  Peter  de,  163 
Tonbrid      ■  Hi  .  Land,  238 
Toney,  Family,  Aims  of, 

["oppi     ,  Dl  1 1 1 1 1    .  and  his  wilr  P  Holhy,  )( 

I       1    1    ir',  53 
Tovey,  fohn,  176 




Townsend,  Alice  Gertrude,  137 

Geraldine  Henrietta,  137 

Henry  John,  135,  137 

John,  Brass  oi,  in  Lechlade  Church, 

Rev.  Maurice    Fitzgerald,   Vicar    oi 
Thornbury,  135,  137 

Thomas,  140 

Sarah,  wife  of,  140 
Tracy,  Sir  John,  Viscount,  261 

Lord,  262 

Thomas  Charles,  Lord  Viscount,  270 

Family,  26S 
Arms  of,  140,  148 
Trapani,  in  Sicily,  94 
Tredelaz,  213 

Tremleye,  Water-mill  at,  170 
Tresham,  Adam  de,  192 

William  Scai  de,  192 
Tresour,  John,  158 
Tristam,  Brother  of  Louis  IX.,  m 

Burial  of,  112 
Troham,  William  de,  202,  203 
Tropyn,  John,  175 
Trotman,  Family,  Arms  of,  148 
Truant,  Elena,  178 

Nicholas,  178 
Trylly,  Robert,  238 
Tudenham,  William,  253 
Tumbrel  I — Kingswood  Abbey,  237 
Tunis,  Crusade  at,  m 
Turbeville,  Hugh  de,  158 
Turner,  Family,  Arms  of  143 
Turtle,  Stephen,  158,  176 
Twinyho,    John,    Recorder    of    Bristol, 
276,  282 

John,  Brass  of,  in  Lechlade  Church, 
46,  141 
Arms  of,  46 

Family,  Aims  of,  47,  141 
Twyford,  Railway  Accident  near,  154 
Tyard,  William,  175 
Tykys,  Richard,  172, 173 
Tynuhurst,  Nonni  I.  de,  217 
Tyntai  ne.    See  Tintern 
Tyringham,  Elizabeth,  141 

Family,  Arms  of,  141 
Tysun,  Wakelin,  193 

Uchdryd,  Family,  Arms  of,  139 
Uley,  Peter  de,  206,  207,  209,  226 
Uley,  Land  at,  207,  208 
Ulward,  55 
Underwood,  Gregory,  213 

Simon,  213 
Upchurch,  Pottery  from,  68 
Uphill,  Hugh  de,  175 

W.,  197 
Upton,  Robert  de,  196,  207,  209 

Walter  de,  185,  186,  190 
Urban,  Pope,  Patriarch  of  Jerusalem,  258 
Urswycke,  Christopher,  Almoner  of  Henry 

VII  ,  266 
Uuilfrith,  Bishop  of  Worcester,  62 

Vaccar,  Adam  de,  213 
Vachell,  Family,  59 
Vandyck,  Sir  Anthony,  40 
Vaughan,  Family,  Arms  of,  138,  139 
Vaulx,   James,    his    Wives    and    Children, 
Monument    ami    Effigies    of,    in 
Meysey  Hampton  Church,  29,  30 

Yaux,  Family,  Arms  of,  140 

Veel,  Robert  le,  216,  219,  220,  236 

Vernon,  Courienay  John,  137 

Vico,  I  >i.  Family,  IV  fects ol  Rome,  in 

Viterbo,  no,  in 

Cathedral  of,  112 

Church  of  Santa  Maria  dei  Gradi,  258 
Church  of  San  Sylvestro,  258 
Picture  at,  113 

Wadberwe  Land,  248 

Wadham  College,  Oxford,  Southrop  Manor 

held  by,  53 
Waismer,  Brother,  217 
Wake,  Agnes,  164 

Reginald,  164 
Wakefield,    Henry,  Bishop  of  Worcester, 

Arms  of,  269 
Walcher,  Prior  of  Malvern,  116 
Waleys,  Henry  le,  158 
Wall,  Luke,  171 
Wallingford,  89 

Bead'e  of,  217 

Castle,  92,  104 

Granted  to  Richard  Plantagenet,  88 
Wallrand,  Robert,  219 
Walter,  Clerk  of  Cirencester,  216 
Walter,  Clerk  of  Hillesley,  204 
Walter,  son  of  Henry,  181 
Walter  the  Baker  of  Gloucester,  168 
Wanswell,  Lands  in,  241 
Wapley,  Vicar  of,  134 
Ware,  Robert  la,  158,  168 
Warewyche,  Walter  de,  166 
Wanner,  Henry  le,  252 
Warmfield  Church,  Inscription,  260 

Otho  Sagar,  Vicar  of,  260,  268 
Warne,  Osborne,  256 
Warneford,  Anne,  146 

Edmund,  146 

Family,  Arms  of,  146,  147 
Warre,  Jordan  de  la,  Lord  of  Cnolle,  216, 
217,  243 

Lord  de  la,  284,  285 
Warwick,  Earls  of,  Arms  of,  40 

Lands  of,  279 

S-e  Beauchamp  ;  Neville 
Warwickshire,  Englishry  in,  156 
Waryn,  John,  162 
Waters,  John  le,  167 
Watkins,  Ann,  139 

Richard,  139 

Family,  Arms  of,  139 
Waucham,  Peter  de,  215,  217 
Waunton,  John  de,  236 

William  de,  225 
Waverley  Abbey,  ioi,  180 

Abbot  of,  216 
Wawes,  Le,  Land,  250 
Wayte,  John  le,  214 
Weare,  Robert,  9 
Webb,  Sir  John,  57,  144 

Sir  Thomas,  57 

Family,  120 
Arms  of,  139,  144,  145 
Webley,  Milo  de,  169 
Welchman,   Thomas  the,    Bishop    of    St. 

1  (avid's,  103 
Wellop,  William,  160 
Wells  Cathedral,  Library,   Manuscript  in, 

•       257  • 
Welric,  William  le,  176 

Wenscerd,  Land,  183 

WERE  V.  ;  Heraldry  of  the  different 
Churches,  &c,  visited  by  the 
Gloucestershire        Archaeological 

Society    during    their     Visit    to 
Fairford,    August     9th    to     nth, 
1899,  138-149 
West,  Henry,  249,  250,  251 
Richard,  2.17 



Wi  stbury  Hundred,  156 

Westcote,  William  de,  2 

Westfelde,  Land,  204 

Westlangfurlang,  Land,  1S3 

Westminster  Abbey,  Henry  VII. 's  Chapel, 
Shrine   of  Edward  the   Confessor  at, 
113,   258 

Weston,  Nicholas  de,  160 
Thomas  de,  175 

Westrop,  William  de,  191 

Westwood,  W.,  Lord  ol  Bibury  Manor,  64 

Whalley,  Abbot  of  Hayles.     See  Sagar 

Whalley,  Abbey,  101,  260 

White,  Thomas  Ie,  240,  241 

Whiteheved,  William,  163 

"  White  Ship,"  129 

Whiting,  Walter,  234 
William,  214 

Whiuington,  Family,  Arms  of,  140 

Whytchurch,  William,  Abbot  of  Hayles, 
259,  260,  263 

Wich,  Richard  de  la,  Bishop  of  Chiches- 
ter, 99,  103 

Wick,  Thomas  de,  Prior  of  Malvern,  116 

Wike,  Peter  de,  216 
Stephen  de,  193 

Wilberforce,  Robert,  120 

Wilecryk,  John,  249,  250,  251 

Wilfrith.     See  Uuilfnth 

Wilkyns,  William,  280,  281 

William  I.,  43,  129 

William  II.,  24,  38,  59 

William,  Earl  of  Holland  and  Vriesland, 

.    .        IOS 
William,  son  of  Elias,  186 

Williams,  Isaac,  120 

Family,  Arms  of,  148 
Willington,    Ralfh   de   and  Olympias  his 

wife,  65 
Willi*,  Harriet,  137 

Henry,  Rector  of  Little  Sodbury  and 
Vicar  of  Wapley,  134,  137 

Henry  Hannes,  a  Monk,  135,  137 

John,  134,  137 
\\  inchcomb  Abbey,  Monks  of,  103 

Church,  Arms  in,  148 
Piscina,  148 

Henry  III.,  at  103 

Hundred,  87 

Township  of,  154 
Winchester,  86 

Bishop  of.     Nii-  I.esingnam  ;  Roches 
Windows.    See  Glass 
Windsor,  Andrew  Lord,  20 
Windsor,  282 
Witflur,  213 

Wodemannesthorn,  Land,  250 
Wodewclle,  226,  227 
Wokemewcye,  Land,  250 
Wombestrong,  Richard,  167 
Wong  or  Wang,  Meaning  of,  184 

Woodford,  Lands  in,  240,  241 
Woolbeater,  John  the,  165 
Reginald  the,  165  Ie,  17? 
Worcester,  Ralph  de,  87 

Hayles    Castle    and    Church    built 
by,  258 
Worcester, Cathedral  Churchof  St.  Mary, 
.62,  25+ 
Bishop  of,  67,  161,  178 
Bishops  of.     .Scf  Afcock  :   Allium  ; 
Cantilupe;  Egwin;  Giffard;  Pag- 
ham  :  Peverell  ;  Simon  ;  Uuilfrith  ; 
Chapter,  254,  255 
Prior.     See  Fordham 
Friars  of  the  Sac  at,  169 
See  1 
Wotton,  Joan  de,  214 
Lady  of,  2 id,  220 
Mary,    146 
Samuel,  146 
I    iiniiy,  Anns  of,  146 
Wright,     W.     H.     T.  ;     Notes    on     the 
Parishes  and   Churches  of  East- 
leach  Martin  and  Eastleach   Fur- 
ville,  115— 120 
Wriothesleys,  Family,  47 
Wuung,  Land,  184 

Wydeville,  Anthony,  Earl  of  Rivers,  281 
Wylecryk.    See  Wilecryk 
Wymbervile,  Walter  de,  219 
Wynch,  John,  242 
Wynchcombe.    Sit  Winchcomb 
Wyndemullefeld,  Land,  241,  24.' 
Wyneman,  Ralph,  175,  17'' 
Wynton,  hmma,  178 

Philip  de,  178 
Wyssey,  John,  Mayor  of  Bristol,  15S 
Wytehulle,  Emma  de,  178 

Vate,  Kykon  of,  170 

Yet,  Robert  de,  234 

Ygete,  213 

York,  Archbishop  of.     Set  (liny 

Duke  of.    See  Plantagenet 

Duchess  of,    Badge   of,    in    Lechlade 
Church,  46 

William  of,  Bishop  of  Salisbury,  1  13 
Yorkshire,  Englishry  in,  156 
Yrcumbe,  237 
Yvenok,  William  de,  159 
Ywelega,    Set  Uley 

Zouche,  Helen  de  la,  27 
John  (7)    Lord,  27 

William  (5)  I   ird,  of  1  [arynworth,  . 
William  (6)  Lord,  27 
Family,  Arms,  29 

©rtstol  anb  (Bloucestcrsbirc 

^rcijoeolocrtcrtl  gtocizhj. 

JANUARY,    1901. 

President : 
F.  F.  Fox,  Esq.,  Yate  House,  Chipping  Sodbury. 

President  of  Council  : 
Sir  Brook   Kay,  Bart.,  Stanley  Lodge,  Cheltenham. 

Hon.  General  Treasurer: 
G.  M.  Currie,  Esq.,  26  Lansdown  Place,  Cheltenham. 

Hon.  Editor: 
Rev.  C.  S.  Taylor,  M.A.,  Banwell  Vicarage,  Somerset. 

Hon.  Local  Secretary  for  Bristol  : 

John  E.  Pritchard,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  Guy's  Cliff,  Sydenham  Road, 


Hon.  General  Secretary  : 
Rev.  William  Bazeley,  M.A.,  Matson   Rectory,  Gloucester. 


January,  1901. 

City  of  Bristol. — Vice-Presidents  :  The  Right  Worshipful  the  Lord 
Mayor  of  Bristol!  ;  The  Master  of  the  Society  of  Merchant  Venturers!  ; 
The  Right  Rev.  The  Bishop  of  Bristol.  Council  Proper  :  James  Baker, 
F.R.G.S.  ;  A.  E.  Hudd,  F.S.A. ;  F.  F.  Tuckatt,  F.R.G.S.  ;  A.  T.  Martin, 
M.A.,  F.S.A. ;  John  Latimer.    Local  Secretary :  John  E.  Pritchard,  F.S.A. 

City  of  Gloucester. — Vice-Presidents  :  The  Right  Worshipful  the 
Mayor  of  Gloucester!;  Rev.  S.  E.  Bartleet,  M.A.,  F.S.A.  Council  Proper: 
H.  W.  Bruton ;  H.  G.  Madan.  M.A.  ;  Oscar  W.  Clark,  M.A.,  MB. 
Local  Secretary:  F.  S.  Waller,  F.S.A. 

Cirencester  Division. — Vice-Presidents  ;  Rev.  Canon  Bourne,  M.A., 
F.S.A.  ;  Wilfred  J.  Cripps,  C.B.,  F.S.A.  ;  Rev.  D.  Royce,  M.A.  Council 
Proper  :  Christopher  Bowly.  Local  Secretaries  :  Stow-on-the-Wold — 
Rev.  F.  E.  Broome  Witts,  M.A.  Tetbury— Rev.  E.  W.  Evans.,  M.A. 
Chipping  Campden — 

Forest    of   Dean    Division.— Council    Proper  :     Rev.    W.    Bagnall- 

Oakeley,  M.A. ;  C.  Bathurst,  Junr. ;  Douglas  J.  Wintle.  Local  Secretaries  : 

Lydney— G.  W.  Keeling.     Chepstow— Godfrey  Seys. 

Stroud  Division.— Vice-Presidents  :  F.  A.  Hyett,   M.A. ;    W.   Leigh. 

Council   Proper:    W.   St.   Clair  Baddeley ;    A.  J.   Morton-Ball.     Local 

Secretaries:    Stroud— W.    J.    Stanton.       Dursley— Rev.     W.     Silvester 

Davies,  M.A.     Nailsworth — A.  E.  Smith. 
Thornbury  Division. — Vice-President  :  F.  F.  Fox.     Council  Proper  : 

Rev.   W.  T.   Blathwayt,   M.A.  ;    Rev.   Canon   Ellacombe,    M.A.      Local 

Secretaries:    Berkeley— Rev.   J.    L.    Stackhouse,    M.A.      Wotton-under- 

Edge — Vincent  R.  Perkins. 
Tewkesbury  Division. — Vice-President:  Sir  J.   E.  Dorington,  Bart., 

M.A.,  M.P.    Council  Proper  :  G.  S.  Blakeway,  T.  Dyer-Edwardes,  M.A. ; 

E.  S.  Hartland,  M.A.,  F.S.A.     Local  Secretary  :  Tewkesbury- 
Cheltenham.— Vice-Presidents  ;    The    Worshipful    the     Mayor    of 

Cheltenham!;    R.   V.    Vassar-Smith ;     G.    B.    Witts,    C.E.        Council 

Proper:    A.   le  Blanc;    C.    E.   Gael;    H.    A.  Prothero,   M.A.       Local 

Secretary  :  G.  M.  Currie. 
Not  Assigned  :   Vice-Presidents:     John   Beddoe,   M.D. ;     J.  G    P. 

Palmer  Hallett,   M.A.     Council   Proper:    C.  H.  Dancey ;    Rev.   J     M 

Hall,  M.A. ;  H.  Medland  ;  Rev.  W.  Symonds,  M.A 

+  Wh»  a  Member  of  this  Society. 


Names  of  Life  Members  are  given  in  heavier  type. 

An  asterisk  is  affixed  to  the  names  of  Members  of  Council  for  1900- 1. 

The  Treasurer  will  feel  obliged  if  Members  will  inform  him  of  any 
change  in  their  address. 

Ackers,  B.  St.  John,  Huntley  Manor,  Gloucester. 

Adams,  J.  W.,  Commercial  Road,  Gloucester. 

Adams,  W.  Avery,  The  Guildhall,  Bristol. 

Adlam,  William,  F.S.A.,  D.L.,  Manor  House,  Chew  Magna,  Bristol. 

Allen,  Rev.  William  Taprell,  M.A.,  36  Ampthill  Road,   Fulwood  Park, 

Alston,  Rev.  W.  T.,  12  St.  Paul's  Road,  Gloucester. 
Archer,  Lieut. -Col.  G.  W.,  R.E.,  The  Rookery,  Frensham,  Farnham. 
Armitage,  W.  H.,  Lyley  House,  Wotton-under-Edge. 
Arrowsmith,  J.  W.,  6  Upper  Belgrave  Road,  Clifton,  Bristol. 
Asher  &  Co.,  13  Bedford  Street,  Covent  Garden,  London,  W.C. 
Ashman,  Sir  Herbert,  Cooks  Folly,  Stoke  Bishop,  near  Bristol. 
Atherton,   Rev.   W.    Bernard,    B.A.,    Taynton    House,   Taynton,    near 


*Baddeley,  W.  St.  Clair,  Castle  Hale,  Painswick,  Stroud. 
*Bagnall-Oakeley,  Rev.  W.,  M.A.,  Tre  Cefn,  Monmouth. 
Bagnall-Oakeley,  Mrs.  W.,  Tre  Cefn,  Monmouth. 
Baker,  Arthur,  Henbury  Hill  House,  Henbury,  Bristol. 
Baker,  Miss  E.  M.,  8  Vyvyan  Terrace,  Clifton. 
Baker,  Granville  E.  Lloyd,  Hardwicke  Court,  Gloucester. 
*Baker,    James,    F.R.G.S.,  F.R.  Hist.  S.,   Sewelle  Villa,  Goldney  Road, 
Clifton,  Bristol. 
Baker,  W.  Proctor,  Sandhill  Park,  near  Taunton. 
•Ball,  A.  J.  Morton,  The  Green,  Stroud. 
Banks,  C,  Longford,  Gloucester. 
Barclay,  Rev.  Chas.  W.,  M.A.,  Little  Amwell  Vicarage,  Hertford  Heath, 

Barker,  W.  R.,  106  Redland  Road,  Bristol. 
Barnsley,  A.  E.,  Pimbury  Park,  Cirencester. 
Barstow,  H.  C,  M.A.,  2  Albert  Road,  Clifton,  Bristol. 
•Bartleet,  Rev.  S.  E.,  M.A.,  F.S.A.,  Dursley  Rectory,  Gloucestershire. 
*Bathurst,  Charles,  Junr.,  3  Stone  Buildings,  Lincolns  Inn,  London. 
Batten,    Herbert   Cary   George,  Leigh  Lodge,  Abbot's   Leigh,   Clifton, 

*Bazeley,  Rev.  William,  M.  A. ,  Matson  Rectory,  Gloucester  (Ho  ber.) 

(Hon.  General  Secretary  and  Librarian), 
Bazley,  Gardner  S.,  M.A.,  Hatherop  Castle,  Fairford,  Glos      [  VY  C 
Bazley,  Sir  Thomas  S.,  Bart.,  Winterdyne,  Chine  Crescent   R 

Bournemouth  West,  Hants. 
Baxter,  Wynne  E.,  D.L.,  Granville  Cottage,  Stroud. 
Beach,  The  Rt.  Hon.  Sir  Michael  E.  Hicks,  Bart.,  D.L.,  M.P., 
Coin  St.  Aldwyn's,  Fairford. 

Beaufort,  Her  Grace  the  Duchess  of,  c/o  Ward  Soame,  Esquire,  Estate 
Offices,  Badminton,  Chippenham. 
•Beddoe,  John,  M.D.,  F.R.S.,  The  Chantry,  Bradford-on-Avon. 

Bibliotheque  Nationale,  Paris,  c/o  T.  Wohlleben,  46  Great  Russell  Street, 
London,  W.C. 

Biddell,  Sidney,  New  University  Club,  St.  James'  Street,  London,  S.W. 

Biddulph.  Michael,  M.P.,  Ledbury. 

Birchall,  J.  Dearman,  Bowden  Hall,  Gloucester. 

Birchall,  Miss  Lanesfield,  Lansdown  Road,  Cheltenham. 
*Blakeway,  G.  S.,  Tuffley,  Gloucester. 

Blathwayt,  Geo.  W.  Wynter,  35  Church  Street,  Manchester. 

Blathwayt,  Rev.  Wynter  Edward,  M.A.,  Dyrham,  Chippenham. 
♦Blathwayt,  Rev.  Wynter  T.,  M.A.,  Dyrham  Park,  Chippenham. 

Blathwayt,  Lieut. -Col.  Linley,  Eagle  House,  Batheaston,  Bath. 

Blood,  John  N.,  3  Berkeley  Street,  Gloucester. 

Blosse,  Rev.  R.  C.  Lynch,  Tiddenham  Vicarage,  Chepstow. 

Bodleian  Library  (E.  W.  Nicholson,  Librarian),  Oxford. 

Bonnor,  G.  R.,  Probate  Court,  Gloucester. 
♦Bowly,  Christopher,  Siddington  House,  Cirencester. 

Braikenridge,  W.  Jerdone,  16  Royal  Crescent,  Bath. 

Bramble,    Lieut. -Col.    James   Roger,    F.S.A.,    Seafield,  Weston- 

Bravender,  T.  B.,  96  Oakfield  Road,  Anerley,  London,  S.E. 

Briggs,  William,  Exchange,  Bristol. 

♦Bristol,  The  Right  Rev.  The  Bishop  of  (G.  F.  Browne,  D.D  ,  F.S.A.), 
The  Avenue,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

Browne,  Rev.  A.  H.,  D.D.,  Kempsford  Vicarage,  Fairford,  Glos. 

Brownlow,  The  Right  Rev.  W.  R.,  D.D.,  Bishop  of  Clifton,  The  Bishop's 
House,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

Bruton,  H.  T.,  4  Alexandra  Terrace,  Gloucester. 
"Bruton,  H.  W.,  Bewick  House,  Wotton,  Gloucester. 

Bruton,  James,  Wotton  Hill  Cottage,  Gloucester. 

Bryan,  John,  The  Lealands,  Minchinhampton,  Glos. 

Bubb,  Henry,  Ullinwood,  near  Cheltenham. 

Burges,  P.,  The  Ridge,  Chipping  Sodbury. 

Burroughs,  Jno.  Beamies  Cooper,  23  Bridge  Street,  Bristol. 

Bush,  Edward,  The  Grove,  Alveston,  R.S.O.,  Gloucestershire. 

Bush,  G.  de  L'Isle,  Standish  House,  Stonehouse,  Glos. 

Bush,  John,  9  Pembroke  Road,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

Bush,  R.  C,  1  Winifred's  Dale,  Cavendish  Road,  Bath. 

Bush,  T.  S  ,  20  Camden  Crescent,  Bath. 

Butt,  Rev.  Walter,  Minety  Vicarage,  Malmesbury. 

Calcutt,  Robt,  Avening  Lodge,  Stroud. 

Cardew,  C.  E.,  A.M.I.C.E.,  Insein,  Lower  Burmah. 

Cardew,  G.  A.,  5  Fauconberg  Villas,  Cheltenham. 

Cave,  Sir  Charles  D.,  Bart.,  M.A.,  D.L.,  Stoneleigh  House,  Clifton 

Park,  Bristol. 
Cave,  Charles  H.,  B.A.,  Rodway  Hill  House,  Mangotsfield,  Glos. 
Cave,  Daniel  C.  A.,  F.S.A.,  Sidbury  Manor,  Sidmouth,  Devon. 
Chance,  T.  H.,  Journal  Office,  St.  John's  Lane,  Gloucester. 
Cheesman,  Rev.  A.  H.,  Salford  House,  Derby  Road,  Gloucester. 
Cheltenham  College  (A.  A.  Hunter,  Bursar). 
Cheltenham  Public  Library  (Librarian,  W.  Jones,  Cheltenham). 
Cheltenham  Permanent  Library,  Royal  Crescent,  Cheltenham. 
Child,  Mrs.  Robert,  Chosen  Hill,  near  Cheltenham. 
Chilton,  George  Horace  David,  14  Cambridge  Park,  Bristol. 

Church,  A.  H.,  M.A.,  F.R.S.,  F.S.A.,  Shelsley,  Kew,  Surrey. 
Clarke,  Alfred  Alex.,  Vicar's  Close,  Wells,  Somerset. 
♦Clark,  Oscar  W.,  M.A.,  M.B.,  S.  Luke's  House,  Spa  Road,  Gloucester. 
Clifton  College  Library,  Clifton,  Bristol. 
Collett,  John  M.,  Guy's  Cliff,  Wotton,  Gloucester. 
Cockshott,  Arthur,  7  Pittville  Crescent,  Cheltenham. 
Cockshott,  Miss,  Hazelhurst,  Ross. 

Codrington,  Rev.  R.  H.,  D.D.,  St.  Richard's  Walk,  Chichester. 
Cornock,  Nicholas,  7  Marjorie  Grove,  Clapham  Common,  London,  S.W. 
Cornwall,    Rev.    Allan    Kingscote,    M.A.,     Burghope,    Worsley, 

Cotteswold  Naturalists'  Field  Club,  S.  S.  Buckman,  Hon.  Sec,  Charlton 

Kings,  Cheltenham. 
Crawley-Boevey,  A.  W.,  24  Sloane  Court,  London,  S.W. 
Crawley- Boevey,    Sir    T.    H.,    Bart.,    Flaxley   Abbey,    Newnham, 

Crawley-Boevey,  Rev.  R  ,  MA,  Duntisborn  Abbot's  Rectory,  Cirencester. 
Crewdson,  Theodore,  Norcliffe  Hall,  Handford,  Manchester. 
Cripps,  Henry  Kater,  Redcliffe,  Clifton  Road,  Clifton,  Bristol. 
*Cripps,  Wilfred  J.,  C.B.,  F.S.A.,  The  Mead,  Cirencester. 
Croggan,  Edmund,  4  Beaufort  Road,  Clifton,  Bristol. 
Cruddas,  C.  J.,  Oakfield,  Stoke  Bishop,  Bristol. 
Cullimore,  J.,  Christleton,  Chester. 
Cullis,  F.  J.,  F.G.S.,  Barnwood,  Gloucester. 
*Currie,  G.  M.,  26  Lansdown  Place,  Cheltenham  (Hon.  Treasurer). 

•Dancey,  Charles  Henry,  6  Midland  Road,  Gloucester. 

Daubeny,  Capt.,  10  Pitville  Lawn,  Cheltenham. 

Davies,  E.  Jenner,  Haywardsend,  Stonehouse,  Gloucestershire. 

Davies,   Rev.  John    Silvester,   M.A.,    F.S.A.,   Adelaide  House,    Enfield, 

London,  N. 
*Davies,  Rev.  W.  H.  Silvester,  M.A.,  Horsley  Vicarage,  Stroud. 

Davis,  Cecil  Tudor,  Public  Library,  Wandsworth,  London,  S.W. 

Dawber,  E.  Guy,  22  Buckingham  Street,  Adelphi,  London,  W.C. 

De  Ferrieres,  Baron,  Bayshill  House,  Cheltenham. 

De  Sausmarez,  F.  B.,  M.A.,  5  Queen's  Parade,  Cheltenham. 

Dening,  Edwin,  Manor  House,  Stow-on-the-Wold,  Gloucestershire. 

Denton,  Rev.  Sydney,  M.A.,  5  Rokeley  Avenue,  Redland,  Bristol. 

Derham,  Henry,  Sneyd  Park,  Bristol. 

Derham,  Walter,  M.A.,  F.G.S.,  96  Lancaster  Gate,  London,  W. 

Dickinson,  Miss,  Cricklade,  Wilts. 

Dickinson,  J.  L.,  Park  House,  Eastfield  Park,  Weston-super-Mare. 

Dix,  J.  W.  S.,  Hampton  Lodge,  Durdham  Down,  Bristol. 

Dobell,  C.  Faulkner,  Whittington  Court,  Andoversford,  Cheltenham. 

Dobell,  Clarence  Mason,  The  Grove,  Charlton  Kings,  Cheltenham. 

Doggett,  Hugh  Greenfield,  Springhill,  Leigh  Woods,  Clifton,  Bri  itol 

Dominican  Priory,  Rev.  Prior  of,  Woodchester,  Stonehons,-,  Cloucester- 

•Dorington,  Sir  J.  E.,  Bart.,  M.A.,  M.P.,  Lypiatt  Park,  Stroud. 

Dowdeswell,  Rev.  E.  R.,  M.A.,  Bushley  I'arsonag<\  Tewkesbury. 

Drew,  Joseph,  M.D.,  Montrose,  Battledown,  Cheltenham. 

Ducie,  The  Right  Hon.   the  Earl   of,  P.O.,  F.R.S.,    Tortworth 
Park,  Falfield,  R.S.O. 

Duke,  Col.  J.  C,  Southern  House,  Pittville  Crescent.  Cheltenham. 

Dulau  &  Co.,  for  British  Museum,  37  Soho  Square,  I  .ondon,  W 
•Dyer-Edwardes,  Thomas,  M.A.,  Prinknash  Park,  Tain  -wick,  St  1 


Eager,  Reginald,  M.D.,  Northwoods,  Winterbourne,  Bristol. 

Eberle,  J.  Fuller,  96  Pembroke  Road,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

Edwards,  Rev.  E.  W.F  The  Rectory,  Avening,  Stroud. 

Edwards,  Sir  George  W.,  2  Sea-wall  Villas,  Sneyd  Park,  Bristol. 

Edwards,  Herbert  G.,  5,  Perceval  Road,  Clifton,  Bristol. 
*Ellacombe,  Rev.  Canon  H.  N.,  M.A.,  The  Vicarage,  Bitton,  Bristol. 

Ellicott,  A.  B.,  His  Honour,  M.A.,  (The  Chancellor  of  the  Diocese),  The 
Culls,  Stroud. 

Elliot,  Major-Gen.,  1  Fauconberg  Villas,  Cheltenham. 

Ellis,  T.  S.,  6  Clarence  Street,  Gloucester. 

Emeris,  Rev.  William,  M.A.,  Taynton  Vicarage,  Burford,  Oxon. 

Evans,  Arnold,  4  Litfield  Place,  Clifton,  Bristol. 
*Evans,  Rev.  E.  W.,  M.A.,  Beverston  Rectory,  Tetbury,  Glos. 

Evans,  J.  B.,  20  Lansdown  Place,  Cheltenham. 

Fawcett,  Miss  E.  G.,  Southfield,  Painswick,  Stroud. 
Fear,  W.  Lyne,  9  South  Parade,  Clifton,  Bristol. 
Fenwick,  Rev.  J.  E.  A.,  M.A.,  Thirlestaine  House,  Cheltenham. 
Fisher,  Major  C.  Hawkins,  The  Castle,  Stroud. 
Flower,  Edgar,  Middle  Hill,  Broadway,  Worcestershire. 
Flux,  Edward  Hitchings,  144  Leadenhall  Street,  London,  E.C. 
Forbes,  Col.  G.  H.  A.,  R.A.,  Rockstowes,  Dursley. 
Ford,  Andrew,  Wraxall  Court,  Wraxall,  near  Bristol. 
Ford,  Roger,  Kensington  Lodge,  Kensington  Park,  Clifton. 
Foster,  R.  G.,  2  Spa  Villas,  Gloucester. 
*Fox,  Francis  Frederick,  Yate  House,  Chipping  Sodbury. 
Foxcroft,  E.  T.  D.,  D.L.,  Hinton  Charterhouse,  Bath. 
Fraser,  Surgeon  Major-General  D.  A.  Campbell,  Chadnor  Cottage,  Douro 

Road,  Cheltenham. 
Fry,  Francis  J.,  Cricket  St.  Thomas,  Chard,  Somerset. 
Fry,  Lewis,  The  Right  Hon.,  Goldney  House,  Clifton,  Bristol. 
Fryer,  Alfred  C,  Ph.D.,  M.A.,  13  Eaton  Crescent,  Clifton,  Bristol. 
Fuller,  Rev.  E.  A.,8  George  Street,  Carlisle. 


Gael,  C.  E.,  Charlton  Kings,  Cheltenham. 

Gainsborough,  The  Right  Hon.  the  Earl  of,  Campden  House,  Chipping 

Gardner,  Rev.  G.  L.,  All  Saints  Vicarage,  Cheltenham. 
George,  Ch.  W.,  51  Hampton  Road,  Bristol. 
George,  Frank,  7  Ellenborough  Crescent,  Weston-super-Mare. 
George,  Rev.  P.  E.,  M.A.,  St.  Winifred's,  Bath. 
George,  W.  E.,  Downside,  Stoke  Bishop,  Bristol. 
Gibbs,  H.  Martin,  Barrow  Court,  Flax  Bourton,  R.S.O.,  Somerset. 
Giller,  William  Thomas,  16  Tisbury  Road,  Hove,  Brighton. 
Glazebrook,  Mrs.,  The  School  House,  Clifton  College,  Bristol. 
Gloucester,  The  Worshipful  the  Mayor  and  Corporation  of,  c/o 

G.  S.  Blakeway,  Esq.,  Guildhall,  Gloucester. 
Godfrey,  F.  W.,  Junr.,  Tewkesbury. 
Godfrey,  Miss  M.  M.,  The  Greenway,  near  Cheltenham. 
Golding,  Mrs.,  Tudor  Lodge,  The  Park,  Cheltenham. 
Gresley,  Rev.  Nigel  W.,  M.A.,  The  Rectory,  Ozleworth,  Wotton-under- 

Griffiths,  John,  M.R.C.S.,  25  Redland  Park,  Bristol. 
Guise,  Sir  W.,  Bart.,  Elmore  Court,  Gloucester. 
Gurney,  W.  Gerald,  12  Wellington  Square,  Cheltenham. 

Haines,  Basil  John,  Manor  House,  Queen  Charlton,  near  Bristol. 

Hale,  Maj.-Gen.  Robert,  Alderley,  Wotton-under-Edge. 
*Hall,  Rev.  J.  M.,  M.A.,  The  Rectory,  Harescombe,  Stroud. 
♦Hallett,  J.  G.  P.  Palmer,  M.A.,  Claverton  Lodge,  Bath. 

Hallett,  Mrs.,  Claverton  Lodge,  Bath. 

Harding,  E.  B.,  Chasefield,  Upper  Knowle,  Bristol. 

Harding,  Rev.  Canon  John  Taylor,  M.A.,  Pentwyn,  Monmouth. 

Harford,  William  H.  J.,  Oldown,  Tockington,  R.S.O.,  Gloucestershire. 

Harford,  Edmund,  3  Priory  Street,  Cheltenham. 

Hartland,  Ernest,  M.A.,  F.S.A.,  Hardwicke  Court,  Chepstow  (Hon.  Member). 
♦Hartland,  E.  Sidney,  F.S.A.,  Highgarth,  Gloucester. 

Harvard  College,  U.S.A.,  c/o  Triibner  &  Co.,  Paternoster  House,  Charing 
Cross  Road,  London,  W.C. 

Harvey,  Edward  A.,  26  Victoria  Square,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

Hasluck,  Rev.  E.,  M.A.,  Little  Sodbury  Rectory,  Chipping  Sodbury. 

Hawkesbury,   The  Right  Hon.  Lord,   F.S.A.,    Kirkham  Abbey, 

Hayward,  The  Venerable  Archdeacon,  M.A.,  College  Green,  Gloucester. 

Heberden,  Rev.  H.  B.,  Oddington  Rectory,  Sto\v-on-the-Wold. 

Helps,  Arthur  S.,  Barton  Street   Gloucester. 

Herapath,  Howard  M.,  12  St.  John's  Road,  Clifton. 

Herbert,  Arthur  Grenville,  Trinity  College,  Cambridge. 

Herbert,  W.  Hawkins,  Paradise  House,  Painswick,  Glos. 

Hermessen,  F.  W.  Newmerland,  Chepstow  Road,  Newport. 

Higgins,  Henry,  The  Castle,  Willsbridge,  Bristol. 

Hill,  Col.  Sir  E.  S.,  K.C.B.,  1  Herbert  Crescent,  London,  S.W. 

Hirst,  Francis  J.,  12  Westbury  Park,  Durdham  Down,  Bristol. 

Holbrow,  Rev.  Thomas,  B.A.,  Shaw  Well,  Corbridge-on-Tyne. 

Holmes,  James  G.,  Thorne  Lodge,  Oakfield  Grove,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

Horlick,  James,  Cowley  Manor,  Cheltenham. 

Howard,  Edward  Stafford,  M.P.,  9  Egerton  Place,  London,  S.W. 

Howell,  Rev.  W.  C,  M.A.,  Holy  Trinity  Vicarage,  Tottenham,  London,  N. 
•Hudd,  Alfred E.,  F.S.A.,  94  Pembroke  Road,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

Hughes,  W.  W.,  Downfield  Lodge,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

Hutton,  Rev.  W.  H.,  The  Great  House,  Burford,  Oxon. 
"Hyett,  F.  A.,  B.A.,  Painswick  House,  Painswick,  Stroud. 

Isacke,  Miss,  Stratford  Abbey  College,  near  Stroud. 

James,  Rev.  H.  A.,  B.D.,  The  School  House,  Rugby. 

Jebb,  Mrs.,  The  Oaklands,  Brock  worth,  Gloucester. 

Jefferies,  A.  G.  W.,  Ash  Lodge,  Pucklechurch,  near  Bristol. 

Jenkins,  Frederick  A.,  58,  St.  John's  Road,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

Jennings,    Rev.    A.    C,    M.A.,    King's    Stanley    Rectory,    Stonehouse, 

Johnstone- Vaughan,  W.  J.,  The  Old  Rectory.  Wotton,  Gloucester. 
Joicey,  James,  Poulton  Court,  Fairford,  Glos. 
Judge,  Frederick,  90  Richmond  Road,  Montpellier,  Bristol. 

•Kay,  Sir   Brook,    Bart.,    Stanley    Lodge,    Battledown,    Cheltenham 
(President  of  Council). 

Keble,  Rev.  Canon  Thomas,  M.A.,  Bisley  Vicarage,  near  Stroud. 
•Keeling,  George  William,  10  Lansdown  Terrace,  Cheltenham. 

Kennedy-Skipton,  H.  S.,  30  Montpellier  Villas,  Cheltenham. 

Kerr,  Russell  J.,  The  Haie,  Newnham-on-Severn. 

Kerr,  W.  G.  W  ,  Prestbury  Court,  Cheltenham. 

King,  Miss,  Avonside,  Clifton  Down,  Bristol. 

Kitcat,  Rev.  D.,  M.A.,  Weston  Birt  Rectory,  Tetbury. 


Landale,  Dy. -Surgeon-General,  Dunholme,  The  Park,  Cheltenham. 
"Latimer,  John,  3  Trelawny  Place,  Cotham,  Bristol. 

Law,  Ernest,  The  Pavilion,  Hampton  Court  Palace,  London. 

Lawrence,  R.  Gwynne,  Middleton  Hall,  Llanarthney,  South  Wales. 
*Le  Blanc,  Arthur,  The  Hayes,  Prestbury,  near  Cheltenham. 
*  Leigh,  William,  Woodchester  Park,  Stonehouse,  Glos. 
f  Leigh,  E.  Egerton,  D.L.,  Broadwell  Manor  House,  Stow-on-the-Wold. 

Lewis,  Archibald  M,  3,  Upper  Byron  Place,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

Lewis,  Harold,  B.A.,  Mercury  Office,  Bristol. 

Little,  E.  Caruthers,  Tracy  House,  Pittville  Lawn,  Cheltenham. 

Little,  E.  P.,  Lansdown,  Stroud. 

Little,  Brown  &  Co.,  Boston,  U.S.A.,  c/o  Sampson  Low  &  Co.,  Fetter 
Lane,  London,  E.C. 

Liverpool  Free  Library,  Liverpool. 

Llewellin,  John,  C.E.,  Hazeland,  Devizes,  Wilts. 

Llewellin,  W.  M.,  15  King  Square,  Bristol. 

London  Library,  12  St.  James'  Square,  London,  S.W. 

Long,  Col.  William,  Woodlands,  Congresbury,  R.S.O.,  East  Somerset. 

Long,  The  Right  Hon.   Walter  H.,   D.L.,  M.P.,    Rood  Ashton,   Trow- 
bridge, Wilts;  and  n,  Ennismore  Gardens,  London,  S.W. 

Loveridge,  P.  B.,  12  Oxford  Place,  Cheltenham. 

Lowe,  C.  J.,  8  St.  Stephen's  Street,  Bristol. 

Lynes,  Rev.  W.,  M.D.,  Cinderford  Vicarage,  Newnham. 

Macdonald,  Maj.-Gen.  John,  31  Lansdown  Crescent,  Cheltenham. 

Machen,  C.  E.,  Bicknor,  Coleford,  Gloucestershire. 

Maclaine,  William  Osborne,  D.L.,  Kineton,  Thornbury 

Macpherson,  J.,  Sorrento,  San  Diego,  California,  U.S.A. 
*Madan,  H.  G.,  M.A.,  F.C.S.,  Bearland  House,  Gloucester  (Hon.  Librarian). 

Manchester  Library  (Charles  W.  Sutton,  Sec),  Manchester. 

Margetson,  William,  Brightside,  Stroud. 

Marshall,  Mrs.,  The  White  House,  Newent. 

Marling,  Stanley,  Stanley  Park,  Stroud. 

Marrs,  Kingsmill,  South  Park,  Saxonville,  Massachusetts,  U.S.A. 
•Martin,  A.  T.,  M.A.,  F.S.A.,  Rodborough  House,  Percival  Road,  Clifton, 

Martin,  C.  T.,  B.A.,  F.S.A  ,  Public  Record  Office,  Chancery  Lane,  London, 

Martin,  R.  B.,  M.P.,  Overbury  Court,  Glos. 

Master,  Mrs.  Chester,  Knowle  Park.  Almondsbury,  R.S.O.,  Glos. 

Matthews,  J.  A.,  Lewishurst,  The  Spa,  Gloucester. 

May,  Arthur  C,  Avon  House,  Sneyd  Park,  near  Bristol. 

McCall,  H.  B.,  F.S.A.  Scot.,  Barton  End  Court,  Nailsworth. 

Meadway,  G.,  South  Lawn,  The  Park,  Cheltenham. 
*Medland,  Henry,  Clarence  Street,  Gloucester. 

Meredith,  W.  Lewis,  7  Midland  Road,  Gloucester. 

Middlemore-Whithard,  Rev.  T.  M.,  M.A.,  Hawkesley,  Exmouth,  Devon. 

Miles,  Rev.  H.,  The  Rectory,  Huntley,  near  Gloucester. 

Mills,  H.  Hamilton,  Sudgrove  House,  near  Cirencester. 

Mills,  J.  Elliott,  13  Upper  Belgrave  Road,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

Mitchinson,   The   Right   Rev.   Bishop,   D.D.,    The    Lodge,    Pembroke 
College,  Oxford. 

Mitford,  A.  B.  Freeman,  C.B.,  Batsford  Park,  Moreton-in-Marsh. 

Moffatt,  H.  C,  Goodrich  Court,  Ross. 

Moline,  William,  19  The  Avenue,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

Morgan,  Miss,  Cherith,  2  Beaufort  Buildings,  Gloucester. 

Morris,  R.  Groves,  5  Beaufort  Buildings,  Spa,  Gloucester. 

Moxley,  "W.  S.,  9  Elgin  Park,  Redland,  Bristol. 

Mullings,  John,  Cirencester. 


Nash,  Rev.  Canon  R.  S.,  M.A.,  Old  Sodbury,  Chipping  Sodbury. 

Newton,  Lieut. -Col.,  Thoresby,  Cheltenham. 

New  York  Library,  c/o  B.   F.   Stevens  &   Brown,  4    Trafalgar  Square, 

London,  W.C. 
Norman,  George,  Alpha  House,  Bayshill,  Cheltenham. 
Norman,  George,  12  Brock  Street,  Bath. 
Norris,  Herbert  E.,  The  Market  Place,  Cirencester. 

Oman,  C.  W.  C,  M.A.,  F.S.A.,  All  Souls'  College,  Oxford. 
Oman,  Mrs.,  Avalon,  St.  George's  Road,  Cheltenham. 
Osburn,  Miss,  The  Edge  House,  near  Stroud. 

Owen,  Rev.  Canon  Richard  Trevor,  M.A.,  F.S.A.,  Llangedwyn,  Oswestry, 

Parker,  Rev.  Canon  Charles  J.,  M.A.,  Upton  Cheyney,  Bitton,  Bristol. 

Pass,  Alfred  Capper,  Hawthornden,  Clifton  Down,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

Pennsylvania  Historical  Society,   U.S.A.,  c/o  Messrs.  B.  F.  Stevens  & 
Brown,  4  Trafalgar  Square,  Charing  Cross,  London,  W.C. 

Pearson,  H.  W.,  Woodland  House,  Tyndall  Park,  Bristol. 

Perceval,  Cecil  H.  Spencer,  Longwitton  Hall,  Morpeth,  Northumberland. 

Percival,  E.  H.,  Kimsbury  House,  Gloucester. 

Percival,  Mrs.  L.,  4  Pittville  Crescent,  Cheltenham. 
*Perkins,  Vincent  R.,  Wotton-under-Edge,  Glos. 

Perry,  John  F.,  3  Downside  Road,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

Phillimore,  W.  P.  W.,  M.A.,  B.C.L.,  124  Chancery  Lane,  London,  W.C. 

Philp,  Capt.  J.  Lamb,  Pendoggett,  Timsbury,  Bath. 

Pike,  G.,  Hempsted  Court,  Gloucester 

Pike,  Mrs.,  Hempsted  Court,  Gloucester. 

Pippet,  Rev.  W.  A.,  The  Rectory,  Clifford  Chambers,  Stratford-on-Avon. 

Pitcairn,  Rev.  D.  Lee,  M.A.,  Monkton  Combe  Vicarage,  Bath. 

Pitt,  Theophilus,  143  Minories,  London,  E.C. 

Playne,  Arthur  T.,  Longfords,  Minchinhampton. 

Pollock,  Erskine,  Q.C.,  74  Queen's  Gate,  London,  S.W. 

Ponting,  Albert  J.,  Tocknells,  Painswick,  Stroud. 

Ponting,  C.  E.,  F.S.A.,  Lockeridge,  Marlborough,  Wilts. 

Power,  Edward,  F.S.A.,  16  Southwell  Gardens,  London,  S.W. 

Prankerd,    P.    D.,    The   Knoll,    Sneyd    Park,   Bristol. 
*Pritchard,  John  E.,  F.S.A.,  Guy's  Cliff,  Sydenham  Road,  Bristol.    (Hon. 
Local  Secretary  for  Bristol). 

Protheroe,  Frank,  11  Alfred  Place,  West  Thurloe  Square,  London,  S.W. 
"Prothero,  H.A.,  M.A.,  13  Promenade,  Cheltenham. 

Pruen,  G.  G.,  Lewisfield,  Cheltenham. 

Purnell,  Rev.  R.  H.,  M.A.,  Staverton  Vicarage,  near  Cheltenham. 

Reid,  Walter,  The  Woodlands,  Tyndall's  Park,  Clifton,  Bristol. 
Ringer,  Surgeon-General,  20  Lansdown  Terrace,  Cheltenham. 
Bobbins,  Rev.  J.  W.  E.,  23  Campden  Hill  Square,  London,  N. 
Robertson,  J.  L.,  13  Royal  Crescent,  Cheltenham. 
Rogers,  Lieut. -Col.  R.,  Battledown  Court,  Cheltenham 
Rowe,  J.  Brooking,  F.S.A.,  Castle  Barbican,  Plympton.  Devon. 
"Royce,  Rev.  David,  M.A.,  Nether  Swell  Vicarage,  Stow-on-the-Wold. 

Sadler,  G.  W.,  Keynsham  Villa,  Cheltenham. 
Salwey,  Edward  R.,  The  Court,  Stonehouse,  Glos. 


Sawyer,  John,  Glevum  Lodge,  Battledown,  Cheltenham. 

Scears,  Charles,  Sunnymeade,  Keynsham,  Bristol. 

Science  and  Art  Department,  South  Kensington  Museum,  London,  S.W. 

Scobell,  Rev.  Canon  E.,  M.A.,  Upton  St.  Leonard's  Rectory,  Gloucester. 

Scott,  Charles,  Beaufort  House,  Spa,  Gloucester. 

Scott,  Rev.  G.  M.,  The  Vicarage,  Nailsworth. 

Selwyn-Payne,  Major  J.  H.,  Badgeworth  End,  near  Cheltenham. 

Sessions,  Frederick,  F.R.G.S.,  M.R.A.S.,  Monkleighton,  Alexandra  Road, 

Sessions,  Herbert,  Quedgeley  Court,  Gloucester. 

Sewell,  Edward  C.,  The  Beeches,  Cirencester. 
*Seys,  Godfrey,  Wirewood's  Green,  Chepstow. 

Shaw,  J.  E.,  M.B.,  23  Caledonian  Place,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

Sherborne,  Rt.  Hon.  Lord,  9  St.  James'  Square,  London,  S.W. 

Sheringham,  Rev.  H.  A.,  M.A.,  50  St.  George's  Square,  London,  S.W. 

Shum,  Frederick,  F.S.A.,  17  Norfolk  Crescent,  Bath. 

Sibbald,  J.  G.  E.,  Mount  Pleasant,  Norton  St.  Philip,  Bath. 

Simpson,  J.  J.,  Osborne  House,  Cotham  Park,  Bristol. 

Sinclair,  Rev.  J.  S.,  The  Vicarage,  Cirencester. 

Skrine,  Henry  Duncan,  Claverton  Manor,  Bath. 

Smith,  T.  Sherwood,  F.S.S.,  The  Pynes,  Keynsham,  Bristol. 
"Smith,  Alfred  Edward,  The  Hollies,  Nailsworth. 

Smith,  Richard  Henry,  The  Kestrels,  Rodborough,  Stroud. 

Sneath,  Rev.  T.  A.,  The  Lawn,  Woodchester,  Stroud. 

Sneyd,  Rev.  G.  A.,  Chastleton  Rectory,  Moreton-in-Marsh. 

Society  of  Merchant  Venturers,  The  Worshipful  the  Master  of  the,  Bristol. 

Stables,  Mrs.,  2  College  Lawn,  Cheltenham. 
*Stackhouse,  Rev.  Canon,  The  Vicarage,  Berkeley. 

Stanton,  Rev.  Canon,  M.A.,  Hasleton  Rectory,  Cheltenham. 

Stanton,  Charles  Holbrow,  M.A.,  Field  Place,  Stroud. 

Stanton,  J.  Y  ,  The  Leaze,  Stonehouse,  Gloucestershire. 

Stanton,  Rev.  W.  D.,  Toddington  Vicarage,  Winchcombe,  Glos. 
*Stanton,  Walter  John,  Stratford  Lodge,  Stroud. 

Stephens,  Albert  J.,  29  Denmark  Road,  Gloucester. 

Street,  Ernest  E.,  C.E.,  Leny,  Clifton  Park,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

Stubs,  Peter,  Blaisdon  Hall,  Newnham,  Gloucestershire. 

Sturgeon,  Wentworth,  4  King's  Bench  Walk,  Temple,  London,  W.C. 

Swann,  E.  J.,  D.L.,  The  Gables,  Leigh  Woods,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

Swayne,  Joseph  Griffiths,  M.D.,  74  Pembroke  Road,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

Swayne,  Miss,  129  Pembroke  Road,  Clifton,  Bristol. 
*Symonds,  Rev.  W.,  M.A.,  Sherston  Vicarage,  Malmesbury. 

Tait,  C.  W.  A.,  M.A.,  26  College  Road,  Clifton,  Bristol. 
Tagart,  Francis,  F.L.S.,  F.R.G.S.,  Old  Sneyd  Park,  near  Bristol. 
Tarr,  F.  J.,  Roseneath,  Willsbridge,  near  Bristol. 
'Taylor,  Rev.  C.  S.,  M.A.,  Banwell  Vicarage,  Somerset. 
Taylor,  Edmund  J.,  Town  Clerk,  Council  House,  Bristol. 
Thompson,  Mrs.  Endcliffe,  Henbury,  Bristol. 

Thorpe,  Thomas,  Osborne  House,  Frocester,  nr.  Stonehouse,  Gloucester- 
Thursby,  Piers,  Broadwell  Hill,  Stow-on-the-Wold. 
Tibbitts,  John,  5  Theresa  Place,  Gloucester. 
Tinson,  C.  J.,  The  Cleevelands,  Marie  Hill,  Cheltenham. 
Tombs,  R.  C,  32  Durdham  Park,  Bristol. 
Townsend,  Charles,  St.  Mary's,  Stoke  Bishop,  Bristol. 
Trapnell,  Alfred,  15  Upper  Belgrave  Road,  Clifton,  Bristol. 
Trenfield,  J.  D.  B.,  Hill  House,  Chipping  Sodbury. 
Trower,  G.  Oakeley,  Meldon  Lodge,  Cheltenham. 


Truman,  Edwin,  The  Home  Field,  Putney  Hill,  London,  S.W 
Tryon,  Stephen,  5  Beaufort  Road,  Clifton,  Bristol. 
Tucker,  Miss,  The  Studio,  Sheepscombe  House,  Stroud. 
"Tuckett,  Francis  Fox,  F.R.G.S.,  Frenchay,  near  Bristol 
Tudway,  Clement,  Cecily  Hill,  Cirencester. 

Vassall,  R.  L.  Grant,  Oldbury  Court,  Fishponds,  R.S.O.,  Gloucestershire. 
•Vassar-Smith,  R.  Vassar,  Charlton  Park,  Cheltenham. 
Venner,  Capt,  The  Reddings,  Stonehouse,  Gloucestershire. 
Viner,  Rev.  A.  W.  Ellis,  B.A.,  Badgeworth  Vicarage,  Cheltenham. 

Wait,  H.  W.  K.,  Woodborough  House,  Sneyd  Park,  Bristol 
♦Waller,  Frederick  S.,  F.S.A.,  F.R.I.B.A.,  18  College  Green,  Gloucester. 

Warren,  Admiral,  Longcourt,  Randwick,  Stroud 

Warren,  Robert  Hall,  F.S.A.,  9  Apsley  Road,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

Webb,  R.  B.,  Down  House,  Ashley  Down,  Bristol. 

Welch,  Miss,  Arle  House,  Cheltenham. 

Wells,  Charles,  F.J. I.,  134  Cromwell  Road,  Bristol. 

W'enden,  James  Gordon,  The  Chantry,  Dursley. 

Were,  Francis,  Gratwicke  Hall,  Barrow  Gurney,  Flax  Bourne,  R  SO., 

Weston,  St.  Aubyn,  Didbrook,  Winchcombe. 

Whitcombe,  George,  The  Wotton  Elms,  Gloucester 

Whitfield,  G.  T.,  Tuffley,  Gloucester. 

Whitwill,  Mark,  1  Berkeley  Square,  Bristol. 

Williams,  Rev.  Augustin,  17  Birchfield  Road,  Phippville,  Northampton. 

Williams,  Oliver,  Battledown  House,  Cheltenham. 

Williams,  P.  Watson,  M.D.,  1  Victoria  Square,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

Wilkinson,  Rev.  L.,  M.A.,  Westbury-on-Severn,  Newnham,  Glo'stershire. 

Wills,  Sir  Frederick,  Bart.,  M,P.,  Manor  Heath,  Bournemouth. 

Wilson,  Robert,  M.B.,  Millbrook,  Nailsworth. 

Wingfield,  E.  Rhys,  Barrington  Park,  Burford. 

\\  instone,  Benjamin,  53  Russell  Square,  London,  W.C. 

Wintle,  Charles,  57  Queen  Square,  Bristol. 
•Wintle,  Douglas  J.,  The  Old  House,  Newnham,  Gloucestershire. 

Winwood,  Rev.  H.  H.,  M.A.,  F.G.S.,  11  Cavendish  Crescent,  Bath. 

Wise,  William  Henry,  The  Council  House,  Bristol. 

Wiseman,  Rev    H.  J  ,  M.A.,  1  Albert  Road,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

Witchell,  E.  Northam,  Lansdown,  Stroud. 
*Witts,  G.  B.,  C.E.,  Hill  House,  Leckhampton,  Cheltenham. 
♦Witts,  Rev.  F.  E.  Broome,  M.  A. .Upper  Slaughter  Manor,  Lower  Slaughter, 
R.S.O.,  Glos. 

Wollaston,  G.  H.,  M.A.,  Wotton-under-Edge. 

Wollaston,  Mrs.  S.  C,  Wotton-under-Edge. 

Wood,  Fred  Augustus,  Highfield,  Chew  Magna,  Somerset. 

Wood,  Walter  B.,  12  Queen  Street,  Gloucester. 

Woodward,    Miss    E.    K.,    M.A.,     High    School,    College    Green, 

Woodward,  J.  H.,  2  Windsor  Terrace,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

Woolright,  Captain,  U.S.  Club,  Charles  Street,  London,  S  W 

Yabbicom,  Col.  T.  H.,  C.E.,  23  Oakfield  Road,  Clifton,  Bristol 
Young,  C.E.B.,  Daylesford  House,  Chipping  Norton,  Oxon 

Zachary,  Henry,  Cirencester. 

Literary  Societies  exchanging  Transactions  with  this  Society  : 

The  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Newcastle,  The  Castle,  Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
The  Society   of  Antiquaries   of   London,  Burlington  House,    Piccadilly, 

London,  W. 
The  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Scotland,  Royal  Institution,  Edinburgh. 
The   Royal   Archaeological   Institute  of   Great   Britain   and   Ireland,   20 

Hanover  Square,  London. 
The  Birmingham  and  Midland  Institute,  Archaeological  Section,  Birming- 
The  British  Archaeological  Association,  32  Sackville  Street,  London,  W. 
The  Bureau  of  Ethnology,  Smithsonian  Institute,  Washington,  U.S  A. 
The  Clifton  Antiquarian  Club,  Hon.  Sec,  A.  E.  Hudd,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  94 

Pembroke  Road,  Clifton,  Bristol. 
The  Cambrian  Archaeological  Society,  28  Great  Ormond  Street,  London, 

The  Cotteswold  Naturalists'  Field  Club,  Hon.  Sec,  S.  S.  Buckman,  Esq., 

Ellborough,  Charlton  Kings,  Cheltenham. 
The  Royal  Institute  of  Cornwall,  Museum,  Truro,  Cornwall. 
The  Royal  Society  of  Antiquaries  (Ireland),  Dublin. 
The  Derbyshire  Archaeological  and  Natural  History  Society,  Derby. 
The  Essex  Archaeological  Society,  The  Lawn,  Coggeshall,  Essex. 
The  Kent  Archaeological  Society,  Museum,  Maidstone,  Kent. 
The  Powys  Land  Club,  Museum  and  Library,  Welshpool. 
The  Shropshire  Archaeological  and  Nat.  Hist.  Society,  Hon.  Sec,  F.  Goyne, 

Esq.,  Dogpole,  Shrewsbury. 
The  Somerset  Archaeological  and  Natural   History  Society,  The  Castle, 

The  Suffolk  Institute  of  Archaeology  and  Natural  History,  Hon.  Sec,  V. 

B.  Redstone,  Esq.,  Woodbridge,  Mill  Hill,  Suffolk. 
The  Surrey  Archaeological  Society,  Castle  Arch,  Guilford. 
The  Sussex  Archaeological  Society,  Lewes,  Sussex. 
The  William  Salt  Archaeological  Society,  Stafford,  Hon.  Sec,  Major-Gen. 

The  Hon.  G.  Wrottesley. 
The  Wiltshire  Archaeological  and  Natural  History  Society,  Devizes,  Wilts. 
The    Yorkshire    Archaeological    and    Topographical    Association,    Hon. 

Librarian,  E.  K.  Clarke,  Esq.,  10  Park  Street,  Leeds. 


Those  who  are  desirous  of  joining  the  Society,  can  be  admitted,  after 
election  by  the  Council,  on  the  following  conditions  : 

I.  As  Life  Members  for  a  Composition  of  £5,  and  an  Admission 
Fee  of  10s.  6d.,  which  will  entitle  them  to  receive  gratuitously 
for  life,  the  annual  volumes  of  Transactions  of  the  Society  that 
may  be  issued  after  the  date  of  payment. 

II.  As  Annual  Members  upon  payment  of  10s.  6d.  Entrance  Fee,  and 
an  annual  subscription  of  10s.  6d.,  which  will  entitle  them  to 
receive  gratuitously,  the  annual  volume  of  Transactions  for 
every  year  for  which  their  subscriptions  are  paid. 

The  annual  subscription  becomes  due  on  the  1st  of  January,  and  the 
Hon.  Treasurer,  Mr.  G.  M.  Currie,  will  be  obliged  if  members 
will  send  their  subscriptions  to  him  at  26  Lansdown  Place, 

By  order  of  the  Council,  the  Transactions  of  the  Society  are  only  issued 
to  those  members  who  have  paid  their  subscriptions  for  the 
corresponding  year. 

Application  for  admission  as  members  to  be   made    to   one   of    the 
Hon.  Local  Secretaries,  or  to  the 

Matson  Rectory, 


Hon.  General  Secretary. 



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